Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Fourth International Conference; Australia, 2007

Program by Day for Tuesday, August 14, 2007


Manage My Personal Schedule

 

Invited Paper Session #49
CE Offered: BACB

Why Tolerance to Cocaine's Effects on Fixed-Interval Performance is Different from That on Fixed-Ratio Performance

Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Stateroom
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CE Instructor: Marc N. Branch, Ph.D.
Chair: Kennon A. Lattal (West Virginia University)
MARC N. BRANCH (University of Florida)
Dr. Marc Branch has conducted impressive and definitive research in a number of areas related to basic operant conditioning, including memory, observing behavior, and reinforcement schedules. He is best known for directing one of the country's leading programs in behavioral pharmacology. He and his students have conducted a long line of research on agents such as pentobarbital, d-amphetamine, and cocaine, and on environmental factors that influence drug tolerance. This work has been funded continuously for 30 years by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and has been published in the flagship journals in both behavior analysis and pharmacology. In recognition of this consistent track record of excellence, he has been the recipient of a coveted research career award from NIMH. Dr. Branch has held a number of leadership positions in our field, including president of ABA International and Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, editor of Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and The Behavior Analyst, and either member or chair of study sections for the past 25 years. He is a Fellow in both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society.
Abstract:

Previous research has revealed that tolerance to cocaine's effects on behavior under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules depends on the FR parameter. In contrast, tolerance to the drug's effects on behavior under fixed-interval schedules has been unrelated to FI parameter. Although FI and FR schedules with equivalent inter-reinforcement times result in roughly equivalent average post-reinforcement pause times, the distributions of pauses differ. Specifically, the conditional probability of ending the pause grows with time on FI schedules, but remains constant on FR schedules, a difference that may be related to the fact that longer pauses on FI schedules are associated with shorter delays to reinforcement, whereas that relation does not exist for FR schedules. To test whether that difference plays a role in the FI-FR difference in drug effects, pigeons were trained under a response-initiated FI schedule, wherein the FI starts timing when the pause ends. Under those conditions, tolerance was related to FI parameter.

 
 
Paper Session #50
International Paper Session - Applied Behaviour Analysis: Staff Training and Research Design
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA
Chair: Sarah Margaret Ruth Balcombe (University of Auckland)
 
Training Non-Specialist Staff to Perform Preference Assessments with Children Who Have an Intellectual Disability.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SARAH MARGARET RUTH BALCOMBE (University of Auckland)
Abstract: In one of the few studies that look at teaching staff to perform preference assessments, Lavie and Sturmey (2000) were able to show that non-specialist staff could be rapidly taught how to implement preference assessments. The current study trained support staff for children with development delays to perform one of two types of preference assessment, forced choice procedure developed by Fisher et al (1992), and the multiple stimulus without replacement procedure developed by DeLeon et al (1996). The effectiveness of the preferred stimuli as reinforcers was assessed through the teaching of simple functional skills, such as matching tasks, responding to requests etc. Staff opinions were sought regarding the effectiveness and relevance of the training in their job. Ease of use and functionality in a “real world” situation for each type of preference assessment are addressed. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.
 
Recent Design Innovations: The Distributed Criterion and Range-Bound Changing Criterion Designs.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DENNIS MCDOUGALL (University of Hawaii)
Abstract: The presenter will illustrate two recent innovations in the changing criterion research design, how the innovations apply to research and practice in various disciplines, and how clinical needs influence design features of the designs. The first innovation, the range-bound changing criterion, is a very simple variation of the classic changing criterion design. The classic version uses a single criterion within each step-wise intervention phase, whereas the range-bound version uses a range criterion – that is, an upper and lower limit to define the criterion for each intervention phase. The second innovation, the distributed criterion, combines elements of the changing criterion, multiple baseline, and ABAB designs. It is well suited to contexts where people multi-task - that is, allocate, prioritize, and adjust time and effort to complete concurrent tasks in response to changing environmental demands. These two innovations expand options available to researchers who use small-N research designs to investigate questions of interest. The presenter has published both designs in recent journals of various professions ranging from the Journal of Special Education, Behavioral Interventions, the Journal of Behavioral Education, Professional School Counseling, and the Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation.
 
The Place of Applied Behavior Analysis in Teacher Training Programs in Turkey.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SULEYMAN ERIPEK (Anadolu University)
Abstract: Teachers for all levels of education are trained via undergraduate programs offered by faculties of education in various universities in Turkey. In addition to that, master of education programs are offered by graduate schools of universities for training subject teachers. In some faculties of education, undergraduate programs in counselling are also oferred along with the programs in teacher training. In the proposed presentation, the place of applied behavior analysis in these programs will be discussed by a historical perspective
 
Single-Case Research Adaptations for the Analysis of Group Data.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NEVILLE MORRIS BLAMPIED (University of Canterbury)
Abstract: Single-case research designs preserve both quantitative data and the possibility of making valid causal inferences while avoiding aggregating participants and averaging their data. They are a highly effective alternative research strategy to mainstream research based on group data and its statistical analysis, especially for applied research. However, there are situations (e.g., organizational research; preventative or therapeutic psycho-education) where the natural or convenient unit of analysis is the group. Existing single-case, graph-based analytic procedures are ill-suited to these situations and there is a temptation to revert to the use of group statistical analyses. This paper describes a number of adaptations of standard single-case designs and accompanying graphic analyses, based on the use of scatterplots, which permit the assessment of group level interventions.
 
 
Paper Session #51
International Paper Session - Behavioural Discrimination and Choice
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: Darren R. Christensen (University of Canterbury, New Zealand)
 
Errorless Intermodal Transfer.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
JOANA ARANTES (University of Minho), Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury)
Abstract: In an extension of errorless learning, a procedure developed by Terrace 1963, pigeons were exposed to an intermodal transfer from a visual discrimination to a sound discrimination. The experiment was divided into four phases. During the first 10 sessions, pigeons were progressively trained in a successive discrimination between red (S+) and green (S-) keys. In the next 5 sessions, a low tone was presented with the S+ and a high tone was presented with the S-, followed by a gradual decrease of the intensities of the red and green lights. Then, pigeons received low-high discrimination training until they satisfied a criterion of four successive sessions without an error. Finally, pigeons were returned to the red-green discrimination. Results were compared with a control group that was trained directly on the low-high tone discrimination.
 
Relative Time Effect in Signaled and Unsignaled Delays of Reinforcement.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
JORGE A. RUIZ (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Carlos A. Bruner (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: One purpose of this study was to determine if by correlating each component of a multiple schedule with delays-of-reinforcement of either 0, 2, 4, or 8 s, delay-of-reinforcement gradients could be obtained within a session. On each component reinforcement was delivered using a tandem schedule composed by a random interval that added to each nominal delay yielded a constant inter-reinforcement interval (IRI) of either 32 or 128 s. Three pigeons were assigned to each IRI. Response rates in each component of the multiple schedules decreased gradually as the reinforcement delay was lengthened. A second purpose was to determine the point on a continuum defined by the probability of signaling the delay period p(signal) at which frequency-of-reinforcement effects become relative-time effects in a reinforcement-delay procedure. The p(signal) was either 0.00, 0.33, 0,66 or 1.00. When p(signal) was 0.00, global response rates for any given delay were higher with the 32 s than with the 128 s IRI, showing a frequency-of-reinforcement effect. When p(signal) was increased from 0.33 to 1.00 global response rates for any given delay were higher with the 128 s than the 32 s IRI, showing a relative-time effect.
 
 
Symposium #52
CE Offered: BACB
Descriptive and Experimental Analyses of Critical Components of EIBI for Children with ASDs
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AAB/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: William H. Ahearn, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will discuss critical components of effective early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. There will be four presentations of descriptive or experimental analyses of variables related to providing effective treatment. Doreen Granpeesheh will present two case studies of children with ASDs who have achieved typical or near-typical functioning through early intensive behavioral intervention. Rick Graff will discuss variables related to reinforcing behavior. Effective reinforcement is critically related to accurately identifying events that children prefer. Graff and colleagues compared a childs verbal report of their preferences to assessments that involved varying access to those events. They also surveyed parents of children with ASDs about their childs preferences and compared this to assessments the parents subsequently conducted with them. Bill Ahearn will then present analyses of delayed echolalia and appropriate vocal verbal behavior. An emphasis will be placed on the effects of tact training on appropriate and inappropriate vocal responses. He will then discuss social motivational deficits of children with autism and some of the difficulties these present for the child once they have learned to communicate. Several measures of social preference and joint attention-related behavior will be presented for typically developing children and children with autism.

 
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism: Case Studies of Optimal Outcome.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Mary Ann Cassell (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Green (2002) identified the need for detailed case studies of the effects of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism, at the level of the individual client. This presentation describes the course and outcome of such intervention for two young children who achieved optimal outcomes. Direct behavioral measures and results of standardized, age-normed assessment indicate substantial improvements in language, social behavior, and adaptive functioning, to near-typical or typical ranges, across domains. Keywords: early intensive behavioral intervention, outcomes, autism
 
Skill Acquisition in Individuals with Autism: The Importance of Accurate Identification of Reinforcers.
RICHARD B. GRAFF (New England Center for Children), Theresa Cerrone (New England Center for Children), Jennifer Keras (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: In order to maximize skill acquisition in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), effective reinforcers must be used. First, data will be presented suggesting that many teachers and clinicians working with individuals with ASD rely on self-report or caregiver opinion to identify potential reinforcers. Next, data will be presented demonstrating that some individuals with ASD cannot effectively communicate which items they prefer, and that caregiver opinion may not identify an individual’s most potent reinforcers. In Study 1, verbal and tangible preference assessments were compared in 4 preschoolers with ASD. In the tangible assessment, on each trial two stimuli were placed in front of the participant; in the verbal assessment, participants were asked, “Do you want x or y”. The two assessments identified the same most- and least-preferred item for only 2 of 4 participants, suggesting that self-report may not accurately identify preferred stimuli. In Study 2, parents of 8 children with autism were asked to rank their child’s most potent reinforcers. Next, parents conducted systematic preference assessments with their children. Results indicated that only 1 of 8 parents accurately predicted their child’s most preferred item. Results are discussed in terms of the need for accurate reinforcer identification for skill acquisition.
 
Vocal Stereotypy, Requesting, and Commenting: From Purely Vocal to Vocal Verbal Behavior.
WILLIAM H. AHEARN (New England Center for Children), Kathleen M. Clark (New England Center for Children), Jessica Masalsky (New England Center for Children), Sarah Kingery (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This presentation will discuss both undesirable vocal behavior and desirable vocal verbal behavior of children with autism. Delayed and immediate echolalia are frequently encountered in this population. This presentation will describe assessment and treatment of delayed echolalia. First, methods for assessing, and functional hypotheses of, vocal stereotypy will be described. Systematic, experimental analyses imply that vocal stereotypy can serve various functions for the child with autism but the most common function of vocal stereotypy is the production of sensory stimulation. Along with the putative function of the vocal stereotypy for several children with autism, successful intervention strategies will be described. The primary focus will be on response interruption and redirection (RIRD). Next, forms of appropriate vocal verbal behavior that emerge during redirection will be described. Among the appropriate vocal verbal responses that have been observed are mands or requests. Mands are often the most common forms of vocal verbal behavior freely emitted by children with autism. However, specific training procedures can foster the development of tacts or comments. The procedures that produced prompted and spontaneous vocal verbal behavior will be analyzed. Finally, some implications of these investigations on the nature of autism spectrum disorders will be forwarded.
 
Social Motivational Deficits for Children with ASDs: Social Preference and Joint Attention Responding.
WILLIAM H. AHEARN (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This presentation will discuss autism as a deficit in social functioning due to genetic inheritance and environmental experience. It is thought that autism is prenatally determined and is the product of abnormal brain growth regulation. Supporting research will be briefly reviewed. Aspects of communicative impairment, play, and other social skill deficits, considered characteristic of autism, will then be conceptually analyzed. This conceptual analysis will be based on descriptive and experimental analyses of behavior. Some of the data presented will include assessments of children’s preferences for social interaction, assessment of preference for social stimuli (e.g., hugs, praise, hi-fives) and descriptive analyses of joint attention responding and initiation. Several studies of play taught through video modeling will also be briefly discussed. The practical implications of these analyses will be outlined and a theory of abnormal development that leads to the diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder will be suggested.
 
 
Symposium #53
CE Offered: BACB
Disseminating Behavior Analysis through Community Outreach: Three Effective and Efficient Strategies for Making a Difference
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
L4 Room 1
Area: CSE/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jennifer L. Austin (California State University, Fresno)
Discussant: Joseph E. Morrow (Applied Behavior Consultants)
CE Instructor: Jennifer L. Austin, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Effective dissemination of behavior analysis has always been a problem for our field. Although marketing mistakes might account for some of these difficulties, exploration of more basic issues might be warranted before tackling our historical PR problems. Three key issues seem to elucidate the scope of the problem: 1) many people do not know that the field of behavior analysis exists; 2) those who do know that the field exists are often confused about our nature and scope; 3) those who understand the benefits of our science often do not have access to our services. For all three problems, a common outcome is that those who could benefit most from behavior analysis are not afforded the opportunities to realize those benefits. This session will present three potential options for addressing these problems. Specifically, it will address three specific strategies for increasing knowledge about and access to behavior analytic services.

 
Spreading the Word without Using the Words: Community Outreach Conferences as a Mechanism for Informing Laypersons about Behavior Analysis.
JENNIFER L. AUSTIN (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: In a market flooded with non-empirical strategies for behavior change, dissemination of factual information about what “works” is more important than ever. This presentation will address the process and outcomes of organizing behavior analytic conferences for lay audiences as a mechanism for disseminating accurate information. It will cover such important issues as developing conference programs that fit with the needs of the community, selecting speakers who are likely to be good PR agents for ABA, marketing the conference to the people who could most benefit from attending, and ensuring reinforcing experiences for conference attendees. Descriptive data derived from conference attendees will be shared to elucidate some challenges for dissemination.
 
