Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

  • AAB: Applied Animal Behavior

    AUT: Autism

    BPH: Behavioral Pharmacology

    CBM: Clinical/Family/Behavioral Medicine

    CSE: Community Interventions, Social and Ethical Issues

    DDA: Developmental Disabilities

    DEV: Behavioral Development

    EAB: Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    EDC: Education

    TBA: Teaching Behavior Analysis

    TPC: Theoretical, Philosophical, and Conceptual Issues

Fourth International Conference; Australia, 2007

Program by Continuing Education Events: Monday, August 13, 2007

Manage My Personal Schedule


Invited Paper Session #3
CE Offered: BACB

Does Reinforcement Really Increase the Probability of Prior Responses?

Monday, August 13, 2007
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CE Instructor: Michael C. Davison, Ph.D.
Chair: Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury)
MICHAEL C. DAVISON (University of Auckland)
Dr. Michael C. Davison Michael was raised in the United Kingdom and completed his BSc (with honors) in Psychology at Bristol University. He then came to New Zealand on a Commonwealth Scholarship and completed his Ph.D. (on punishment) at Otago University, and stayed there for a year as a lecturer. He then spent a year as lecturer at University College London before returning to New Zealand and taking a lectureship at Auckland University, where he has remained, moving up through the ranks to full professor in 1987. He was given a DSc for research in 1982, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1987, and received a Silver Medal for research from the Royal Society of New Zealand in 2001. He has been Associate Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and has served many terms on the editorial board of that journal. He currently holds appointments as a Research Associate at The Liggins Institute, and in the National Research Centre for Growth and Development. His interests are in the quantitative analysis of choice, both from a theoretical perspective and, more recently, as applied to developmental influences on learning.

The law of effect has been a fundamental principle of behaviour analysis since 1898, but is it true and is it helpful? I will review a series of recent results from animals that question this law, and suggest an alternative conception that may understand some troubling results, and may imply some changes in the application of behaviour analysis.

Symposium #5
CE Offered: BACB
EIBI for Children with Autism: Four-Year Outcome, Parent Directed Supervision and Waiting List Controls
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Glen O. Sallows, Ph.D.

We will describe four-year outcome data for 35 children. IQ's rose from 61 to 76, with 49% of the children showing much larger gains. IQ's for these Rapid Learners increased to 103. The second speaker will present preliminary data for 8 children from sites in Vancouver, BC and Sydney Australia who received Parent Directed supervision (3 hours every other week). IQ's of these children increased from 60 to 94. More children will be tested prior to the conference, increasing the size of this sample. Children on a waiting list were tested at intake and approximately one year later when treatment began, thus creating a measure of the effects of available community treatment. Results for 11 children (sample size will increase by the time of the conference), showed a decline in IQ of 4 points. In addition to IQ scores, we will also present data in language and adaptive areas for each of these studies. Finally, we will present strategies used to arrive at the outcomes noted above. These include the use of a heirarchical supervision model, several updated intervention strategies for building skills as well as social interaction, and a set of interventions to overcome problems that arise during treatment.

Four-Year Outcome for 35 Children Who Participated in Intensive Behavioral Treatment.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: 35 children were randomly assigned to a Clinic Directed group, replicating the parameters of the UCLA Intensive behavioral treatment or to a Parent Directed group, receiving much less supervision. 17 of the children (49%) referred to as Rapid Learners in IQ, lanugage, social skills, academic skills and Vineland scores to the average range. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups. Measures reflecting behavior at home and at school were used to assess residual symptoms among Rapid Learners, and some were found. About one third of the Rapid Learners showed some difficulties in social areas but few were significant.
Replication of the Effectiveness of a Parent Directed Supervision Model.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Jill Hempin (Early Autism Project, Sydney), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: In their 2005 publication, Sallows and Graupner noted that there was no difference in outcome between the Clinic Directed model (replicating Lovaas' program), and a Parent Directed model, which received much less supervision, six hours per month. We have now used the Parent Directed model of supervision in two clinics, one in Vancouver, BC and one in Sydney, Australia. In both of these clinics, supervisors provided in-home training and supervision for one, three-hour session every two weeks. This presentation will describe preliminary data for eight children (sample size will be larger by the time of the conference). Pre and Post- treatment IQ, language and Vineland scores will be described. IQ scores increased from 60 to 94. These data document the effectiveness of Parent Directed supervision.
Assessment of Available Community Services Using a Waiting List Control.
TAMLYNN DIANNE GRAUPNER (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: Due to a change in funding in Wisconsin, children's families who desire to enroll in a program of early intensive behavioral intervention, have been put on a waiting list. This provided an opportunity to obtain test results for children tested at intake and approximately one year later just before the beginning of treatment, thereby providing a measure of the effectiveness of available community treatment. Testing included assessment of IQ, language and adaptive skills, which included a measure of social skills. Results for 11 children showed a decline in IQ of 4 points. This sample will increase by the time of the conference. This drop of 4 points is significantly lower than the rise in IQ of appoximately 26 points achieved by children who received treatment.
Staff Training and Intervention Strategies Necessary for Maximum Benefit From EIBI.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Jill Hempin (Early Autism Project, Sydney)
Abstract: Being skilled in delivering an ABA based treatment intervention begins with understanding principles of learning, knowledge of behavioral treatment strategies and access to a curriculum of skills. However, this is not enough to be able to carry out treatment proficiently or to individualize treatment and deal effectively with common problems. This presentation will cover staffing and training models as well as common problems and strategies for addressing them that were used in a successful replication of the UCLA model of Intensive Behavioral Treatment.
Symposium #7
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Developing University Courses in Behaviour Analysis around the World
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:30 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea)
CE Instructor: Simon Dymond, Ph.D.