Family-Based Behavior Analysis: Positive Parenting Classes to Increase Access to Resources.
CRISS WILHITE (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: In Central California, parents of children with disabilities have access to a nine-week behavior analytic parent training course. A state-funded agency that provides services to the disabled contracts with the local state university to provide the service. Parents attend six classes taught by a graduate student in Applied Behavior Analysis while their children are being cared for in other rooms by the program supervisor and undergraduate behavior analysis students. Each parent also has a student intern to help with individual questions, program design and homework. Three home visits are made by the intern and a childcare worker familiar with the client child to ensure the principles and techniques learned in class are generalizing to the home. Classes are offered in English and Spanish with user friendly materials provide in both languages.
 
Fresno State Autism Research and Treatment Center: Reaching out to a Community in Need.
AMANDA N. ADAMS (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: This presentation will describe Fresno State’s center-based program for young children with autism. The goals of this program are threefold: 1) to provide the community with outstanding behavior analysis programs for children with ASD; 2) to provide excellent training and experience in behavioral treatment for children with autism to undergraduate and graduate students; 3) to conduct and promote active research in best practices for behavioral treatment for autism. This presentation will highlight the process for developing the program and describe how such programs can be mutually beneficial to communities and service providers. Specific attention will be given to factors that present challenges to development and service delivery, such as working with diverse cultural and socio-economic populations, acquiring resources from existing human service agencies, and developing services in non-urban areas.
 
 
Symposium #54
CE Offered: BACB
Judging Evidence of Treatment Efficacy in Scientific Literature on Low Incidence Populations
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
L2 Room 3
Area: TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Howard Goldstein (Florida State University)
Discussant: Cameron J. Camp (Myers Research Institute)
CE Instructor: Howard Goldstein, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Information clearinghouses, professional organizations, and government agencies have developed criteria to identify Evidence-Based Practices. Three presenters will discuss applications of those criteria. Goldstein will discuss why different stakeholders (i.e., interventionists, client-consumers, policy makers, and scientists) propose different evaluation criteria and why single subject design research has been largely ignored. He will introduce a set of criteria that have general applicability to group and single-subject experimental designs and illustrate its application to47 articles investigating social skills interventions for preschoolers with autism. Results will be summarized using a Consumer Reports format. Dr. Green will focus on the development of the National Autism Centers rating scheme used to develop evidence-based guidelines for behavioral interventions for autism. Application is illustrated using research on "Applied Verbal Behavior" techniques. Dr. Bourgeois will discuss the application of a set of guidelines to evaluate evidence for behavioral treatments for adult neurogenic disorders (i.e., dementia, traumatic brain injury, aphasia). She will discuss shortcomings of current evaluation systems and propose an alternative that will more adequately reflect the empirical support for interventions in the area of dementia in particular. Dr. Camp will offer perspectives on the state of intervention research on low incidence populations in his role as discussant.

 
Application of a Consumer Reports Evaluation of Social Skills Interventions in Autism.
HOWARD GOLDSTEIN (Florida State University)
Abstract: A variety of information clearinghouses, professional organizations, and government agencies have developed criteria to judge Evidence-Based Practices (EBP). It is important to consider why different stakeholders might select different evaluation criteria and perhaps why there has been a tendency to ignore single subject experimental design research. How perspectives are expected to differ among interventionists, client-consumers, policy makers, and scientists will be discussed. The presentation will introduce a set of criteria that have general applicability to experimental research. These criteria can be used to judge empirical support associated with various intervention strategies used with different populations. A set of 14 criteria were developed to evaluate single-subject and group experimental designs according to: (a) Experimental design characteristics, (b) Measurement and reliability, (c) Evaluation of treatment effects, and (d) External validity dimensions. A good deal of literature has reported interventions targeting social and communication skills in preschoolers with autism. Use of this EBP system will be illustrated through an examination of 47 articles investigating social skills interventions in this population. Results of this review will be summarized and tables using a Consumer Reports format will illustrate the adequacy of the studies across the dimensions rated. Applicability to various stakeholder groups will be discussed.
 
Promoting Inclusion of Behavior Analytic Research in Evidence-Based Guidelines for Autism Intervention.
GINA GREEN (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Many protocols for developing evidence-based practice guidelines exclude evidence from behavior analytic studies. To date, the few guidelines that have incorporated such evidence have been based on evaluations of only limited aspects of single-case studies, or have included only studies that met formulaic criteria regarding design. Most neglected the essential components of measurement and clear demonstration of functional relations. This paper describes a comprehensive method for evaluating single-case studies that is consistent with behavior analytic research methods as defined by Sidman (1960) and Johnston and Pennypacker (1993) as well as contemporary research on autism treatment. The strength of the evidence produced by each study is inferred from quantitative ratings of each of the following components: design, measurement of the dependent variable, measurement of the independent variable, participant ascertainment, treatment effect, and generality of treatment effect. This rating scheme has been proposed for use in the National Autism Center’s project to develop evidence-based guidelines for behavioral and educational interventions for autism. Application of the rating scheme is illustrated using research on "Applied Verbal Behavior" techniques. Possibilities for using the rating scheme to improve behavior analytic research and to promote wider acceptance of behavior analytic research methods are discussed.
 
Evaluating Evidence for Behavioral Treatments of Individuals with Neurological Impairments.
MICHELLE S. BOURGEOIS (Florida State University)
Abstract: The application of a set of guidelines to evaluate evidence for behavioral treatments for adult neurogenic disorders (i.e., dementia, traumatic brain injury (TBI), aphasia) will be presented. In 2001, an ad hoc committee of the Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders and Sciences proposed to develop evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of communication disorders in individuals with neurological impairments individuals. To date, comprehensive reviews of the treatment literature in the areas of aphasia, dementia, dysarthria, and traumatic brain injury have been published in the Journal of Medical Speech Language Pathology. The paucity of randomized control trials studies with these clinical populations, and the rejection of single-subject studies as unable to index treatment efficacy (Robey and Schultz, 1998), are the reasons why the endorsement of most of the current treatment approaches for these populations are limited. The shortcomings of current evaluations systems will be outlined and an alternative approach that will more adequately reflect the empirical support for interventions in the area of dementia in particular will be offered.
 
 
Symposium #55
The Observational System of Instruction: The Effects of System-Wide and Component Implementation on the Emergence of Higher Order Verbal Repertoires
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:30 AM–9:50 AM
L4 Room 2
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Grant Gautreaux (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: We studied the effects of the implementation of components of the OSI and the entire system on the acquisition of higher order verbal operants such as naming, problem solving and the development and expansion of observational learning repertoires. We isolated components of the OSI to include peer tutoring, monitoring training and yoked contingencies. Four experiments incorporating a wide variety of settings a participants were conducted. The results are discussed in terms of the main dependent variables and the collateral effects of self-monitoring, listening, conversational units, approvals and disapprovals and responses to "wh" questions.
 
A Peer Yoked Contingency's Effects on Observational Learning and Naming.
MINDY BUNYA ROTHSTEIN (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Grant Gautreaux (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a peer yoked contingency on the acquisition of naming and observational learning repertoires. Four male middle school participants were selected for this study. A delayed multiple probe design across participants was used to determine whether naming and observational learning would emerge as a result of a function of a peer yoked contingency.
 
The Effects of the Components of OSI on Observational Learning, Naming, and Speaker and Listener Exchanges.
GRANT GAUTREAUX (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Darcy M. Walsh (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: A multiple baseline with multiple probes design was used to test the effects of component implemention of the OSI on higher order verbal operants. Six middle school participants who lacked evidence of an observational learning repertoire were selected for the experiment. The results are discussed in terms of the acquisition of an observational learning repertoire, naming, sequelics and conversational units.
 
Relations between Naming and Observational Learning.
DR. SHIRA A. ACKERMAN (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to test the effects of 2 different observational learning methods on naming repertoires, observational learning and the acquisition of new operants. Through two exposures of group-oriented contingencies observational learning repertoires emerged for each participant.
 
The Observational System of Instruction: Extending the Observational Repertoire to Address Complex Verbal Behavior.
GRANT GAUTREAUX (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: Recently, components of the Observational System of Instruction have been implemented and its effects tested on a variety of behaviors such as intraverbal responding, self-monitoring and direction following. Observational learning repertoires have been identified as a necessary component for success in the general education classroom. The importance of this research has implications for individuals who are at risk for entering special education and for those students returning to lesser restrictive environments. To extend this research, several experiments are reported here and the results are discussed in terms of implementing OSI as a classroom procedure as well the effectiveness of systematic component application. These procedures were used to test the effectiveness of the system (and it’s components) on higher order verbal operants such as problem solving, naming, and sophisticated content specific repertoires of middle school students who demonstrated little evidence of having an observational repertoire.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #56
CE Offered: BACB

Behavioral Contingency Analysis and Human Affairs: A New Discipline?

Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stateroom
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Francis Mechner, Ph.D.
Chair: David C. Palmer (Smith College)
FRANCIS MECHNER (The Mechner Foundation)
Dr. Francis Mechner Born in Vienna, Mechner received his doctorate from Columbia University in 1957 under Keller and Schoenfeld, and then continued in the department as lecturer in experimental psychology until 1960. He developed the “counting schedule” and schedules for time estimation, and built a computerized psychopharmacology laboratory at Schering Corporation that featured the use of “rat rotors.” In 1959, he published a notation system for behavioral contingencies, the ancestor of his present system for the analysis of behavioral contingencies in human affairs. Mechner has also published numerous papers and chapters on his extensive research in the field of learning, some of it related to his avocational accomplishments as a pianist of concert caliber, linguist, chess and go master, and painter. Mechner has been funding his research activity personally through companies that he founded. The first, in 1960, was Basic Systems, Inc., which pioneered programmed learning, followed by ten more companies, each based on some innovative technology. From 1963-65, Mechner worked with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in upgrading science teaching in South America and Asia. In 1970 he participated in the development of Sesame Street. In the 1970s, he implemented early childhood development programs for state governments, and large-scale manpower development programs for the Brazilian government. He is currently a Trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.
Abstract:

A detailed understanding of the prevailing behavioral contingencies is a precondition for the management of most human affairs. This paper presents a language for analyzing and diagramming any system of behavioral contingencies, including the complex ones encountered in the fields of law, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and economics. The language for such analysis, and its associated notation system, specifies the if, then relationships between acts, their consequences, and the termination of time periods. Analyses and diagrams of wide-ranging examples like fraud, betting, blackmail, various games, theft, contracts, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, loan transactions, insurance, elections, global warming, personal tipping, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, mistaken identity, etc. are presented as illustrations of the ability of the languages three-term vocabulary (acts, consequences, and time period terminations) and the associated simple syntax to generate the myriad nuances of meaning needed to provide the required generality and reach. A process is outlined for using the system as a tool for addressing practical problems in the above areas. One approach is to develop computer software for simulating and modeling the ways in which various possible assumptions and contingency designs would play out, and the behavioral dynamics that would ensue.

 
 
Symposium #57
CE Offered: BACB
Addressing the Needs of Low Functioning Children with Autism: Developing and Assessing Social Skills Programs
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 4
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Discussant: Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
CE Instructor: Marjorie H. Charlop, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Low functioning children with autism (LFA) have few social skills programs developed to address their specific needs. LFA have often been considered to be recipients of social overtures, but not initiators. In the present symposium, several new social skills interventions have been designed and empirically validated with low functioning children with autism. In presentation 1, LFA were taught social initiations via Discrete Trial Training (DTT) and Multiple Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS), with a robust assessment of generalization of the social initiations. The results suggested that the MITS procedure was effective with LFA in terms of acquisition and generalization of social initiations. In presentation 2, a functional analysis was performed to determine whether LFA demonstrated inappropriate behaviors that served social functions. After the functional analysis revealed social intent, appropriate social initiations were taught as replacement behaviors. Finally, in presentation 3, a new social skills training procedure, Steps to Social Success was developed, empirically validated, and then compared with the Social Stories procedure. The social skills procedures presented in this symposium will be discussed in terms of creating socials skills protocols that are modifiable for all levels of functioning and provide both empirical evidence and hope for lower functioning children with autism.

 
Teaching Low Functioning Children with Autism to be Social Initiators: An Assessment and Comparison of a Naturalistic Based Teaching Strategy and Traditional Discrete Trial Training.
KARI BERQUIST (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Few empirical research studies have attempted to teach low functioning children with autism to be social initiators, thus suggesting that their ability to learn such complex social behaviors is questionable. However research shows that low functioning children with autism have acquired a vast amount of skills, from imitation to speech. To address the needs of low functioning children and the noticeable gap in the literature, this study was conducted to teach nonverbal social initiations (e.g., greetings, sharing) to three low functioning children with autism. Children were taught two different social initiation behaviors, using two empirically validated teaching techniques, Modified Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS), a Naturalistic Teaching Strategy (NaTS), and Discrete Trial Training (DTT). An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness of MITS and DTT in terms of acquisition and generalization. Results show that low functioning children were able to acquire behaviors using either treatment (MITS or DTT); however rate of acquisition occurred more rapidly with target behaviors taught using MITS. In addition, results show that only behaviors taught using MITS successfully showed rapid acquisition and evidence of generalization and maintenance. Results are discussed in terms of evaluation of different treatments and performance of low functioning children.
 
Social Functions of Inappropriate Behaviors: Increasing Social Initiations in Low Functioning Children with Autism through Functional Analysis and Communication Training.
ALISSA GREENBERG (Claremont McKenna College), Katherine K. Byrd (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Previous social skills programs have failed to recognize that low functioning children with autism may already possess social intent, expressed through their aberrant behaviors. This two experiment investigation uses an innovative approach to teach low functioning children with autism how to initiate social interactions by taking advantage of the socio-communicative functions of their preexisting aberrant behaviors. In Experiment 1, a functional analysis was performed to classify aberrant behaviors (e.g., grabbing and stereotypy) of three children in terms of their social function. Results indicated that these behaviors served as social initiations. In Experiment 2, appropriate social behaviors that served the same socio-communicative function were chosen as replacement for the children’s inappropriate behaviors. Two children successfully learned appropriate social initiating behaviors through the use of functional communication training in the children’s natural environments. Furthermore, the learned social behaviors replaced the previously identified inappropriate behaviors and the children demonstrated some generalization and maintenance of the target skills. These findings suggest that it would be negligent for social skills programs to continue to ignore the needs of low functioning children. Low functioning children with autism can learn to perform social initiations and identifying the social function of their inappropriate behaviors may facilitate this process.
 
Social Skills Chaining with Children with Autism to Form Complex Social Interactions.
DEBRA BERRY MALMBERG (Claremont Graduate University), Sabrina D. Daneshvar (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Steps to Social Success (SSS) is a social skills training program based on the chaining of smaller social skills as steps, until each of the smaller skills forms a more complex social interaction. The SSS procedure also included facilitators for motivation, generalization and maintenance of skills. The present study compared this new social skills program to a widely-used program, Social Stories (Gray & Garand, 1993). Whereas the new SSS procedure was based on the empirical literature of chaining and facilitation of motivation and generalization, the few studies on the effectiveness of Social Stories have focused on maladaptive behaviors rather than teaching appropriate social behaviors. An alternating treatments design with a multiple baseline across children was used to empirically assess and compare the effectiveness of Social Stories and the SSS program in teaching social skills to four children with autism. Results found that SSS program was effective in teaching complex social behaviors (e.g., sharing, initiating conversation) to all children, whereas Social Stories did not result in any increased social behaviors. Results also showed greater ancillary increases in spontaneous social behavior (e.g., initiations, eye contact) and decreases in inappropriate behavior in the SSS condition. Comparisons of the two strategies will be discussed.
 
 
Paper Session #58
International Paper Session - Verbal Behaviour: I
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
L2 Room 3
Area: VRB
Chair: David C. Palmer (Smith College)
 
Lingual Behavior.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ERNEST A. VARGAS (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
Abstract: Behavior is shaped, controlled, and maintained either by direct contact with an immediate milieu or by contact mediated by other behavior. Skinner called “verbal”, behavior mediated through other behavior evolved through a lingual community. His analysis of the contingency relations involved between verbalizer, mediator, and the verbal community by and large concentrated on the role of the verbalizer. The lingual community, however, specifies the properties of verbal behavior that must be shaped and maintained by mediational behavior. Verbal and mediational relations in combination with their interaction with the lingual community constitute lingual behavior.
 
The Role of Prosody in the Stimulus Control of Verbal Behavior.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DAVID C. PALMER (Smith College)
Abstract: Autoclitic frames consist of fixed elements, intraverbally related, and variable terms that must be supplied by context. For example, the utterance, “I called the doctor up,” includes the frame “call X up” and the variable term “doctor.” In another context, the variable term might be “my mother-in-law” or “the refrigerator repairman.” The interruption of an intraverbal sequence by a variable term raises the question of what discriminative stimuli in the context control the shift from one verbal operant to another, that is, from the frame to variable to frame again. I argue that the only invariant features of the context are prosodic cues within the utterance itself, and that among the many functions that prosody might serve in verbal behavior, the control of a speaker by prosodic cues within his own utterances is among the most important.
 
The Functional Independence of the Elementary Verbal Relations.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ERIKA FORD (University of Auckland, Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Brent Maxwell Jones (Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian De-mining)
Abstract: A Systematic replication of a study by Sundberg, San Juan, Dawdy and Arguelles (1990) was conducted, in order to assess the functional independence of the elementary verbal relations. Five participants with autism spectrum disorder were taught to emit three different responses in the mand, tact and intraverbal relations. The rate of acquisition for each of the relations and the emergence of responses in the untrained verbal relations were measured. Results indicate much variability across participants with respect to the rate of acquisition of each of the relations. Following tact training, four out of five participants emitted correct responses in the untrained mand relation. Similarly, mand training resulted in the emergence of untrained tacts for four out of five participants. None of the participants consistently emitted correct responses that were trained as mands or tacts in the untrained intraverbal relation. Following intraverbal training four of the five participants emitted at least one response in the untrained mand or tact relations. These results are in contrast with findings of similar research on functional independence of the verbal relations. Discussion of the results is focused on the complexities of an experimental analysis of the verbal relations.
 
 
Paper Session #59
International Paper Session - Applied Behavior Analysis in Education
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:30 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: EDC
Chair: Terre Hradnansky (University of Phoenix)
 
ABA in Public School Settings: A Comparison and Contrast of Three Successful Service Delivery Models.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TERRE HRADNANSKY (University of Phoenix)
Abstract: ABA has been proven to be an effective therapy delivery system to increase the skill and academic levels of preschool children with autism. Because children with autism have similarities yet have distinct learning differences, the therapy designed to meet those unique needs should also be similar yet different. The speaker will describe, compare and contrast three ABA therapy delivery systems that have proved to be successful in treating and teaching preschool children with Autism in a large, diverse public school setting in California. The ABA therapy delivery systems that will be discussed are the Home ABA delivery system, the extended school day ABA delivery system, and the integrated school day ABA delivery system. The roles of parents, teachers, therapists, and other members of the child study team will be highlighted, as will the paperwork and ABA therapy plan development and ongoing assessment process. The pros and cons associated with each delivery system and the generalities about the types of children that benefit most from the different systems will be discussed.
 
Outcomes of Aspect's Comprehensive Educational Approach.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RAYMOND CLARK (Autism Spectrum Australia (Aspect)), Anthony Warren (Autism Spectrum Australia (Aspect))
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Australia (Aspect) has developed its comprehensive approach to educational intervention over many years. The term comprehensive refers to autism spectrum disorder specialised, intensive programs which have an educational and skill development focus. The comprehensive approach includes interventions designed according to needs, for example, individualised functional approaches for problem behaviour and for communication skill building. Research evidence supports individualised comprehensive interventions as the primary approach for all children with autism spectrum disorders. Aspect’s comprehensive approach encompasses: the key parent and family roles regarding child development outcomes, multi-disciplinary input, and a developmental focus, with intervention likely to take place in multiple settings including home, school and the community. A key element of the comprehensive approach is the planned and supported transition of students to more inclusive educational settings. For example, transition is facilitated by Aspect’s satellite class program, which is an important stepping stone towards inclusion of students in regular education. The main principles of Aspect’s comprehensive educational approach, and the evidence for these, will be described. Data regarding transition of students to mainstream school placements over a two year period, will also be presented.
 
 
Symposium #60
CE Offered: BACB
Assessing Change from Behavioral Treatment of Children with Autism
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Discussant: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Gerald E. Harris, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Demonstrating reliable changes in children with Autism from behavioral intervention is crucial to advancing the science of ABA. Scientific and accurate representation of treatment benefits is necessary to show others the value of ABA for this population. The 3 presentations in this symposium present data that increases the psychometric knowledge, and thus the utility, of the most widely used measures of intelligence and behavior problems in the autistic population. Data were collected from comprehensive assessments of a large sample of children diagnosed with autistic disorder as they participated in behavioral treatment programs. Sample sizes for the data analytic procedures are thus much larger than usually seen in this area. The first presentation presents a method for determining the reliability of change scores on the most popular comprehensive intelligence test, the WPPSI-III. The second presentation looks at an initial normative base for the WPPSI-III for use with children with autism. The third presentation investigates the interobserver agreement and outcome utility of an efficient behavior report instrument, the CBCL, for this special population. Together, these presentations advance our ability to demonstrate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions.

 
The Reliability of Change: The Clinical Significance of Outcome Data for Children with Autism.
GERALD E. HARRIS (Texas Young Autism Project), Wendy J. Neely (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Increasing research findings indicate that behavioral intervention does improve cognitive abilities in children with Autism. This presentation uses outcome data from a large sample of children with autism participating in behavioral treatment to address the reliability and clinical significance of cognitive change. Holw many children benefit, and to what degree? Pre-treatment and post-treatment cognitive test data from 95 young children participating in long-term behavioral treatment programs are examined using state of the art statistical procedures to assess change over time as well as the significance of that change across and within children. Findings support previous research that children with autism do exhibit increased cognitive ability following intervention, and show more clearly the extent and significance of the improvement. Implications for diagnostic and treatment outcome interpretations are discussed.
 
WPPSI-III Intelligence Test for Children: A Normative Database for Children with Autism.
WENDY J. NEELY (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project), Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: In order to properly diagnose, and then plan, monitor, and evaluate behavioral interventions, accurate assessment of cognitive abilities of children with autism is crucial . While frequently used, little is actuallyknown about the psychometrics of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - 3rd Ed., for this population. Wechsler's study in the WPPSI-III Technical Manual (The Psychological Corporation, 2002) addressing utility for this special population has several significant methodological problems, including a very small sample size (n = 21), restrictions of age and I.Q., as well as unknown test administration and scoring procedures for the data. In the present study, data from standard initial administrations of the WPPSI-III for a much larger sample of children diagnosed with autism (n = 270), as well as subsequent administrations, were analyzed. The results compared to the findings from the Wechsler study. Significant differences were found in means and distributions of subtest and composite area standard scores. In particular, scores for lower functioning (I.Q. < 60) children with autism were very different, and the psychometrics of their responses changed over time. These results provide a foundation for development of norms specifically for use with children with autism.
 
Behavior Reports: Outcome Utility and Interobserver Agreement of the CBCL for Children with Autism.
GERI MARIA HARRIS (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is one of the most widely used measures of child behavior, yet little is known about its psychometric properties in relation to children with autism. This study examined usefulness of the CBCL as an outcome measure for children with autism participating in behavioral treatment, including assessing the accuracy or interobserver agreement of parents in the autistic population. Levels of inter-parental agreement in the autistic population were also compared with the levels of inter-parental agreement in other populations, such as typically developing children and children in high-risk families. Results for a sample of 165 mother-father pairs show that parents of children with autism overall exhibit a high level of inter-observer agreement and that some treatment changes can be detected and measured by the CBCL.
 
 
Symposium #61
CE Offered: BACB
Effects of Reinforcement History: From Laboratory to Application
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Carlos A. Bruner (National University of Mexico)
CE Instructor: Claire C St. Peter, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Recently, Critchfield (2006) urged behavior analysts to submit symposia geared toward diverse audiences as one way of maintaining the continuity of the field. We have attempted to answer his call by developing a symposium focused on reinforcement history, but approaching the topic from diverse perspectives. We therefore included a review of the use of nave animals in studies published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (Lattal & Okouchi), a research study examining effects of the order of delays in delay-discounting procedures (Anderson, Diller, & Slezack), and a research study examining the effects of exposure to reinforcement schedules commonly used in applied behavior analysis during baseline and treatment (St. Peter Pipkin & Vollmer). In all, we examine the potential effects of reinforcement history in nonhuman animal, human operant, and applied research in the hopes of building bridges across seldom-connected disciplines. Reinforcement history has important implications for all areas of behavior analysis; we hope to illuminate a portion of these in our presentations.

 
To Be or Not to Be Naïve: On the Behavioral Histories of Subjects in Experiments.
KENNON A. LATTAL (West Virginia University), Hiroto Okouchi (Osaka Kyoiku University)
Abstract: We reviewed all of the experimental studies involving nonhuman animals published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior between 1958 and 2005 to determine the extent to which experimenters used subjects that were or were not experimentally naïve. Over the years, the use of naive animals has declined in favor of animals with a prior history of use in behavioral experiments. There are differences in species, with monkeys and pigeons being more likely to have had a prior history of experimentation. Using naïve or non-naïve animals also depended on the nature of the experiment, in particular whether the experiment was a part of a series of experiments on a given topic. These outcomes are discussed in relation to Skinner’s suggestion in a JEAB paper on the future of behavior analysis that the importance of using naïve animals in experiments is exaggerated.
 
History of Delayed Presentation Affects Delay-Discounting Function.
KAREN G. ANDERSON (West Virginia University), James W. Diller (West Virginia University), Jonathan M. Slezak (James Madison University)
Abstract: As the delay to the presentation of a relatively large reinforcer is increased, the choice for that outcome (the self-controlled option) may be reduced below the choice for an alternative smaller, more immediate reinforcer (the impulsive option). The rate at which the value of the larger reinforcer is discounted as its delay increases has been shown to vary across individuals. Higher rates of delay discounting have been correlated with various behavioral disorders, e.g., substance abuse, gambling, violence. To examine a role for behavioral history in influencing differential rates of discounting, rats were exposed to a choice between one food pellet delivered immediately and three food pellets delivered after different delays. In one study, history with a fixed, ascending order of delay presentation systematically decreased larger-reinforcer choices. In subsequent studies, the order (within and across sessions) in which the various delays to the larger reinforcer were presented affected later delay-discounting functions. Together, these studies have implications for interpreting data from delay-discounting paradigms and may suggest ways to affect impulsive choice. A better understanding of the historical variables that determine impulsive/self-control choice may yield better prevention and treatment strategies for many behavioral disorders.
 
Effects of Recent Reinforcement History on Responding During Random-Ratio Schedules.
CLAIRE C ST. PETER (West Virginia University), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Recent reinforcement history may affect responding during subsequent reinforcement schedules, but these types of “history effects” have not been thoroughly examined in relation to applied issues. For example, we do not yet know the effects histories with the schedules commonly used in applied research on subsequent responding. We examined the effects of typical baseline (concurrent FR1/EXT) and full treatment (concurrent EXT/FR1) histories on responding during equal random ratio schedule (concurrent RR2/RR2) in a reversal design, using both human operant and applied methods. A computer analog for problem and appropriate behavior was used in experiments I and II, with nonclinical human adults as participants. Experiment I evaluated possible history effects with brief exposures to each type of reinforcement schedule. In experiment II, phases were conducted to stability to assess the potential long-term impact of history and to determine if effects observed in experiment I were merely transition states. Experiment III involved a replication of experiment II with a child with disabilities who engaged in aggression in a school setting. In all three experiments, recent reinforcement history affected responding during the random ratio schedules. We conclude by discussing implications of history for application and possible avenues for further examination of history effects.
 
 
Symposium #62
CE Offered: BACB
Simulation-Based Training to Improve Health Care Team Skills and Reduce Medical Errors
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: R. Wayne Fuqua, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium describes the use of simulation-based assessment and training to improve the performance of high-risk, low frequency skills that must be performed with high fidelity on every response opportunity. Topics covered include: the characteristics of simulations, the advantages and disadvantages of simulation-based assessment and training, the contributions of behavior analysis concepts to the design of effective simulation-based assessment and training, the identification and training of team skills, and the application of in-situ simulations to assess and improve team skills in critical health care environments.

 
Simulation-Based Assessment and Training: An Overview.
KRYSTYNA A. ORIZONDO-KOROTKO (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation describes the defining features of simulation-based assessment and gives examples of the use of simulations in behavior analysis and in related disciplines. The advantages and limitations of simulation-based assessment and training are discussed.
 