From a baseline of near-zero, university courses in behaviour analysis have increased dramatically over recent years in many corners of the globe. This symposium brings together the founders of behavioural courses from Europe (UK and Norway) and Australasia (New Zealand) to share their experiences and, hopefully, stimulate future courses.

Developing a BACB-Approved Training Programme in Australasia.
OLIVER C. MUDFORD (University of Auckland)
Abstract: In 2002 the University of Auckland programme was the first BACB-approved programme for training ABA to BCBA level outside the US. I will describe the three-year postgraduate sequence for comprehensive ABA education, research thesis and supervised practicum. The pleasures and pitfalls of growing an ABA training programme through its first five years may advise others who are encouraged to develop similar course sequences.
Development, Evaluation, and Outcomes of the First BACB-Approved Courses in the UK: Lessons Learned.
NEIL T. MARTIN (The Treehouse Trust), Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea), Mecca Chiesa (University of Kent), Oliver C. Mudford (University of Auckland)
Abstract: In 2002, the Applied Behaviour Analysis Lecturers' Co-operative, in conjunction with The TreeHouse Trust, established the first approved course sequence in the UK to meet the coursework requirements of the Board Certified Associate Behaviour Analyst examination. Both the Co-operative and TreeHouse have evaluated each of the three course-offerings in terms of the effect on the development of individual skills and competencies, and general effect on practice. Findings are discussed and general outcomes shared in terms of the expansion of the behaviour analytic practice within the UK (there now exist several Masters-level courses in the UK) and the lessons learned from the process.
News from Norway: Establishing an Approved Course in Behaviour Analysis.
ERIK ARNTZEN (Akershus University College )
Abstract: Behavior analysis has a very strong position in Norway, mostly in applied settings. The traditional psychology courses have tended to not focus teaching on behaviour analysis at all. Therefore, we needed to establish a more academic education in behaviour analysis. Fortunately, the Norwegian authorities accredited the first master program in behaviour analysis in Norway in 2004. In the fall semester of 2004, the first students were accepted. In May 2006, the program was approved by BACB. The behaviour analysis track is one of three tracks in the master program called ‘Learning in Complex Systems’. In this presentation, I will describe the approved Masters course at Akershus University College and share our experience of establishing new courses in behaviour analysis.
Invited Paper Session #9
CE Offered: BACB

B. F. Skinner as Visionary: Walden Two

Monday, August 13, 2007
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Julie S. Vargas, Ph.D.
Chair: Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout)
JULIE S. VARGAS (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
Dr. Julie S. Vargas is the daughter of B. F. Skinner. She taught elementary school before getting her doctoral degree in educational research. She was a faculty member at West Virginia University from 1966 to 2004, where she worked with prospective and practicing teachers and published three books on contingency management in education. Professor Vargas helped found the B. F. Skinner Foundation in 1989 and is its president. In 2004, she moved with her husband to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where the Foundation now has its offices.

Skinners status is widely acknowledged as experimenter, engineer, and theorist. Equally important is his role as a visionary. He analyzed what behavioral science implied for ethical issues and raised concerns about social practices. In the explicit tradition of utopian thinkers, he dramatized these issues and concerns in his utopian novel, Walden II. This presentation presents a synopsis of these issues and concerns, linking their relevance to contemporary problems and quoting from his book in Skinners own voice.