Behavior Analytic Concepts in the Design of Simulation-Based Assessment and Training.
AMY GROSS (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation describes the contribution of behavior analysis concepts to the design and implementation of simulation based assessment and training. Concepts to be considered in designing simulations include: response topography, temporal dimensions of responding, discriminative stimuli, setting events, motivative variables, response consequences, and concurrent behaviors.
 
Training and Assessing Team Skills: A Review and Synopsis of the Empirical Literature.
R. WAYNE FUQUA (Western Michigan University), Shannon M. Loewy (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The communication and coordination skills that are essential for effective operation of a team are identified. Strategies for assessing and training team skills are reviewed and evaluated.
 
In Situ Simulation®: Assessing and Training Clinical Operations in Health Care Settings.
WILLIAM HAMMAN (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University), Jeff Beaubien (Aptima, Inc.), Amy M. Gullickson (Western Michigan University), Rick Lammers (Michigan State University/Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies ), William Rutherford (Western Michigan University), Beth Seiler (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation describes the use of in-situ simulations in health care settings to assess and train communication skills and team resource management in critical health care environments.
 
 
Panel #64
Untold Personal Stories of Fred S. Keller Presented by his Colleagues, Students, and Enthusiast
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
10:00 AM–11:20 AM
L4 Room 2
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Sherman Yen (Asian American Anti-Smoking Foundation)
ALLISON Y. LORD (Asian American Anti-Smoking Foundation)
SHERMAN YEN (Asian American Anti-Smoking Foundation)
Abstract:

In an attempt to recollect and connect valuable personal contacts with Fred S. Keller the present format will permit many of his colleagues, students, and enthusiast the opportunity for their writings to be presented and valued verbally. A CD will be distributed, which contains an abstract of these writings, at no cost to people who attend the session.

 
 
Paper Session #66
International Paper Session - Assessment and Intervention Strategies for Autism
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 4
Area: AUT
Chair: Angelika Anderson (Monash University)
 
ABA Based Services throughout the Lifespan for Individuals with Autism and Related Disabilities.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DAVID L. HOLMES (Lifespan Services, LLC)
Abstract: This presentation will cover the lifespan needs of individuals with autism; from more severe cases to mild cases. We will review the autism epidemic and its’ various theories for why there is an explosion of new cases. We will discuss the importance of early and intensive Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services for the infants and toddlers who are newly diagnosed. The importance of specialized services during the school years will be empathized based on the principles of ABA. Discussion will ensue regarding the various theories and treatments that are available in addressing autism and how to become aware of the threats and opportunities associated with each. We will address the adolescent years and the sensitive issues associated with the emerging sexual awareness that occurs. We will then enter the adult years and will discuss the living, employment, recreational, spiritual and leisure opportunities necessary for an adult with autism to live a gratifying life. During the presentation case studies will be offered to make real the issues that will be discussed. Further, attendees will be asked to present their own examples to emphasize the material presented. Finally, attendees will be encouraged to present concerns they have in order to get answers or recommendations for resolution as they pertain to lifespan ABA services.
 
Core Target Behaviours in Autism.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANGELIKA ANDERSON (Monash University)
Abstract: The learning process that we commonly refer to as ‘socialisation’ is usually very effective in teaching young typically developing children social skills and language. A likely key deficit in autism is an impairment in this learning process possibly because children with autism fail to discern, attend to, or recognise the subtle facial expressions or gestures that usually function as effective consequences for a child’s behaviour. This explains the effectiveness of behavioural interventions, which proved very more obvious or salient consequences for behaviour. A common criticism of behavioural approaches in autism however, is the need for highly intensive interventions taking up many hours in a week. In addition the behaviours learnt that way often do not generalised. Or are often not used spontaneously and adaptively. To address these issues requires two things: 1: Identifying core target behaviours. Much like ‘Pivotal Responses’ (Koegel et al) these are behaviours that if targeted lead to more widespread behaviour change in untargeted behaviours. 2. Developing highly effective naturalistic intervention strategies that are effective at relatively low intensity, and that facilitate generalisation and maintenance of effects. This paper is a position paper that explores the relationship between possible Core target Behaviours and suitable intervention strategies.
 
Fluency Based Instruction for Learners with Autism.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALISON L. MOORS (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Many scientists and clinicians working with children with autism have been advocating for services and therapies derived from the field of Applied Behavior Analysis for over twenty-five years. No other treatment approach has been as successful for teaching students with autism critical skills from the repertoires of socialization, language, academics, motor and self help/independent living. Moreover, within the field of Behavior Analysis, there exist multiple teaching paradigms which all yield great success when applied to these learners. Fluency-Based Instruction has now emerged in the United States as an additional behavioral paradigm that is rapidly gaining popularity for use with home programs and classrooms alike that service children with autism spectrum disorders. This approach has endured great success in the literature for general , special, and resource room educational classrooms as well as job training and adult literacy for over 40 years. However, its success with students with autism has only been documented in the United States more recently. This presentation will focus on the components of Fluency-Based Instruction and its historical and empirical underpinnings. The presenters will show a variety of outcomes data with accompanying video examples of this approach applied to learners with autism.
 
BI Capture™: A More Effective Way to Do Functional Behavior Assessments.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JAMES BALL (Youth Consultation Service (YCS)), Steve Lockwood (Youth Consultation Service (YCS))
Abstract: The use of BI Capture™, a comprehensive computer technology, allows those members of the classroom team that have the appropriate trainings and expertise to assist in the determination of the function, even if they are not in the room on a day by day basis. BI Capture™ allows staff that are not always in the classroom the opportunity to view video captured clips of the behavior, what happened before, and how the staff reacted without having to watch hours and hours of video tapes. BI Capture™ has a remote feature that when the behavior occurs, all the teacher has to do is hit a button that he/she has on their person, and the camera will record up to 15 minutes prior to the behavior and 15 into the future. Therefore, the teacher is only capturing clips that actually catch the antecedent-behavior-consequence. Caring Technologies recently reported highly encouraging Phase 1 results of a controlled study, funded in Spring 2006 by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, showed that the technology, BI Capture™, was able to successfully record, annotate and (electronically) facilitate review of children with autism’s behaviors. This study was conducted in an Atlanta-area special school for children with behavioral disabilities and tracked the behaviors of all the students in 4 classrooms. This presentation will focus on the BI Capture™ technology as a means for taking function of behavior data more efficiently and effectively. It will discuss the disadvantages of the current paper and pencil methods of A-B-C analysis and give an alternative that is much more accurate and user friendly. The overall goal of this presentation is to look at technology as a means of benefiting the lives of individuals with in the autism spectrum. References Fitzsimmons, M.K. (1998). Functional behavior assessment and behavior intervention plans. (ERIC EC Digest E571). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. (http://ericec.org/digests/e571.htm). Iwata, B.A., Pace, G., Kilter, M., Cowdery, G., & Cattalo, M. (1990). Experimental analysis and extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 11-27. O'Neill, R.E., Horner, R.H., Albin, R.W., Sprague, J.R., Storey, K., & Newton, J.S. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior (2nd Edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #63
CE Offered: BACB

Why Humans Are So Cruel, and What Can We Do About It?

Tuesday, August 14, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Stateroom
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CE Instructor: Joseph Ciarrochi, Ph.D.
Chair: JoAnne Dahl (Uppsala University, Sweden)
JOSEPH CIARROCHI (University of Wollongong)
Dr. Joseph Ciarrochi Joseph Ciarrochi has published several books, numerous book chapters, and over 40 peer-reviewed journal articles. His research focuses on understanding how to reduce suffering, promote vitality, and promote social effectiveness. One line of research seeks to identify the skills people need to optimally adapt to difficult life situations. Dr. Ciarrochi is currently collecting the fifth year of data for a large longitudinal study that examines how adolescent resilience develops and changes. A second line of research focuses on evaluating Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) interventions amongst a variety of populations (e.g., police force, people diagnosed with cancer).Recently, my colleagues and I are developing an internet-based system for delivering ACT.
Abstract:

Why do humans behave so badly towards one another, in the absence on any obvious deprivation or threat? Most importantly, what can practitioners do about it? My talk will look at the pervasiveness of cruelty and aversive interpersonal behavior, which ranges from the common and mundane (A husband trying to "hurt" his wife with words) to the extraordinary (e.g., the holocaust). Situationist, evolutionary, and cognitive theories provide valuable insights into the problem, but fall short in two ways. First, they explain a relatively limited range of aversive interpersonal behavior, and/or second, they provide limited accounts of how to reduce such behavior. I then illustrate how a behavioral model (ACT/RFT) provides a more comprehensive account of how to predict-and-reduce aversive interpersonal behavior. Finally, I will provide some concrete examples of how an ACT practitioner might go about reducing cruelty and promoting kindness.

 
 
Paper Session #67
International Poster Session - Behavioural Medicine and Public Health
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM
Chair: Michelle Nicola Grainger (University of Otago)
 
Evaluation of a Multi-Faceted, Behavioural-Based Intervention to Improve Preventative Medication Adherence in Asthmatics.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELLE NICOLA GRAINGER (University of Otago), Louis S. Leland Jr. (University of Otago)
Abstract: Previous research conducted in our laboratory suggests that the main (self-reported) reasons for non-adherence with asthma preventative medication are forgetting to take the medication, and a belief that the participant’s asthma is too mild to warrant preventative therapy. However, even if participants report belief that their medication is efficacious, this frequently does not translate into actual medication use. We devised a short, multi-faceted, behavioural-based intervention to address these issues. The intervention consisted of a proximal prompt (Velcro-ing participants’ preventative inhalers to their toothpaste tube) in an effort to remind participants to take their medication; the use of a signed pledge card; and plotting of morning peak-flow measurements to show that taking preventative medication regularly can improve asthma control. Self-report questionnaires were used to record participants’ adherence and views about their asthma, as well as their participation in a variety of health-behaviours (such as appointment-keeping and exercise), with inhaler weights used as an objective adherence measure. A total of four university-based participants (three females and one male) took part in the intervention - their results and views on the usefulness of the intervention will be discussed.
 
A Self-Management Course to Increase Condom Use and Abstinence: Ten Years of Research Findings.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RYAN SAIN (Washington State University), Thomas A. Brigham (Washington State University), Raymond O. Sacchi (Washington State University), Holly Denice Shockley (Washington State University)
Abstract: A peer-taught, HIV education course at Washington State University has been shown to increase student knowledge and reduce high-risk sexual behavior. The course integrates safer-sex information, risk factors, self-management and sexual decision making skills in a small group format. Previous research has demonstrated significant changes in sexual behavior but the generality of the findings was limited because of the lack of appropriate control groups. A paired-sample control group was established using 57 students from introductory psychology classes. Over the course of the semester, experimental participants significantly reduced their level of sexual activity, significantly increased condom use and significantly reduced alcohol consumption in comparison to the control group. The results of the study confirm earlier findings and suggest that students in the self-management HIV education program made important changes in their behavior and life style.
 
Three Perspectives on Generality: From Single Case Science to Public Health Impact.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TREVOR F. STOKES (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Generality is a concept that resonates within behaviour analysis and applied science. Relevant here are three differing and important meanings of the term. First, within the history of Applied Behaviour Analysis, generality refers to the dimensions of the widespread effects of interventions, to generalization across people, circumstances, repertoires and time. These relevant outcomes should be pursued within single case experimental designs exploring functional variables. Treatment development and effectiveness is ideally examined in this manner. Second, within behavioural science, generality refers to the representativeness of findings within populations. This generalizability is assessed through systematic replication of case research across participants conducted by independent researchers. Similarly, randomized controlled experiments examining treatment protocols with groups of participants also contributes to this generalizability. Third, within our nations and internationally, the generality of programmes relates to large-scale adoption and implementation of proven technologies of treatment. This is where the public health of persons within societies becomes a generality issue of singular moment. This is where government policy should attend to facilitated access and optimal utilization of efficacious services as a priority. These goals are supported by the health economics and social implications of behavioral health support, where the data encourage early intervention.
 
 
Paper Session #69
International Paper Session - Human Motor Learning and Extinction
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: Gerson Yukio Tomanari (University of São Paulo)
 
Extinction in Rats: Response Sequences as Operant Units.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
GERSON YUKIO TOMANARI (University of São Paulo), Alessandra Villas-Bôas (University of São Paulo)
Abstract: The present research analyzed two different processes that often occur during extinction, that is, behavioral resurgence and behavioral variation. Sixteen rats were exposed to contingencies in which sequences of four bar presses distributed in two different manipulada were trained as operant units. Four distinct operant units were trained in each of four different experimental conditions. Two groups of subjects were constituted. For Group 1, but not for Group 2, an extinction period immediately followed each trained operant. For both groups, an extinction period followed the training of the fourth operant. Considering this final extinction period, results showed that the absence (versus the presence) of the intermediate extinction periods (Group 2 versus Group 1, respectively) was accompanied by a relatively higher frequency of previously trained sequences. This result seems to demonstrate the critical role of the maintenance of a given behavior (i.e., that has not been extinguished) for its behavioral resurgence. In addition, data during extinction showed high frequency of units of four bar-press sequences that had not been previously trained. Such behavioral variation, however, was clearly restricted to sequences that involved lower number of switches between bars. Given these findings, behavioral resurgence and behavioral variation will be related and discussed.
 
Reinforcement and Feedback in Human Motor Learning.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
IVER H. IVERSEN (University of North Florida)
Abstract: Operant conditioning and human motor learning are two separate areas of psychology. The presentation will outline similarities and differences between these two areas. Reinforcement is the main variable in operant conditioning while “feedback” is the main variable in human motor learning. Reinforcement and feedback are not identical variables and are treated differently in these two areas of psychology. The presentation will outline the similarities and differences between these variables and their relative influence on performance in motor learning tasks with human subjects. Data will be presented from research with human subjects performing computerized aiming tasks and receiving reinforcement as well as feedback for their accuracy. Both reinforcement and feedback were manipulated variables. When verbal statements and graded numbers are given as performance feedback, it is tacitly assumed that the subject’s behavior is controlled by such stimuli. Additional experiments with human subjects determined the extent to which training subjects to use such feedback improves performance. The presentation will seek to encourage behavior analysts to explore literature and research in the area of motor learning; equally, psychologists in the motor learning area are encouraged to explore literature and research in the area of operant conditioning.
 
 
Paper Session #70
Research on Direct Instruction and Interventions for At-Risk Children
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: EDC
Chair: Janet Ellis (University of North Texas)
 
DI and ASD.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CATHY L. WATKINS (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: There is a long history of evaluation research supporting the effectiveness of Direct Instruction curricula across learning domains and populations. However, there are few published studies evaluating the effectiveness of DI with children with autism spectrum disorders. Nevertheless, DI programs are widely used with this population in clinical and school settings. This paper examines features of DI design and delivery that are consistent with applied research on students with autism and other developmental disabilities. A case study will be presented involving the use of DI programs over a three-year period to teach reading and language to a student identified as having a pervasive developmental disorder.
 
For Reading Deficits to Dangerous In-Class Behavior: Interventions for At-Risk Students Ages 5-10.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JANET ELLIS (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The "at risk" label today includes predicted behavioral deficits for the young child as well as diagnoses ranging from DD, ED, ADHD, language delay, bipolar disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder to autism. How are teachers to modify behavior when the entire classroom may be engaging in inappropriate actions. Kindergarten children with seriously disruptive, even dangerous behavior in class with children who have difficulty learning to read make for a challenging classroom environment that has prompted more than one teacher to leave the profession. This presentation will describe some "hard-won successes" using behavioral technology in just these types of classrooms. In one case the child's behavior was so inappropriate that she was in a classroom alone with 3 adults who apparently could not manage or modify her behavior. Another child was placed into "time out" for 7-1/2 hours/day to "teach him a lesson." Briefly, an intervention involving 7 students, with diagnoses ranging from ADHD, ED, to bipolar disorder will be described. However, the close of this presentation will briefly describe a reading program taught to 4- and 5-year olds so the ending to this story is a happy one -- for some of the teachers and students in this data-based presentation. [198]
 
 
Paper Session #71
International Paper Session - Organisational Behaviour Management and Behavioural Safety
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
L2 Room 3
Area: OBM
Chair: Kerry Walker (University of Newcastle)
 
Training and Motivating Staff in Behavioural Treatment Programs.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LUCIUS ARCO (Praxis Research)
Abstract: Training programs for staff required to implement behavioural treatments for clients with developmental or psychiatric disorders remain contentious. Training may still be viewed as costly, of limited effect on staff performance, or even unnecessary for client development. This paper reviewed over 30 behavioural studies, since the 1970s and including the presenter's own recent research, that reported post-training observations of maintenance or generalization. Results of studies were analyzed in relation to various training components including goals, group instruction, on-the-job feedback, and acceptability. Specific staff training components are recommended for optimal outcomes, and directions for future research are proposed.
 
Improving Organizational Safety and Performance in a Large Steel Manufacturer.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KERRY WALKER (University of Newcastle), Elizabeth Jean Nicol (University of Newcastle)
Abstract: A behavioural approach to improving safety and leadership, called Precision Leadership, was applied in a large steel manufacturing company in Australia. This large scale project was ongoing at the time of this writing; therefore the presentation will describe this work-in-progress. The project implementation and general behaviour-analytic approaches used will be described in the presentation, including a background of the company's needs and our solutions designed to address these needs. Some measures of productivity will be described and illustrated through use of a case study showing the application of the behavioural principles and their impact on business functioning.
 
OBM Consulting Partnership between SafetyWorks (Australian) and Aubrey Daniels International (USA): Issues and Opportunities.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALICE DARNELL LATTAL (Aubrey Daniels International)
Abstract: SafetyWorks, with its partner, Aubrey Daniels International, combine the expertise of two OBM firms to extend their reach in far distant parts of the world, working with differences of culture and consulting methodology to provide an effective blended approach. This paper will address key issue in setting up a common approach and what some of the key learnings are in transferring technology while sustaining immediate demands of both companies in their independent practices and approach. The content will emphasize what worked well for the clients and the consulting entities, and lessons learned for the future.
 
 
Symposium #72
Training of Paraprofessionals Educating Learners with Autism Across Environments
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Stateroom
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Laura J. Hall (San Diego State University)
Discussant: Jane S. Howard (San Diego State University)
Abstract: This symposium addresses a critical component in the effective education of many learners with autism spectrum disorders, the skills of paraprofessionals who interact with them in educational contexts. This sequence of studies focus on the effective use of prompts by paraprofessionals evaluated across settings. Transfer of training is also evaluated using mutliple-baseline designs. The settings addressed include preschool classrooms, public school playgrounds and the homes of young children with autism spectrum disorders. The paraprofessionals are employed by public schools, an early intervention agency and a private, nonprofit agency. The effect of a training package that included a workshop and on-site feedback from the supervising teacher on effective use of prompting was evaluated. The effect of prompting strategies on child outcome is presented as a link to the effects of training.
 
What we know about paraprofessional training models.
LAURA J. HALL (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Public school preschool classrooms for children with autism are frequently staffed by paraprofessionals with limited skills in the use of effective prompting. Early intervention programs also employ interventionists with limited behavioral skills. Research on a) the effects of training paraprofessionals and b) on the implementation of strategies from theory to practice will be reviewed.
 
Generalization of Effective Prompting Strategies by Paraprofessionals in Public Preschool Classes.
CATHERINE E. POPE (San Diego State University), Gretchen S. Grundon (San Diego State University), Laura J. Hall (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Recent research has suggested that paraprofessionals in early childhood special education settings want and need more training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a training model designed to teach paraprofessionals to prompt learners with autism in public school preschool classes. A multiple-baseline design across settings was used to evaluate the effects of a workshop and feedback on prompting skills by five paraprofessionals. Results demonstrated that the training package that included feedback from supervising teachers resulted in increased effective use of prompting across activities.
 
The Generalization of Training on Prompting Techniques by Paraeducators working in the Home.
AMANDA BALDERAMA (San Diego State University), Laura J. Hall (San Diego State University)
Abstract: A training package consisting of a workshop and feedback was evaluated on the effective use of discrete trail teaching in an in-home program for a 2 year-old with autism spectrum disorder. A multiple-baseline design across settings was used to assess the skills of the paraeducator working in the home. A discussion of this paraprofessional training model will conclude the presentation.
 
 
Paper Session #73
International Paper Session - Conceptual Issues in the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: M. Jackson Marr (Georgia Institute of Technology)
 
A Mathematical Theory of Behavior Chains.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
JACK J. MCDOWELL (Emory University)
Abstract: Two mathematical and two computational theories can be combined to produce a more comprehensive theory of adaptive behavior that describes reinforced responding in the presence of a discriminative stimulus. The cornerstone of this theory is an evolutionary algorithm that instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. The evolutionary algorithm has been shown to generate steady-state behavior that is consistent with matching theory. This evolutionary dynamics and matching-theory statics can be combined with a theory of stimulus control to produce a more general theory. Rescorla and Wagner’s computational theory of associative learning may be used to describe the development of conditioned reinforcing value in a discriminative stimulus. An extension of Mazur’s hyperbolic delay theory of conditioned reinforcement constitutes the corresponding equilibrium theory. The resulting general theory of reinforced responding in the presence of a discriminative stimulus provides a quantitative account of the development, maintenance, and dissolution of behavior chains, as is observed on chained schedules of reinforcement. It also provides a biologically plausible method of generating adaptive state action sequences in a virtual agent or physical robot, which is a canonical problem in artificial intelligence and machine learning.
 
Residual Meta-Analysis: A New Frontier in the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior?
Domain: Experimental Analysis
RANDOLPH C. GRACE (University of Canterbury)
Abstract: Meta-analysis has become increasingly popular among researchers in the social sciences as a method of aggregating effect sizes across studies that overcomes some of the problems with statistical power. However, it has generally not been used in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The reason is simple. Our models are so good that effect size is not the issue. We face essentially the opposite problem: How to distinguish between models that typically account for over 90% of the variance. The critical question is then whether the remaining 10% variance is systematic, allowing for models to be falsified. But typically this cannot be answered by a single study, because of low statistical power. Here I describe a technique for aggregating residuals from fits of competing models to archival data, and using polynomial regression to test whether they are systematic. Residual meta-analysis solves the problem of low statistical power, and provides a stringent test of quantitative models. Several examples are presented, involving models for choice in concurrent chains and concurrent schedules, and temporal discounting of delayed rewards.
 
Tweedledum and Tweedledee: Symmetry in Behavior Analysis.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
M. JACKSON MARR (Georgia Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Symmetry is revealed when some non-trivial transformation of a system leaves the system unchanged or invariant. Symmetry is a pervasive feature in many sciences from physics to embryology. In physics, for example, symmetry is reflected in fundamental laws. Can this be said of behavioral principles? I explore this question by discussing several examples from behavior analysis including the operational and functional aspects reinforcement, stimulus control, the three-term contingency, and putative scale invariance of behavioral principles.
 
 
Paper Session #74
International Paper Session - Research on Contextual Variables, Living Skills, and Physical Activity in People with Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA
Chair: Dean C. Williams (University of Kansas)
 
Contextual Variables that Produce Problem Behaviors during Transitions: Reinforcer Magnitude, Task Parameters, and Information.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DEAN C. WILLIAMS (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas), Adam T. Brewer (University of Kansas), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Many behavioral problems occur in the context of transitions from one activity to the next. Such behaviors are frequently seen in persons with autism, and other developmental disabilities, and function as negatively reinforced escape behaviors or may be elicited by the transitional context. The conditions that make transitions aversive are not known and there are several conflicting studies in the autism and DD literature. One area of dispute is the role of providing the individual with information on the upcoming task. One hypothesis is that the aversiveness of transitions is related to uncertainty about the upcoming activity. Information of the upcoming activity should reduce uncertainty and reduce problem behaviors during transition. Studies are mixed on this issue, however. Basic research with animal and human subjects indicates that tasks that readily maintain adaptive behaviors can become aversive under certain contexts of changing conditions of positive reinforcement. Thus, usually benign activities or tasks can engender maladaptive escape behaviors when conditions are right. In addition, signaling the upcoming task can promote maladaptive escape behavior in our laboratory and naturalistic studies.
 
Teaching Daily Living Skills to Adults with Mental Retardation Using Computer-Based Video Modeling.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NURAY ONCUL (Anadolu University), Serife Yucesoy Ozkan (Anadolu University)
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of computer-based video modeling in teaching daily living skills (brushing teeth, menstrual care and identifying money) to adults with mental retardation. In addition, generalization and maintenance data were collected. The experimental design of the study was multiple probe design with probe conditions across subjects. Three female adults with mental disabilities were participated to study as subject. They ranged in age from 23 to 37. All adults stayed at a residential center for women with mental retardation. Training was conducted in the participants’ room and bathroom. All training sessions occurred through computer-based video modeling. The intervention consisted of watching a video from computer (training), and then performing the skill which is watched (practice opportunity). Probe sessions were conducted immediately prior to each training sessions except first training sessions. Both dependent reliability and independent reliability data are collected. Graphical analysis is used to determine the effectiveness of computer-based video modeling, however the results have not been analyzed yet.
 
 
Paper Session #75
Advances in the Use of Computer Technology in Educational Settings
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
L2 Room 6
Area: EDC
Chair: Jessica M. Ray (University of Central Florida)
 
Computerized Instructional Designs for Generating Higher Order Behaviors I.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JESSICA M. RAY (University of Central Florida), Roger D. Ray ((AI)2, Inc.; Rollins College)
Abstract: In the last two decades, several new computer based instructional programs have been introduced in the consumer market and the literature. While the instructional goals of these systems range in subject matter from business and psychology to science and reading, the instructional methods have remained primarily constructionistic. Very few of these systems are behaviorally based. It has been suggested by critics that human learning has moved beyond simple reinforcement learning (Mayer, 2005). Yet few behavioral instructional designers have stepped up to prove the critics wrong through targeting generative or higher-order behavior in computer based systems. In this and a companion paper, we present an adaptive, artificially intelligent, behavioral systems approach to computer-based instructional design. In this paper we present principles for adaptively eliminating anthropomorphic language for describing animal behavior and replacing it with objective and systematic tacts. This is accomplished via a multi-staged set of experimental exercises designed to give data based feedback to students on their progress in learning how to code behaviors depicted in various digital videos.
 
Computerized Instructional Designs for Generating Higher Order Behaviors II.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ROGER D. RAY ((AI)2, Inc.; Rollins College), Jessica M. Ray (University of Central Florida)
Abstract: Constructionistic instructional designers have rejected behaviorally guided computer-based instructional design as being relevant only for "drill-and-practice" tutoring (Mayer, 2005). Very few behaviorally oriented instructional designers have attempted to address the challenges presented by our constructionistic critics, and thus behavioral instructional designers have a relatively poor record of producing software that targets more generative and higher-order behaviors, such as advanced reading or audio-visual comprehension, college-level math, advanced scientific methods, or any of a variety of forms of "active learning" exercises that transcend simple verbal response productions or stimulus choice selections. In two related papers we discusses behaviorally based strategies implied by a more adaptive, artificially intelligent, behavioral systems approach to computer-based instructional design. In this paper we present working examples to illustrate such strategies using highly interactive virtual laboratory exercises in experimental constructions. Prompted by digital video of "virtual visits" to exemplar laboratories conducting research in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience, students are not only tutored on the vocabulary and concept fundamentals of illustrated research, but are also adaptively guided through experimental designs and data analysis and actual report constructions that extend the work seen in tutorials.
 
Personal Response Devices: Integrating Instant Feedback into PowerPoint Lectures.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JEFFREY N. WEATHERLY (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: Behavior analysis is built on the fact that consequences alter behavior. However, too frequently in the classroom setting, the presentation of information and, importantly, the behavior of the student is largely unguided by immediate feedback. This lack of interaction has led some educators to rally against the use of PowerPoint presentations in educational settings. Recent technology, such as Turning Point software, may help to alleviate this problem. With small, hand-held devices, students can be queried during a PowerPoint presentation and the results of the query immediately displayed to the class. This process provides immediate feedback both to the instructor, who can then alter his or her lecture accordingly, and to the students, who find out immediately whether they are correctly interpreting the material. Over the past several semesters I have incorporated this personal response system into my lectures in multiple classes and have attempted to alter their use to identify situations that maximize their positive impact. Results have consistently shown that student usage of this technology is highest when the course is designed to reinforce that usage. This presentation will highlight what has worked, what has failed, and how this new technology should be incorporated into the classroom.
 