Symposium #13
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Illustrations of Recent Research from New Zealand's BACB-Approved ABA Training Programmes
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Oliver C. Mudford (University of Auckland)
CE Instructor: Oliver C. Mudford, Ph.D.

There are two BACB-approved postgraduate training courses in New Zealand, at the University of Auckland and the University of Waikato. The symposium will show the types of research projects that our students conduct at different points in their courses. Academic faculty, current and former students of our programmes will present brief reports of research undertaken in recent years.

Recent Research in Behaviour Analysis at the University of Waikato.
JAMES MCEWAN (University of Waikato), Therese Mary Foster (University of Waikato)
Abstract: This paper will present an overview of recent applied and human experimental research in Behaviour Analysis at the University of Waikato. Data will be presented from a range of projects including; precision teaching and fluency of roller skating, the retention of maths facts practiced with either paced- or timed- practices, precision teaching of reading letters with children with ADHD, teaching analogue functional analysis skills to teachers, and the use of functional analysis to devise interventions for children with ADHD in the normal classroom. Some of the issues raised in attempting to undertake applied research as thesis projects to train students in research will be discussed.
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 1. Adolescents and Adults.
OLIVER C. MUDFORD (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Illustrations from the range of research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the first of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, work conducted with adolescents and adults in community and residential settings will be presented.
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 2. Children.
ANGELA M. ARNOLD SARITEPE (University of Auckland)
Abstract: A variety of research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the second of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, projects conducted with children with developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities will be described.
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 3. Educational Applications.
DENNIS ROSE (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the third of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, research conducted in educational settings will be shown.
Symposium #14
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Children with Autism
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Rachel S. F. Tarbox, Ph.D.

Treatments based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been scientifically demonstrated to be the most effective option for young children with autism. However, more research is needed in order to identify the most effective procedures, both for the assessment and reduction of challenging behavior, as well as teaching adaptive behavior. This symposium includes three presentations on empirical research on a variety of topics in the assessment and treatment of the behavior of individuals with autism, covering topics such as toilet training, preference assessment, and functional assessment. The symposium will be concluded with a discussion of the presentations.

Comparing Indirect, Descriptive, and Experimental Functional Assessments in Children with Autism.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Arthur E. Wilke (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Ryan Bergstrom (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Current standards of practice in psychological and educational services dictate the need for ascertaining the function of challenging behaviors before treating them and for behavioral interventions to be based on the function of behavior. At least three broad categories of functional assessments have been developed, including indirect, descriptive, and experimental procedures. Although experimental functional analyses are common in empirical research on behavioral intervention, indirect and descriptive functional assessment procedures may be more commonly used in clinical and educational practice. Little research has systematically compared indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments, let alone with participants within the autism population. The current study compares indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments, across several children with autism, representing a range of ages and topographies of challenging behavior.
Analyzing the Variables that Impact on Preference and Reinforcer Assessment Outcomes.
RICHARD B. GRAFF (New England Center for Children), Amy D. Lipcon (New England Center for Children), Leah Kara (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Individuals with autism frequently require programmed reinforcement for effective skill acquisition. Although behavior analysts possess the technology to identify effective reinforcers, little consideration is given to the variables that may impact on the results of preference and reinforcer assessments. In Study 1, stimulus preference assessments (SPA) were conducted with 7 adolescents with autism. In the first SPA (SPA-1), only highly preferred items were included. Another SPA (SPA-2) was then conducted, using the least-preferred stimulus from SPA-1, plus 7 new stimuli. The items ranked as least preferred on SPA-1 were now ranked as most preferred, suggesting that preference hierarchies are influenced by how stimuli are selected for assessment. Subsequent reinforcer assessments (RA) indicated that items classified as low-preference on SPA-1 functioned as reinforcers, but low-preference items from SPA-2 did not, suggesting that preference hierarchies generated through systematic preference assessments may not reflect absolute reinforcement value. Study 2 examined how the results of RA's were influenced by task difficulty. High- and low-preference stimuli were identified using paired-stimulus assessments. Reinforcer assessments (ABAB design) using easy tasks indicated that both high- and low-preference stimuli functioned as reinforcers, but when hard tasks were used, low-preference items did not consistently function as reinforcers.
Wearing a Dipaer during Toilet Training: An Evaluation of the Effects on Children Diagnosed with Autism.
RACHEL S. F. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Melody Nabizadeh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Urinary incontinence has been shown to be a pervasive problem in children with autism. Incontinence can affect a child both socially and in terms of risk of infectious diseases transmitted through bodily waste (Berk & Friman, 1990). Surveys have reported that anywhere from 50 -70% of all children with autism have difficulties with toileting (Whitely, 2004; Horvath, Papadimitriou, Rabsztyn, Drachenberg & Tildon, 1999). Recent research conducted with an adult with developmental disabilities demonstrated that wearing diapers may occasion urinary accidents (Tarbox, Williams & Friman, 2004). In the current investigation a reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of wearing a diaper during toilet training for two children diagnosed with autism. Results suggest that wearing a diaper may increase the likelihood of urinary incontinence. Moreover, successful voids increased during the course of evaluation. Treatment, follow-up, reliability and integrity data will be presented.
Invited Paper Session #16
CE Offered: BACB

Triple P as a Public Health Approach to Parenting: Current Status and Future Directions.

Monday, August 13, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Matthew R. Sanders, Ph.D.
Chair: John Tanner Blackledge (University of Wollongong)
MATTHEW R. SANDERS (University of Queensland)
Dr. Matthew Sanders is a Professor of Clinical Psychology and Director of the Parenting and Family Support Centre at The University of Queensland. He conducts research and has published extensively in the area of parenting, family psychology, and the prevention of behavioural and emotional problems in children. He is the founder of the internationally recognised Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, which has won a National Violence Prevention Award from the Commonwealth Heads of Government in Australia and is now run in 15 countries around the world. He has received an International Collaborative Prevention Research Award from the Society for Prevention Research and is a fellow of the Australian Psychological Society and the Academy of Experimental Criminology. He is a Visiting Professor in the School of Psychological Sciences at the University of Manchester and also the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Oxford. He has been a consultant to the Council of Europe on Positive Parenting.

A public health approach to parenting intervention offers communities an increasingly evidence-based suite of interventions for strengthening parenting skills at a whole of population level. As experience in the practical implementation of such a strategy develops, some of the special challenges begin to emerge. These include how to evaluate such whole of population interventions, dealing with ethnic diversity, managing program fidelity and program drift, and how to secure political and multiagency support. This presentation uses the experience of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program to review the evidence that underpins the public health approach and discusses a range of professional issues that may influence the effectiveness of the approach.

Invited Paper Session #19
CE Offered: BACB

Key Areas for Intervention for Children with Autism for Interpersonal Competency

Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Marjorie H. Charlop, Ph.D.
Chair: William L. Heward (The Ohio State University)
MARJORIE H. CHARLOP (Claremont McKenna College)
Dr. Marjorie H. Charlop-Christy is Professor of Psychology at Claremont McKenna College and the Director of The Claremont Autism Center, her renowned research and treatment center for children with autism and their families. Through her research, teaching, and writing, Dr. Charlop-Christy has made prolific contributions to the field of autism. Dr. Charlop-Christy has hundreds of professional conference presentations, workshops, and publications in the field of autism to her credit. Her book How to Treat the Child with Autism has been translated into Spanish and Chinese. Her upcoming book How to do Incidental Teaching with Autistic Spectrum Disorders will soon be released. Dr. Charlop-Christy has served as both Associate Editor, Editorial Board member, and ad hoc reviewer for numerous journals in the field of autism/mental retardation and applied behavioral analysis. She is known for her informative yet lively presentation style.

Deficits in interpersonal or social competency is a core feature of children with autism. Interpersonal competency has been defined as specific, identifiable skills that form the basis of social interactions, such as the contextually appropriate application of motor, cognitive, and affective behaviors. The literature is replete with various applications of ABA-oriented social skills programs. However, many programs are limited to acquisition of isolated social behaviors, or small changes in such, without pervasive generalization and maintenance effects. As well, only recently have we started to address deficits in perspective taking and the autistic childs predictions and responses to how others behave in social contexts. This presentation will focus on interventions that have been empirically verified, and have shown the most promise in terms of generalization and maintenance of interpersonal competency for children with autism. These interventions focus on such behaviors as greetings, social initiation, perspective taking, and verbal interactions. Procedures to be discussed will include Naturalistic Teaching Strategies, Incidental Teaching, Video Modeling, and Photo Scheduling. The efficacy of these types of interventions for interpersonal competency will be discussed.