Technology That Dazzles: Create Meaningful, Memorable Tutorials for Students, Consumers and Staff.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KAREN R. WAGNER (Behavior Services of Brevard, Inc.)
Abstract: Technology has the ability to allow access to information that was previously unavailable to individuals with cognitive disabilities. For teachers and service providers, learning what is available, and then attaining a degree of competence in order to teach others how to access it can be a time-consuming, daunting task. This presentation will allow participants to access technology that is simple to use, but allows sophisticated formats for information transfer. Using common Microsoft software, and easily available low-cost software, attendees will learn how to make tutorials for students, training videos for staff, and will be able to assist individuals with disabilities in accessing computer technology. The presenter will also discuss websites with functions that allow individuals with cognitive and learning disabilities the ability to access science, social studies and mathematics information.
 
 
Symposium #76
International Symposium - Avoidance and Acceptance: Assessment and Interventions
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Linda Bilich (University of Wollongong)
Discussant: JoAnne Dahl (University of Uppsala, Sweden)
Abstract: The symposium titled ‘Avoidance and Acceptance: Assessment and Interventions’ presents 3 projects examining the role of acceptance and well-being amongst several different populations. The first presentation ‘Evaluating the efficacy of a Mindfulness-based intervention promoting well-being amongst cancer patients’ seeks to contribute to the development of an empirically supported psychological treatment for individuals with cancer, based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The second presentation ‘Mindfulness-based Emotional Intelligence Training: Evaluating its efficacy and mechanisms for change’ outlines the findings of an ACT and Mindfulness intervention conducted with the participants from the New South Wales Police service to promote emotional well-being and workplace effectiveness. The final presentation, ‘Psychological acceptance and quality of life in the elderly’ presents the findings from a study that examines psychological acceptance and its role in quality of life for a sample of elderly individuals.
 
Evaluating the Efficacy of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Promoting Well-Being amongst Cancer Patients.
JOSEPH CIARROCHI (University of Wollongong), Danielle Feros (University of Wollongong), John Tanner Blackledge (University of Wollongong)
Abstract: The proposed study seeks to contribute to the development of an empirically supported psychological treatment for individuals with cancer based on ACT. The aim of the study is to gain information to further develop the intervention and better meet the psychological and emotional needs of cancer patients by reducing their distress, enhancing their psychological well-being, and increasing their abilities to effectively pursue personally meaningful values and goals. Approximately 100 cancer patients will receive 9 hours of group-based ACT intervention or 9 hours of group-based supportive-expressive intervention (control group). Outcome measures will be collected pre-, mid-, and post- intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Measures cover patient distress (Distress Thermometer), quality of life, DASS, Acceptance Questionnaire, and Personal Values Questionnaire. It is anticipated that after intervention, patients who received ACT group-based intervention will report higher acceptance of illness and effective pursuit of personally meaningful values. Furthermore, it is hypothesised that acceptance of illness and pursuit of values will be associated with lower distress and higher quality of life.
 
Mindfulness-Based Emotional Intelligence Training: Evaluating Its Efficacy and Mechanisms for Change.
LINDA BILICH (University of Wollongong), Joseph Ciarrochi (University of Wollongong), Virginia Bayliss (New South Wales Police Service), Frank Deane (Illawarra Institute for Mental Health)
Abstract: Recent research has revealed that police officers experience a high level of stress that appears to relate to administrative / organisational pressure rather than from operational work experiences (Hart and Cotton, 2002). The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a Mindfulness-based Emotional Intelligence Training (MBEIT) intervention that is designed to promote emotional well-being and workplace effectiveness amongst NSW police officers. The intervention is heavily based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) (Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson, 1999). ACT promotes emotionally intelligent behaviour by increasing people’s ability to utilise emotions as information, and to act effectively in the context of emotions and emotionally charged thoughts through mechanisms such as acceptance and defusion. 100 police officers will be recruited, and assigned to either the ‘immediate intervention’ condition, or the ‘delayed intervention’ (waitlist / control) condition. Adherence to the intervention will be monitored, and feedback will be provided to the trainers. It is expected that the project will benefit the NSW police directly in the prevention of stress and sickness, and improvement in workplace effectiveness.
 
Psychological Acceptance and Quality of Life in the Elderly.
JODIE BUTLER (University of Wollongong), Joseph Ciarrochi (University of Wollongong)
Abstract: Many changes occur as people enter old age (e.g., declining productivity), and these changes may at times decrease quality of life. Do some people maintain high subjective quality of life despite these changes? This study investigated the influence of psychological acceptance (PA) on quality of life in a sample of 187 elderly from a home nursing service, a retirement village and various community groups. Average age was 78 years old with a range from 65 to 96. We administered a measure of psychological acceptance and The Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale. As hypothesised, people higher in PA also had higher quality of life in the areas of health, safety, community participation and emotional well-being. In addition, individuals high in PA had less adverse psychological reactions to decreasing productivity. Interventions that increase PA may lead to improved quality of life and resilience amongst the elderly.
 
 
Paper Session #77
International Paper Session - Behavioral Interventions for Autism
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT
Chair: S. Sunay Yildirim-Dogru (Selcuk Universitesi)
 
The Effectiveness of Using Direct Instruction Method for Teaching the Ability of Riding Balance Wheeled Bicycle to the Autistic Children.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
S. SUNAY YILDIRIM-DOGRU (Selcuk Universitesi), Ozgul Yucalan (Selcuk Universitesi), Hafiz Bek (Selcuk Universitesi)
Abstract: The aim of this research is examining tge effectiveness of using direct instruction method for teaching of balance wheeled bicycle riding ability to the autistic children. In order to research this aim a teaching method composing of acticites increasing attention control and psycho-motor abilities was used. 3 male autistic children (between the age of 5-10) lacking the ability of riding balance wheeled bicycle had been chosen as subjects. In this research, direct instruction method was used in order to teach the ability of controlled environment. The researchers though that when children learned riding of balance wheeled bicycle, this would contribute to their attention improvement, body balance control and muscle development. At the end of the study, the data such as generalization, observation, application and reliability of observers were gathered. The results of the study all of the autistic children were learned of balance wheeled bicycle riding ability.
 
The Effect of Parents' Cooperated Toilet Training of Autistic Children on the Anxiety Level of Parents.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
OZGUL YUCALAN (Selcuk Universitesi), S. Sunay Yildirim-Dogru (Selcuk Universitesi)
Abstract: In this study, firstly, a parents cooperated toilet training has been applied to a autistic child and then the level of anxiety on the parents has been examined. The father and the mother of an autistic six year old boy, having some problems with toilet training such as not going to the toilet independently, have contributed to this study. Before the study, 'Spielberger's Permanent Anxiety Inventory' has been used in order to measure the level of anxiety of the parents. Later, a toilet training has been applied to the child by using traditional methods. The details and the application of the toilet training programme at home have been told the parents. After four weeks, the child has gained the ability of going into the toilet independently. After completing the study, the Spielberg's Permanent Anxiety Inventory has been applied to the parents again and the change on the anxiety level of the parents has been measured. According to the results and findings of the study, if the parents of the children are included in the training programme and be part of the training programme of their children , this attitude may lessen the anxiety level of them.
 
 
Symposium #78
Spaced Retrieval: Theory and Applications
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
L4 Room 2
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Cameron J. Camp (Myers Research Institute)
Discussant: Michael Bird (Greater Southern Area Health Service)
Abstract: This symposium will review the theory underlying the development of Spaced-Retrieval (SR), a method of learning and retaining information by successfully recalling that information over increasingly longer periods of time. It is, in essence, a shaping paradigm applied to memory, and may be viewed as one variant of the general “spacing effect” (e.g., spaced practice results in superior learning compared to massed practice) and/or the “testing effect” (e.g., learning can be facilitated through repeated testing). This learning paradigm and the development of its application to training functional goals in populations with various disorders will be outlined. Two experimental studies of the effects of SR compared with another typical treatment will be described; one will compare the efficacy of goal attainment using SR or cuing hierarchies and the other will evaluate SR and an attention control condition during teletherapy. Our discussant will address implications for the further development and clinical application of this intervention, as well as its potential use as an educational tool.
 
Spaced Retrieval: Theory and Applications.
CAMERON J. CAMP (Myers Research Institute)
Abstract: Spaced-Retrieval (SR) is a method of learning and retaining information by successfully recalling that information over increasingly longer periods of time. It is, in essence, a shaping paradigm applied to memory, and may be viewed as one variant of the general “spacing effect” (e.g., spaced practice results in superior learning compared to massed practice) and/or the “testing effect” (e.g., learning can be facilitated through repeated testing). This presentation will review the theory underlying the development of this learning paradigm and the development of its application to training functional goals in populations with dementia (Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, vascular dementia), traumatic brain injury, CVA, HIV, diabetes, and other groups with cognitive impairments. Key elements in the successful application of SR, and pitfalls to be avoided, will be delineated. The issue of the effects of using expanding versus equally spaced recall intervals will be examined, both from a theoretical and a pragmatic perspective. In addition, we will survey the wide variety of clinical goals that have been achieved using SR. Finally, implications for further development and clinical application of this intervention, as well as its potential use as an educational tool, will be discussed.
 
Comparison of Learning Approaches in Dementia Treatment: Spaced Retrieval or Cuing Hierarchies?
MICHELLE S. BOURGEOIS (Florida State University), Cameron J. Camp (Myers Research Institute)
Abstract: This presentation will describe an investigation of the relative effectiveness of SR and Cuing Hierarchies techniques for goal attainment in speech pathology treatment of persons with dementia. The traditional treatment approach in speech pathology across a variety of therapy goals is the cueing hierarchy, prompting and rehearsal of target information technique. Treatment goal attainment was compared when 49 persons with dementia were trained using these two approaches. Treatment protocols for fact retrieval and strategy learning goals were counterbalanced across both training conditions. Results revealed that during 1,778 therapy sessions, clients received training toward a total of 187 goals, including both strategy learning and fact recall/naming goals. Clients were more likely to master goals trained with Spaced-Retrieval than with Cuing Hierarchies, especially for less experienced therapists. Clients mastered strategy learning and fact recall/naming goals equally well. Goal mastery was not related to cognitive functioning, number of sessions, or total number of trials across sessions.
 
Spaced Retrieval TeleTherapy for Persons with Chronic TBI.
MICHELLE S. BOURGEOIS (Florida State University), Lyn Turkstra (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Kerry Lenius (Florida State University)
Abstract: The effects of Spaced Retrieval (SR) training delivered over the phone on the everyday memory problems of subjects with chronic TBI were investigated in an experimental treatment-control group study. Experimental subjects received SR training on 3 goals; their paired control subject received the same total amount of therapy discussing the use a variety of compensatory memory strategies without SR techniques. Results indicate that SR participants achieved 100% goal mastery, 97% goal maintenance and 63% generalization of mastered goals at 1-month follow-up compared to control subjects who reported 36% use of strategies and 26% generalization of strategies at 1-month. In addition, this study examined TBI patient-proxy agreement on subjective and objective measures and evaluated the potential effect of memory and executive function training on patient-proxy congruence as a function of treatment group status and severity of memory impairment. Results revealed that greater agreement at on the objective measures at baseline and after treatment. Agreement was not found to be associated with memory impairment severity of the patient.
 
 
Panel #79
International Panel - Behavior Analysis around the World
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
L2 Room 3
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Maria E. Malott (ABAI)
DAVID N. HARPER (Victoria University of Wellington, NZ)
HEATHER L. PETERS (The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand)
MARIA E. MALOTT (ABAI)
NAOKO SUGIYAMA (Yamawaki Gakuen College)
JEONGIL KIM (Lotus Flowers Children Center, Daegu University, South Korea)
MARTHA HÜBNER (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil)
GERALDINE LEADER (National University of Ireland)
Abstract:

What is the status of behavior analysis around the world? Country Coordinators of the 4th international ABA conference in Sydney, Australia will provide an update on the positive state of the science in their respective regions in the world and will discuss strategies for successful collaboration to support the continued dissemination of our field.

 
 
Paper Session #80
Behavioural Interventions for Fostering Independence and Supporting Employment in People with Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA
Chair: Charles Dukes (Florida Atlantic University)
 
A Review of Employment and Pre-Employment Interventions for Individuals with Significant Disabilities.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHARLES DUKES (Florida Atlantic University), Pamela Lamar-Dukes (Florida Atlantic University )
Abstract: A review was conducted of intervention studies designed to ameliorate problem behavior exhibited by individuals with significant disabilities in work or educational settings while learning employment skills. A number of articles were analyzed regarding content, methodology, and results. Select journals were chosen for review; those most likely to publish intervention research using single-subject methodology (e.g., Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis). Articles published beginning in 1973 or the first year of publication for the journal to 2005 were searched for relevant articles. A modified coding system based on previous reviews of intervention research was used to code each article selected for review. The presenters will share the coding system as well as results from the review. Finally, the presenters will share general conclusions about intervention research for individuals with developmental disabilities and the current state of knowledge regrading single-subject methodology.
 
Fostering Independence for Adult Living through Effective Intervention: A Review of the Literature.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JENNY E. TUZIKOW (Devereux C.A.R.E.S.), Karen M. Neifer (Devereux C.A.R.E.S.), Todd Harris (Devereux C.A.R.E.S.)
Abstract: In general, research suggests that simulation training and community-based instruction are effective interventions for developing transition skills for individuals with developmental disabilities. Despite early studies that compared in-vivo and simulation training, the momentum on this line of research has slowed significantly during recent years. More recently, community-based instruction was utilized as the primary teaching method of transitional skills. A renewed interest in examining simulation training has emerged with the advent of a recent publication by Lattimore, Parsons, and Reid in 2006. In this presentation, we review the available research on teaching individuals the necessary skills for successful independent living. More than 50 studies were reviewed on teaching leisure, vocational, and activities of daily living to identify essential components of related interventions. Based upon the review of available literature practical applications will be presented on the implications of combining simulation training with community-based instruction to maximize learning for students with developmental disabilities.
 
 
Paper Session #81
International Paper Session - Punishment and Discriminative Control
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: Celia Lie (University of Otago)
 
Signal Detection and Punishment for Errors.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
CELIA LIE (University of Otago), Brent L. Alsop (University of Otago)
Abstract: Signal-detection research has primarily focused on the effects of positive consequences for correct responses, such as the effects of reinforcer frequency and magnitude, and stimulus factors, such as varying the disparity of the sample stimuli or the stimulus presentation probability. In contrast, the effects of negative consequences for incorrect responses have received little attention. In this paper, I will present research examining the effects of punishers on human detection performance, showing that punishers have similar but opposite effects to reinforcers in signal-detection procedures.
 
Discriminative Control of Punished Responding: Implications of Multiple Sources of Confounds for Theory and Application.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
DEAN C. WILLIAMS (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The study of discriminative stimulus control of responding maintained by positive reinforcement has a long-standing and dominant role in the behavioral literature. In contrast, the literature on discriminative stimulus control of response suppression by punishment is small and moribund. Recent studies with human subjects have shown difficulties in obtaining antecedent control by multiple schedule stimuli that apparently are not seen in animal studies. In preparations wherein stimulus control can develop (e.g., multiple schedules), at least two stimuli can come to exert discriminative control over response suppression: an antecedent discriminative stimulus (e.g., multiple-schedule stimulus) and the punisher delivery itself. We reviewed the literature, however, and found only 8% of the reports of stimulus control showed unambiguous demonstrations of operant stimulus control by an antecedent stimulus. We highlight, limitations in method, as well as in data analysis necessary for unambiguous conclusions of stimulus control over punished responding. Results from a recent study of punishment of self-stimulatory behaviors demonstrate the necessity for additional measures to determine the nature of control. A consideration of these limitations is important because they bear on both basic and applied issues in behavior analysis and many of the misconceptualizations of punishment.
 
 
Symposium #82
CE Offered: BACB
Advances in PECS Research and Use
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
Stateroom
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Andy Bondy (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
CE Instructor: Andy Bondy, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The effective use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) continues to expand worldwide, as indicated by descriptive and research-based publications regarding autism as well as other developmental disabilities. This symposium will review recent extensions of PECS regarding Occupational Therapy, behavior management, and transitional issues to other communication modalities. We also will review some recent research findings as well as point out a number of myths often associated with PECS.

 
Using PECS and Visual Supports within Occupational Therapy.
RACHEL VAN DER LINDEN (Pyramid Education Consultants, Australia)
Abstract: The World Federation of Occupational Therapists has stated that its primary goal is to "enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life." This goal is wholly consistent with the functional orientation of behavior analysis and the Pyramid Approach to Education. This talk will focus on how the use of PECS and other visual strategies can help achieve this broad outcome that Occupational Therapists seek to achieve.
 
Transitioning from The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to Alternative Modalities.
AMANDA REED (Pyramid Educational Consultants), Lori Frost (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
Abstract: This paper will outline issues related to transitioning from PECS to speech, picture point systems and/or voice output communication aides (VOCAs). Specific areas of discussion regarding the transition to speech-based communication will include: speech intelligibility, delayed versus disordered speech development, utterance length, initiation of communication, and vocabulary expansion. In addition, issues related to transitioning from PECS to a picture point system and/or voice output communication aides (VOCAs) will be discussed. The application of a picture point system as an intermediate step prior to device selection will be considered. Finally, the use of PECS as a communication repair strategy following the transition to speech, picture point communication or a VOCA will be described. The content of the paper will be compiled through a review of the current literature, in addition to anecdotal reports.
 
Myths Associated with PECS: Facts vs. Fiction.
LORI FROST (Pyramid Educational Consultants), Andy Bondy (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
Abstract: PECS has substantially grown in popularity around the world, as has its empirical support. With that growth has come many misunderstanding, misinterpretations and myths associated with PECS and its use. This paper will review many of the common myths, some of which have the form "You can do PECS with X," and discuss how these perspective may be inconsistent with established protocol, behavior analytic theory, as well as empirical evidence from recent research.
 
How PECS Can Help with Challenging Behaviors.
ANDY BONDY (Pyramid Educational Consultants), Lori Frost (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
Abstract: The hallmark of behavior analysis is its emphasis function over form. This orientation is critical when planning to deal with contextually inappropriate behaviors (CIBs). The function of some CIBs appears to be communicative and this talk will discuss practical application and research findings associated with the use of PECS with intervention packages. Included will be reactive and preventive strategies.
 
 
Paper Session #83
International Paper Session - Behavioural Intervention for Autism: Language, Video-Modelling, and Social Validity
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT
Chair: Anna Dekker (University of Waikato)
 
Right Way/Wrong Way: Teaching Social Skills via Video Modelling to Children with Autism.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANNA DEKKER (University of Waikato), Jo Thakker (University of Waikato), Catherine E. Sumpter (University of Waikato)
Abstract: The literature to date shows that children with autism can acquire social skills via video modelling. Research from the field of organizational psychology with adults shows that viewing positive and negative exemplars of a skill produces more success in generalization of the skill. Presently, there are no data suggesting whether or not the same is true for children with autism. Thus, the present study examined this. Children with autism spectrum disorder were taught social skills via video modelling. The social skills taught were not currently in their behavioural repertoires. A multiple-baseline design across children and within child across two conditions with equal time exposure (positive exemplar only, and positive and negative exemplars) and across tasks was used. Results will be presented and discussed
 
PECS and Oral Language Development: What is Being Learnt?
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DENNIS W. MOORE (Monash University)
Abstract: An increasing body of empirical research attests to the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in developing non-verbal communication in children with autism and several studies have demonstrated concomitant gains in expressive oral language (initiations, mands, and total observed vocabulary). This paper presents data from a number of PECS intervention studies including three from our laboratories, with a particular focus on reported concomitant development of spoken language. The implications of these findings for our understanding of exactly what is being taught / learnt in the process are examined.
 
 
Symposium #84
CE Offered: BACB
Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) as Early Intervention for Young Children with Behavioral and Developmental Disorders
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Sheila Eyberg (University of Florida)
Discussant: Sheila Eyberg (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Trevor F. Stokes, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically-supported treatment for conduct-disordered young children that emphasizes changing parent-child interaction patterns to increase childrens prosocial behavior and decrease negative behavior. This treatment focuses on two basic interactions. In Child Directed Interaction (CDI), parents engage their child in a play situation with the goal of strengthening the parent-child attachment through differential social attention. In Parent Directed Interaction (PDI), parents learn to use specific behavioral analysis and therapy techniques to direct their childs behavior and follow through effectively. PCIT outcome research has demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvements in the conduct-disordered behavior of young children. These effects were superior to waitlist controls and to parent group didactic training. This symposium will provide an overview of PCIT and present recent data on PCIT efficacy with conduct-disordered children as well as effectiveness data with low income urban families and with families of children with autism.

 
An Overview of the Efficacy of PCIT.
STEPHEN R. BOGGS (University Of Florida), Melanie M. Nelson (University of Oklahoma ), Sheila Eyberg (University of Florida)
Abstract: This study evaluated the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with 100 families of 3- through 6-year old children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Families were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment (IT) or a wait-list control (WL) condition. Four months after pretreatment assessment, families in both conditions were seen for a second assessment. Assessments included direct observations of parent-child interactions, parent report of child behavior problems, and measures of parent adjustment. The primary analyses comparing families in IT and WL conditions were analyses of covariance with pretreatment scores on the respective measures used as covariates. Direct observation measures indicated that parents in the IT condition interacted more positively with their children, gave fewer commands, and were less likely to engage in negative behavior (e.g., criticism, smart talk) than parents in the WL condition. Children in the IT condition were observed to be significantly more compliant to parent commands and less likely to engage in inappropriate behavior. In addition, parents in IT reported clinically significant improvements in their child’s behavior following PCIT and also reported decreased parenting stress. All families that received treatment reported high levels of satisfaction with both the process and outcome of PCIT.
 
Disseminating PCIT in an Urban Community Mental Health Center.
KAREN S. BUDD (DePaul University), Aaron Lyon (DePaul University), Steven Behling (DePaul University), Rachel Gershenson (DePaul University)
Abstract: Transporting PCIT from research settings, where its efficacy has been established, to the community entails changes at many levels, including the organization (e.g., constituent priorities, funding, and delivery sites), staff (e.g., clinician level and responsibilities), and participants (e.g., referral and demographics). This paper summarizes findings of the first two years of dissemination of PCIT in the DePaul University Community Mental Health Center, which serves predominantly ethnic minority, low-income, urban families in a public mental health context. Although PCIT efficacy studies have included diverse and economically disadvantaged participants, their numbers have been too few to establish that PCIT is a beneficial treatment for these families. Our findings show that PCIT leads to substantial positive changes for families who participate consistently; however, one-half of families terminated PCIT prematurely, often following major stressors (e.g., hotline calls, child’s dismissal from preschool, or parent unemployment). We present outcome data on the families served and describe adaptations to engage and retain families (e.g., scheduling sessions at a local daycare center, temporarily suspending PCIT sessions until family conditions stabilize). Based on our preliminary findings, we propose directions for enhancing treatment effectiveness of PCIT in community settings.
 
Applying PCIT to Parents and Siblings of Children with Autism.
TREVOR F. STOKES (University of South Florida), Amy Green (University of South Florida), Jessica Lynn Curley Ross (University of South Florida), Idia Binitie (University of South Florida), Sheri Jacobs (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Applying Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) to different diagnostic populations of children and families has increased in recent years as PCIT has been shown to be an efficacious intervention for children with disorders of behavior. This paper summarizes the adaptation of PCIT to families of children with autism. Specifically, both parents and siblings of children with autism were coached concurrently in the procedures of Child Directed Interaction (CDI), which are pivotal skills of powerful differential attention treatment interventions. Techniques involved the management of interactions though reduction in less functional repertoires of asking questions, giving commands, and using negative talk, while increasing behavioral descriptions, reflections, labeled praise and positive touch. Two clusters of CDI skills were introduced within a multiple baseline design across behaviors. Treatment occurred within ongoing clinical sessions at a university-based psychological services center. Consistent with an approved IRB protocol, videotapes of casework sessions were reviewed and analyzed post-hoc to document behavior changes and establish the reliability of observation within four single case experimental designs.
 
 
Paper Session #85
International Paper Session - Research in Educational Training Programs in Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
L2 Room 6
Area: EDC
Chair: Grant Gautreaux (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
 
Considerations for Implementing the Personalized System of Instruction across In-Person and On-Line Special Education and Applied Behavior Analysis Courses.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
GRANT GAUTREAUX (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The personalized system of instruction described by Fred S. Keller in 1968 has been well documented in the applied literature. Subsequently, variations of the system abound across a multitude of settings. These variations are sometimes the results of content specific parameters and limitation of resources in institutions of higher education. Progressively, the age of technology has afforded many instructional designers opportunities to create instructional opportunities in both synchronous and asynchronous arrangements. Three experiments are presented to that tested critical components of the system and their effects on performance and learning outcomes for graduate level students. One of those components, the use of proctoring can be somewhat problematic regarding training and availability of reliable proctors. Results are discussed in terms of the performance of internal proctors regarding quiz scores and writer repertoires.
 
Professional Learning of Behaviour Specialists: Reflections on Postgraduate Training in Positive Behavioural Support.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
WENDI BEAMISH (Centre For Learning Research), Fiona Bryer (Centre For Learning Research)
Abstract: This paper will examine the effect of formal postgraduate training in Positive Behavioural Support on the professional practice of a small group of behaviour specialists from a specific region of Education Queensland. These staff provide specialised support to schools with students who exhibit significant problem behaviour (including those who are suspended from school or at risk of being suspended because of behavioural issues). Although the majority of staff had some additional training, the region funded enrolments in an evidence-based university course in order to (a) strengthen the theoretical foundation for casework in schools; (b) increase technical skills, especially those related to functional behavioural assessment and analysis; and (c) enhance a systematic approach to behavioural intervention across the region. Data about new-found information, tools, and practices considered useful for casework in schools and for consistent implementation across the region will be reported.
 
Using Operational Definitions to Assess Performance on College Course Outcomes.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BRIAN J. COWLEY (Park University), Dennis D. Kerkman (Park University), Ed L. Hight (Park University)
Abstract: During the 2005-2006 academic year operational definitions were developed for over 300 university level courses in the following areas: Critical Thinking, Content, and Course Specific Issues. For each course a rubric was developed for assessment activities. These were all approved by a University Assessment Committee. There were typically 7-8 Operational Definitions developed for each course. We will be selecting courses from the approved pool to study the correlation between Assessment Rubric Scores and other Assessments (i.e., quizzes, tests, etc.) used in each course. It appears that Assessment Rubric Scores do correlate with other classroom assessments. This result suggests the usefulness of using operational definitions to student performance in a university setting. Some of the faculty members have indicated how developing operational definitions for their classes has resulted in better course assessments and has helped them to teach their courses more effectively.
 
Design, Development, and Dissemination: How the Science of Behavior Informs Headsprout’s Instructional Programs.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JANET S. TWYMAN (Headsprout)
Abstract: The scientific study of behavior shapes the design, development, and dissemination of the instructional programs and services built and delivered by the U.S. based behavioral education company, Headsprout. Effective instruction requires the application of experimentally-derived principles from the laboratory, the direct experimental control-analysis of behavior, measurement of the behavior(s) of interest and the events that influence them, continuous evaluation and revisions cycles, the application of useful techniques from a comprehensive analysis of behavior in organizational settings, and the ongoing interpretation and analysis of complex behavioral relations. This paper will describe how these critical features coalesce to produce efficient, effective, scalable instructional strategies and the systems required to support them.
 
 
Paper Session #87
International Paper Session - Issues in Health-Related Behavioural Research
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: Lewis A. Bizo (Southern Illinois University)
 
The Effect of Parkinson's Disease on Time Estimation as a Function of Stimulus Duration Range and Modality.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
DAVID N. HARPER (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract: The present research examined the effect of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) on the ability to discriminate temporal durations in the range of sub- and supra-second intervals. Eighteen non-demented medicated patients with PD were compared with 14 matched controls on a duration-bisection task in which participants were required to discriminate auditory and visual signal durations within each time range. Results showed that patients with PD exhibited more variable duration judgments across both signal modality and duration range than controls, although closer analyses confirmed a timing deficit in the longer duration range only. The findings presented here suggest the bisection procedure may be a useful tool in identifying timing impairments in PD and, more generally, reaffirm the hypothesised role of the basal ganglia in temporal perception at the level of the attentionally mediated internal clock as well as memory retrieval and/or decision-making processes.
 