Panel #21
CE Offered: BACB
International Panel - A Small Matter of Proof: The International Legacy of Donald M. Baer
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Karen S. Budd, Ph.D.
Chair: Karen S. Budd (DePaul University)
BARRY S. PARSONSON (Applied Psychology International, New Zealand)
JANE RAWLS (Applied Psychology International, New Zealand)
JAY S. BIRNBRAUER (Murdoch University)
R. MARK MATHEWS (University of Sydney)

In this panel discussion, we will show some highlights of the video record of a retirement celebration for Donald M. Baer, an eminent professor and scholar in behavioral science and a founder of applied behavior analysis. Four distinguished behavior analysts from Australia and New Zealand who were students and colleagues of Baer will serve as panelists to discuss the video and their recollections of working with Baer. In April of 2002, colleagues and friends of Baer gathered at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Over 100 participants from around the world celebrated in anticipation of Baers retirement. The retirement festivities included both scholarly and social agendas. The scholarship took the form of a research seminar with invited speakers, followed by interactive discussions in which Baer served as impromptu discussant. The seminar was followed by a banquet and an evening of commentaries by many of Baers friends and colleagues, in a joyful tribute of respect, love, and good humor. Baers untimely death only two weeks after the retirement celebration placed the events in an entirely new context. The video record provides young behavior analysts around the world a glimpse of an intellectual leader of applied behavior analysis.

Symposium #22
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in Verbal Capabilities, Observing Responses, and Parent Education from CABAS and Columbia University
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DEV; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.

We present four sets of experiments and observations about findings devoted to (a) the relations between observing responses and verbal capabilities or their underpinnings, (b) the role of multiple exemplar experiences in the acquisition of naming, and (c) procedures for effective parenting.

The Acquisition of Effective Parenting Repertoires as a Function of the CABAS® Parent Education Curriculum.
LYNN YUAN (Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: I investigated the components that were essential in teaching effective parenting skills in 2-experiments. The first study examined the effects of parent education training on their children's learning in school in a experimental and control group design. Dependent variables included standardized and criterion-referenced measures on thirty preschoolers. The independent variable consisted of parent education training package that included: (a) parent education workshops and (b) individual parent session. The second study was a continuation that taught parents to identify appropriate skills of a target repertoires via videotape observations of both teachers' and the parents instruction. After the mastery of the training package, post-experimental probes were conducted on: a) the parents' identification or target behaviors and generalization behaviors, and (b) children's mastery of the appropriate behaviors within a particular target repertoire.
More Evidence on the Source of Naming: SEI versus MEI.
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Lauren M. Stolfi (Columbia University Teachers College), Nirvana Pistoljevic (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We compared the effects of singular exemplar instruction (SEI) and multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the emergence of untaught listener and speaker responses, or naming, for 2-dimensional stimuli by preschool children who were missing the naming capability. In combined experimental-control group and nested single case multiple probe designs, we taught training sets of pictures using multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) to one group of 4-participants using a multiple probe design and the same sets using single exemplar instruction (SEI) to another set of 4-participants. Naming emerged from MEI but not SEI. Subsequently, the SEI group received MEI and naming emerged for them also.
Conditioning Two-Dimensional Visual Stimuli to Induce Two-Dimensional Match to Sample Responding in Preschoolers with Autism.
ANANYA GOSWAMI (Columbia University Teachers College), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Columbia University Teachers College & CABAS), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Dr. Shira A. Ackerman (Columbia University Teachers College), Jeanne Marie Speckman (Teachers College Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: We tested the effects of conditioned reinforcement for observing responses on the acquisition of eye contact, 3-D and 2-D discrimination of visual stimuli, and sensory discrimination across the senses. The participants were between the ages of three and six and diagnosed with educational disabilities, autism, and related communication disabilities. Prior to the onset of the study, the children did not make eye contact, attend to 3-D and 2-D stimuli, or demonstrate the capacity for matching across the five senses. Verbal developmental protocols associated with pre-listener levels of verbal capability and observing responses were implemented using a multiple probe design. The results showed significant increases in the acquisition of new verbal capabilities for the participants.
Observing Responses Associated with the Sequential Acquisition of Certain Aspects of Language.
DOLLEEN-DAY KEOHANE (Columbia University Teachers College & CABAS), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: We discuss the findings of a program of research on observing responses associated with the sequential acquisition of early verbal capabilities. These observing responses appear to be related to the discrimination and development of certain aspects of language. Conditioned reinforcement for listening to voices, stories and various genres of music as well as looking at stimuli, text and books may be prerequisites for the development of observing responses across listener, listener-speaker, speaker-as-own-listener and visual sensory modalities.
Invited Paper Session #25
CE Offered: BACB

If Applied Behavior Analysis Has So Much to Offer Education (and It Does), Why Does Education Take Such Limited Advantage of Its Findings?

Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: William L. Heward, Ph.D.
Chair: Neil T. Martin (The Treehouse Trust)
WILLIAM L. HEWARD (The Ohio State University)
Dr. William L. Heward has had an international impact on improving the education and treatment of people with disabilities by influencing the ways many teachers provide education to those children. He has accomplished this not only through his writing but also his university teaching and advising, consulting to schools and other educational programs, his extensive research programs in the field and numerous presentations at professional meetings for researchers and practitioners. Dr. Heward is perhaps best known for his publication (with Dr. John O. Cooper and Professor Timothy E. Heron) of the extremely widely-read Applied Behavior Analysis, an introduction to behavior analysis. Dr. Heward has written five other books, including Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, in its eighth edition and translated into multiple foreign languages. In addition, Dr. Heward has published more than 100 journal articles and book chapters, and has served on the editorial boards of The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Teacher Education and Special Education, Education and Treatment of Children, and Behavior Modification. In addition, Dr. Heward’s peers recognized him for his contributions to education by awarding him the 2006 American Psychological Association's Division 25 Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award.

Applied behavior analysiss (ABA) pragmatic, natural science approach to discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior and to developing a technology that takes practical advantage of those discoveries offers humankind our best hope for solving many of our problems. Unfortunately, ABA has had limited impact on society. Using public education as the exemplar, this presentation will explore the question, If ABA is so wonderful, why dont we (society) make greater use of it? Improving the effectiveness of education is one of societys most important problems, and for more than four decades applied behavior analysis has provided powerful demonstrations of how it can promote learning in the classroom. In spite of this evidence, behavior analysis is, at best, a bit player in efforts to reform education. Dr. Heward will identify a dozen reasons why ABA is ideally suited to help improve education, review a somewhat longer list of reasons that work against the widespread adoption of behavioral approaches in education, and suggest some actions that practitioners and researchers can take to enhance and further ABAs contributions to effective education.

Symposium #27
CE Offered: BACB
Using ABA to Teach Children with Autism Everything They Need to Know: The CARD Treatment Model and Curriculum Overview
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Rachel S. F. Tarbox, Ph.D.

Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, characterized by global and often severe deficits in virtually all areas of functioning. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the only treatment for autism with consistent scientific support. Nevertheless, many myths regarding the inadequacies of ABA persist. Commonly stated, yet unsubstantiated, criticisms include that ABA is only for young children, does not address complex social behavior, produces only rote or scripted improvements in behavior, and cannot address issues of complex cognitive functioning. In this symposium, we begin by describing the basic components of a comprehensive ABA program for children with autism and proceed with in-depth descriptions of how to teach play, language, and executive function.


Comprehensive Behavioral Services for Children with Autism: Introductory Program Description for the Center for Autism and Related Disorders.

KAREN WONG (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Erika Ford (University of Auckland, Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)

The Center for Autism and Related Disorders is a global organization which provides comprehensive behavioral services for children with autism. This presentation provides an overview of the CARD treatment model and describes the primary components of a comprehensive ABA program for children with autism. Goals of assessment and intervention, as well as teaching strategies such as discrete trial training, natural environment training, and fluency training, will be described and discussed.

From Simple Mands and Tacts to Abstract Concept Formation: A Comprehensive Curriculum for Teaching Language to Children with Autism.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A core deficit characterizing autism is impairment in language and therefore a core feature of any comprehensive ABA program for children with autism is a focus on teaching language. We describe a comprehensive behavioral curriculum for establishing language in children with autism, ranging from simple echoics, mands, and tacts, to complex conversational intraverbals and relational concept formation. The curriculum is based on Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior and on an analysis of complex concept formation as generalized operant behavior.
From Functional Pretend to Abstract: A Comprehensive Behavioral Curriculum for Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism.
SARAH BEWICK (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: One of the primary areas of concern for the treatment of individuals with autism is remediation of deficits in social interaction. Playing is a form of social interaction which is crucial to childhood development. We describe a comprehensive play curriculum, starting with the earliest forms of beginning and “functional pretend” play, ranging to complex and abstract “imaginary” and “socio-dramatic” play. All major areas of play are taught via interdependent teaching programs, broken down into small teachable steps, and taught and assessed as generalized operant classes.
Teaching “Executive Function” Skills to Children with Autism.
PAUL HARRIS (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Executive functions are said to be the brain functions which control goal-directed behavior. A significant amount of research has documented deficits in executive function in children with autism. However, the only evidence for the presence or absence of executive function is the presence or absence of particular skills, that is, behavior. We describe a behavioral curriculum for establishing the skills deemed “executive function” in children with autism. Generalized skills are established which improve “planning,” “inhibition,” “attention,” “working memory,” “problem-solving,” and “self-monitoring,” among others. Teaching these executive functions involves breaking down each area into small, teachable units, and teaching multiple exemplars, so that generalized operant classes form, yielding generalization across settings and people.
Symposium #29
CE Offered: BACB
Widespread Training and Dissemination In Australia and New Zealand of a Non-Linear ABA Model for Supporting People with Challenging Behaviour Part A
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA/TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gary W. LaVigna (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis)
CE Instructor: Gary W. LaVigna, Ph.D.

For more than 15-years, the Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis (IABA) has been engaged in widespread training and dissemination of ABA in support of people with challenging behavior in Australia and New Zealand. This has included lecture courses covering basic principles; practicum training; and the training of trainers. Well over a thousand trainees have participated in these programs from all seven Australian states and from both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The results of this training and dissemination program have been reported in the literature in a number of journal articles. This two part symposium brings this literature up to date, with reports at the state and agency levels on systems impact (Part A) and with a number of Type III case studies demonstrating effectiveness across a wide range of behaviors and clientele, including those typically not represented in the published literature (Part B).

Tasmanian Training of Trainers: Training Practitioners to Meet Defined Standards and Resulting Client Outcomes.
MATTHEW SPICER (Tasmanian Disability Services: Tasmania, Australia), Nicola Crates (Tasmanian Disability Services: Tasmania, Australia)
Abstract: A recently published study reported that IABA's training of trainers program was capable of training a team of trainers (in New Zealand) to train behavioral practitioners to carry out comprehensive functional assessments and to develop multi-element support plans that met defined standards to the same level of performance that their own trainees are able to attain. However, the effects of this program on client behaviors were not reported in that study. This paper reports a replication of IABA’s training of trainers program in Tasmania and shows similar outcomes. However, the effects on client outcomes was also measured and showed that client behavior, both in terms of occurrence and episodic severity, were also dramatically improved. Client profiles included those with forensic backgrounds, brain injury, intellectual disabilities and autism.
The Development of Community Based, Behavior Intervention Support Teams In Victoria Australia: Current Status.
GARY RADLER (ABA Private Practice)
Abstract: Fifteen years ago, IABA's multi-element model provided the framework for the development of state-wide, community based, behavior intervention support teams (BIST’s) throughout Victoria. Previously published studies reported that the “overall success rate was substantial” in terms of client outcomes and that this model for providing support was “cost efficient.” This paper reports the extent to which the IABA model continues to provide the framework for BIST, the extent to which BIST practices may have varied from the model, and the extent to which BIST has kept up with the model’s continuing development over the past 15-years.
Using Organization Behavior Management to Improve and Maintain Service Quality.
ADRIAN HIGGINS (Dunedin Community Care Trust; Dunedin, New Zealand)
Abstract: One compenent of IABA’s multi-element model, referred to as Periodic Service Review (PSR), involves the use of the principles and procedures of organizational behavior management to assure the quality of behavioral and other services and to assure the consistent implementation of behavioral support plans. A PSR system has four elements: operationally defined process and outcome standards, frequent monitory against those standards, the use of visual feedback graphs to motivate staff, and competency based, criterion referenced staff training. After briefly reviewing the published literature on PSR applications, this paper reports an agency wide application and the results obtained in improving and maintaining service quality as measured against operationally defined outcome and process standards.
Training Parents to Reliably Measure the Quality of Behavioral Services against Defined Standards.
YVONNE CREW (ABA Private Practice; Queensland, Australia), Alice Corcoran (Parent)
Abstract: IABA has derived a set of defined standards from the published ABA literature for the purposes of evaluating the quality of behavioral services in the area of challenging behavior. These standards have been used to reliably evaluate the behavioral services provided by IABA staff, IABA trainees, and the trainees of the trainers trained by IABA. This study investigated whether parents of children with disabilities could be trained to reliably evaluate the kinds of behavioral services that might be needed by their child. Specifically, parents were trained to use an instrument that defined 140 separate criteria for evaluating Comprehensive Functional Assessments and their resulting recommended Multi-element Behavioral Support Plans. After training, by comparing different parent’s, criteria by criteria, independent evaluations to each other, criteria by criteria agreements and disagreements were identified and reliability indices were calculated. The conclusion is that parents can be trained to reliably evaluate the quality of behavioral services against defined criteria. The implications of this for parent training and for holding services agencies accountable to the consumers they service are discussed.
Invited Paper Session #30
CE Offered: BACB

Behavior Analysis and AIDS Education: The Evolution of a Self-Management Program.