Health Behaviour and Delay Discounting.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
LEWIS A. BIZO (Southern Cross University), Julie Bennett (Southern Cross University), Belinda Lambert (Southern Cross University), Sarah Kenny (Southern Cross University), Stephen Provost (Southern Cross University)
Abstract: In three separate studies the ability of a delay discounting procedure and several questionnaire based measures to differentiate between individual differences variables that included alcohol consumption, sun tanning behaviour, and levels of exercise was assessed. Hypothetical monetary amounts were discounted more steeply by participants that reported higher levels of alcohol consumption, more sun tanning, and lower levels of exercise, than individuals that drank less, sun tanned less, or exercised more, respectively. Scores on several of the questionnaire based measures, such as Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory, Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS), and a sun tanning attitudes scale correlated with levels of delay discounting. The measure of discounting, estimates of the parameter k, derived from fits of mathematical models to discounted monetary amounts proved to be problematic as the fits were often ill defined or the variance accounted for was very low. A new weighted discounting score was constructed that allowed all data to be included in analysis even when participants did not discount. Steep discounting of future rewards was correlated with unhealthy behaviour. A better understanding of how to manipulate the value of delayed health rewards will have implications for public health campaigns and the treatment of problem health behaviour.
 
 
Symposium #88
CE Offered: BACB
Description, Explanation and Causation: A Host of Conceptual Confusions in Behavior Analysis of Development
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
L4 Room 2
Area: DEV/TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
Discussant: Michael J. Dougher (University of New Mexico)
CE Instructor: Martha Pelaez, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Three presentations by Per Holth, Martha Pelaez, and Jack Marr, along with the discussion by Michael Dougher, examine theoretical and empirical problems related to category mistakes in psychology, the nature of causation in developmental behavior analysis, the relations between behavioral description and explanation, and current limitations on behavioral explanations of development. Various "isms" (from "holism" to "mechanism") make an appearance, but we hope to clarify the "isms" as well as their relevance to behavior analysis and allied philosophical traditions. The lack of appropriate methodology for capturing the effects of these multiple interactions is emphasized as well as a host of conceptual confusions.

 
Avoiding Category Mistakes - Tougher Than You Think.
PER HOLTH (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Almost 60 years have now passed since the publication of Gilbert Ryle's (1949) The Concept of Mind, in which he demonstrated quite forcefully how psychology and philosophy at the time were misled into making the type of errors he called 'category mistakes'. Although the mistakes involved in Ryle's simpler examples were easy to understand, we are still likely to make the same types of mistakes when confronted with more complex behavioral phenomena. Psychology texts are, typically, pervaded by category mistakes. Within behavior analysis, more effort has been put into avoiding such errors. Yet, they still occur in behavior-analytic texts, too, and additional teaching procedures seem needed to eschew them.
 
The Nature of Causation in Human Development.
MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University)
Abstract: The case is made that human development call for both, description and explanation. The author discusses different causes of behavior development from a dynamic systems approach and argues for their interrelatedness. None of these different causal explanations works in isolation-- without specification of the other. A rationale for embracing both, contextualism as an epistemological tool, and mechanism as an experimental practice in our understanding of these causes is presented. And the concept of contextual interacting variables or "interactants" is highlighted as well as the enormous challenges the study of multiple interactions in mother-child research presents to the scientist. The lack of appropriate methodology for capturing the effects of these multiple interactions is emphasized and some experimental examples provided.
 
How Do Things Work?
M. JACKSON MARR (Georgia Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Well over a decade ago there was a major flurry among the behaviorist community on the topic of "contextualism versus mechanism". At least among some significant quarters, for example, those still calling themselves "contextualists", this remains a matter of contention. In addition, those calling themselves "selectionists", who are beguiled by a rather loose metaphorical relation between evolutionary biology and the shaping of operant behavior, are also uncomfortable with something they call mechanism. In neither case is there compelling justification for such an anti-mechanistic position. Largely in the context of selection, I review some history of this anti-mechanistic stance, including what I think are a host of conceptual confusions, and, again, attempt to show that as behavioral scientists and engineers, we all, necessarily, are "mechanists"--we want to know how things work.
 
 
Symposium #89
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Approaches to Language Intervention for Children with Autism
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Stateroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: James E. Carr (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: James E. Carr, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will present contemporary research relevant to behavioral language training for children with autism. In the first study, Barbara Esch will present data demonstrating that the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure is useful in increasing vocalizations via automatic reinforcement such that they can be directly reinforced. In the second study, John Esch will present data demonstrating that lag reinforcement schedules can be used to increase vocal variability. In the third study, Jim Carr will present data on the use of multiple schedules and signaled delayed reinforcement in the reduction, but not elimination, of high-rate mands. In the final study, Linda LeBlanc will present data demonstrating how transfer of stimulus control procedures can be used to teach intraverbal categorization.

 
The Role of Automatic Reinforcement in Early Speech Acquisition.
BARBARA E. ESCH (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University), Laura L. Grow (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Children who emit few speech vocalizations and whose echoic repertoires are weak are at an instructional disadvantage for speech acquisition. Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) has been shown to produce temporary increases, possibly attributable to automatic reinforcement, in post-pairing vocalizations (e.g., Yoon & Bennett, 2000), thus allowing subsequent direct reinforcement of these responses as verbal operants. Although the behavioral principles supporting an automatic reinforcement role in SSP are well established, empirical support for SSP is not robust (e.g., Esch, Carr, & Michael, 2005; Miguel, Carr, & Michael, 2002), calling into question the ability of SSP to establish speech as a conditioned reinforcer. This study presents empirical results of SSP procedural modifications that produced increases in within-session vocalizations that were subsequently directly reinforced as mands. The separate and combined contributions of these modifications are discussed in the context of the role of automatic reinforcement of speech responses.
 
Increasing Vocal Variability with a Lag Schedule of Differential Reinforcement.
JOHN W. ESCH (ESCH Behavior Consultants, Inc.), Jessa R. Love (Western Michigan University), Barbara E. Esch (Esch Behavior Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: Many children with autism have vocal repertoires that are too limited to allow successful shaping of more complex vocal responses. Vocal variability would provide a greater number of phonemes available for reinforcement, thus increasing the overall complexity of the speech repertoire. Previous research (e.g., Page & Neuringer, 1985) shows that variability is a reinforceable dimension of behavior, much like frequency or intensity. In applied settings, it has been demonstrated that Lag schedules (differentially reinforcing behaviors that differ from the previous behavior) can alter behavioral variability. This study used a Lag 1 schedule to increase vocal variability in a child with a diagnosis of autism. An unexpected effect of this procedure was a slight increase in echoic approximations to the vocal model.
 
Reducing High-Rate Mands of Children with Autism: An Evaluation of Stimulus Control and Delayed Reinforcement Procedures.
JAMES E. CARR (Western Michigan University), Tina Sidener (Caldwell College), Jamie M. Severtson (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: When teaching children with disabilities to request (mand) for items, it is often necessary to deliver the requested item immediately and frequently. Such delivery might result in undesirably high rates of requesting to the extent that it is neither appropriate nor practical. The purpose of the present investigation was to replicate and extend previous research by evaluating the efficacy of different procedures for maintaining practical rates of manding: (a) signaled delay to reinforcement, (b) multiple CRF-EXT schedules. Our data suggest that (a) multiple schedules resulted in a substantial decrease in rates of manding to stable and more practical levels, (b) delay to reinforcement with continuous signals resulted in better response reduction and maintenance than delay to reinforcement with brief signals.
 
Teaching Intraverbal Behavior to Children with Autism.
LINDA A. LEBLANC (Western Michigan University), Tina R. Goldsmith (Western Michigan University), Rachael A. Sautter (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Skinner’s conceptual analysis of language has influenced one model of early and intensive behavioral intervention with children, which incorporates verbal operants including mands, tacts, intraverbals, etc. Many studies have examined the mand and tact relations, with little focus on teaching intraverbal behavior. In the present experiment, children with autism were taught categorical intraverbals using a transfer-of-stimulus-control procedure (i.e., tact to intraverbal) in combination with errorless learning (i.e., delayed prompting). Each of three children learned to name items associated with preselected categories (e.g., “What are some colors?”) with limited generalization to a fourth, non-targeted category, and limited maintenance of skills.
 
 
Paper Session #90
International Paper Session - Clinical Research on Remote Behavioural Consultation, Sleep Problems, and Nocturnal Enuresis
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM
Chair: Mary Beatrice Roberts (Murdoch University)
 
Conditioning Treatment for Nocturnal Enuresis: Mechanisms of Action and Implications for Future Research.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELLE A. FORTIER (The Mayo Clinic), Michael W. Mellon (The Mayo Clinic)
Abstract: This paper presentation will begin with a brief review of the evidence that establishes the urine alarm as an empirically supported treatment as indicated by several quantitative reviews of the literature. These conclusions are so robust, further validation of this behavior therapy is unproductive. The presenter will then review current knowledge of neuro-urological research that accounts for the etiology of nocturnal enuresis and for likely mechanisms of action through which the urine alarm effectively works. A brief discussion of moderators and mediators of treatment will follow to identify what psychosocial factors account for treatment effects and for whom the treatment will be most helpful. The speaker will also present a bio-behavioral model that integrates respondant and operant learning principles and neuro-urological processes that highlight those factors that contribute to nocturnal enuresis and how the urine alarm effectively treats this common childhood disorder. Finally, the speaker will review future areas of research that are hoped to push this robust treatment to higher levels of efficacy. Audience discussion will be encouraged to better understand the barriers to accessing this effective psycho-social treatment.
 
Sleep Problems and ADHD Behaviours: A Single Case Experimental Study.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARY BEATRICE ROBERTS (Murdoch University), David J. Leach (Murdoch University)
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between a child’s chronic sleep problems and his ADHD-related behaviours. A single case research design that involved pre and post intervention measures and a follow up after 2 weeks was utilised with a nine year old boy diagnosed with ADHD and sleep problems. The research question was, does increasing the quality of sleep of a child exhibiting ADHD-related behaviours and with considerable sleep problems, result in a decrease in ADHD-related behaviours? The sleep quality of the child was improved using a behavioural sleep intervention package including a regular bedtime routine, bedtime stimulus control and bedtime fading procedures which took two weeks to be implemented and established by the boy’s parents. Objective measures of sleep quality were taken by an actigraph (ActiTrac) worn on the wrist throughout the pre- and post-sleep intervention and during the follow-up period. Sleep quality was also measured by a sleep diary and the Albany Sleep Questionnaire. The dependent variables were (i) attention and hyperactivity as assessed by a computer program (The Test for Attention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity in Children), (ii) the child’s on-task behaviour and vocalisations within his regular school classroom as assessed by direct observations and (iii) his typical behaviour at home as assessed by the Connor’s Behaviour Rating Scale and interviews with the child’s mother. The results showed that after increasing the quality of the boy’s sleep, his ADHD-related behaviours were markedly reduced. It is argued that lack of sleep quality may act as an establishing operation (EO) that increases avoidance behaviours and overt vocalisations at home and school. In this case reduced sleep quality may have exacerbated the behaviours that were taken as evidence of the child’s ADHD.
 
Issues in Remotely Delivered Behavioral Consultation for Students with Autism.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SARAH RULE SALZBERG (Utah State University), Charles L. Salzberg (Utah State University)
Abstract: Emerging technology now enables residents in remote locations to gain access to and even direct service from highly specialized experts who were previously unavailable to them. There are stunning examples of the benefits of technologically mediated treatment in telemedicine. In some cases, highly specialized surgeons have remotely performed delicate operations using web-based video images and very sophisticated micromanipulators. Indeed, a variety of health assessments, medical analyses and medical consults are becoming routine in some areas of clinical practice. But what about remotely directed, behavior analytical treatment for children with severe disabilities? It turns out that behavior analytic consultation has several attributes that set it apart from most current telemedical practice and present some significant challenges. This paper will present a case in which a behavioral consultant developed and implemented a treatment program for a young child with Autism residing in a very remote location in northern Utah in the USA. This case will be used to illustrate a multidimensional model for designing technologically mediated, behavior analytic treatment programs for children with severe disabilities. The model will address technology, staffing, coordination, contractual agreements, on-going program evaluation and revision, and cost.
 
 
Paper Session #91
Self-Control, Behavioural Tolerance, and Functional Assessment in Behavioural Pharmacology Research
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 3
Area: BPH
Chair: Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
 
Drugs and "Self-Control" Choice: Effects on Sensitivity to Delay or Amount?
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RAYMOND C. PITTS (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: Certain classes of drugs produce characteristic effects on choice under 'self-control" procedures. For example, stimulants (e.g., amphetamine) have been shown to increase choices of a larger, more delayed reinforcer (increase self-control). Such an effect usually is interpreted as a drug-induced change in delay discounting (i.e., a change in the effects of reinforcement delay). However, given that these procedures involve options with different reinforcement amounts, it is unclear whether or not this effect could be interpreted as a drug-induced change in the effects of reinforcement amount. In this talk, I will review some of the data on the effects of drugs under self-control procedures, and will describe some of our work investigating the potential contributions of drug-induced changes in sensitivity to reinforcement delay and amount as potential behavioral mechanisms of these effects.
 
Behavioral Tolerance: What's Reinforcement Loss Got to Do with It?
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHRISTINE E. HUGHES (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: When a drug, such as morphine or amphetamine, is repeatedly administered, tolerance may develop to the behavioral disruption produced by the drug. That is, a given dose of the drug no longer produces its initial effect and a larger dose of the drug now is required to produce that effect. Tolerance to disruptive effects on operant behavior has been characterized as a learned phenomenon; that is, organisms learn to respond in the presence of the drug, and this often occurs when an initial effect of the drug is a loss of reinforcement. In this paper, I will review the history of the examination of behavioral tolerance. I also will present data from experiments from our laboratory involving open/closed economies and alternative sources of reinforcement. In these experiments, contingencies between key pecking and reinforcement were manipulated such that initial drug administration produced different degrees of reinforcement loss. In general, these manipulations did not produced different degrees of tolerance. Therefore, these data suggest that there might be limitations in the reinforcement-loss hypothesis of behavioral tolerance.
 
 
Special Event #92
Closing Event
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Stateroom
Chair: Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea)
Join us in celebrating attendees' accomplishments during the conference. Presenters will conclude with a few observations on the continued international development of behavior analysis.
 

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