Monday, August 13, 2007
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Thomas A. Brigham, Ph.D.
THOMAS A. BRIGHAM (Washington State University), Ryan Sain (Washington State University), Dana F. Lindemann (Washington State University)
Dr. Thomas A. Brigham has been a major contributor to the understanding of self-management and self-control by taking such basic research findings as those on choice and preference and effectively extending them to applications among young people. He has published 53 papers and 7 books, including co-editing the influential Handbook of Applied Behavioral Research. He has served as Associate Editor of Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, The Behavior Analyst, and Behavioral Interventions. Dr. Brigham has held several distinguished positions, including an Erskine Fellowship at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand and a Senior Visiting Fellowship at University College in Cardiff, Wales. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Behavior Analysis and won the ABA Outreach Award in 1992. At Washington State University, he was honored with the Mullen Teaching Award, the College of Liberal Arts Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award, and the Sahlin Award. He has also served the field of Behavior Analysis as President of Northwest ABA and as an Area Coordinator for the ABA convention program.

Psychology 106 (Psychology applied to daily living: Dealing with friends, alcohol, and sex) and its supporting structure are the product of analyzing literature on AIDS prevention, especially the work of Kelly and his associates (e.g., Kelly, 1995a, 1995b) and the Fishers (e.g. Fisher et al., 1996), and several years of our own research (Brigham, Gilbert, Donahoe, Thomas, & Zemke, 2002; Horn & Brigham, 1996; Lindemann, Brigham, Harbke, and Alexander, 2005). The resulting program has several critical features worth noting. First, as a graded one-credit course offered as an optional component of Introductory Psychology, it has both academic and experiential content. Second, the course involves small sections of approximately 20 students with instruction based on discussion and exercises with minimal lecture. Third, students actively and systematically collect data on their own behavior and evaluate the information in relation to their own goals and values. Fourth, teams of two junior-senior-level undergraduate peer instructors trained in both the course content and instructional procedures teach the sections. Finally, information on HIV/AIDS is presented within the context of an integrated conceptual framework for personal and sexual decision-making that also covers other STIs, sexual assault, and related issues. The features of the program have evolved as a function of experimental and qualitative research and continue to be assessed each time the class is taught. The results of several experiments assessing the effectiveness of the program show it reduces student high-risk sexual behavior, reduces student alcohol consumption and increases the numbers of students practicing abstinence. The American Association of Colleges and Universities has recognized the course as a model AIDS education and prevention program. Also, the course is currently taught at several other universities across the United States and we are working to introduce it at universities in South Africa.

Symposium #34
CE Offered: BACB
Promoting Listening and Speaking Skills in Learners with Autism and Related Disorders
Monday, August 13, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gina Green (San Diego State University)
Discussant: Jay S. Birnbrauer (Murdoch University)
CE Instructor: Gina Green, Ph.D.

Although behavior analytic methods have proved effective for building a wide array of communication skills in young children with autism, there is a paucity of research on procedures for promoting certain skills in that domain. We describe three investigations of procedures for teaching skills ranging from discriminating simple auditory stimuli to producing syntactically correct utterances. Implications for designing and implementing communication training curricula for learners with autism and related disorders are discussed.

Research to Practice: Teaching Auditory Discriminations to Learners with Autism.
GINA GREEN (San Diego State University), Kristine L. Marino (Connecticut Center for Child Development)
Abstract: Many learners with autism have difficulty acquiring receptive language skills, such as matching spoken words to objects. Those seemingly simple performances involve auditory-visual conditional discriminations, which are composed of both simple successive discriminations among auditory stimuli and simple simultaneous discriminations among visual stimuli. Research suggests that learners who fail to acquire auditory-visual conditional discriminations often do not demonstrate the component simple discriminations, but can acquire conditional discriminations after the component skills have been trained. Most previous studies of methods for teaching simple discriminations to learners with developmental disabilities used visual stimuli. We investigated two sets of procedures for teaching simple auditory discriminations to learners with autism and mental retardation. The first experiment was conducted in a learning laboratory with touchscreen-equipped computers using specialized software. Results indicated that 6 of 9 learners readily acquired 4 simple auditory discriminations. For the second experiment, the laboratory procedures have been translated into a “tabletop” format that could be used in classrooms. Preliminary data on the effectiveness of the “tabletop” procedures are described, and the potential benefits of establishing flexible auditory discrimination skills in learners with autism are outlined.
Improving the Responsiveness of Children with Autism to Auditory Environmental Events.
JANE S. HOWARD (California State University, Stanislaus), Mette Madsen (The Kendall School)
Abstract: Children with autism are sometimes described as having deficits in attending to stimuli in their environments. This lack of responsiveness may jeopardize the children’s safety, limit their interactions with others, and preclude participation in a variety of learning opportunities. In this study, procedures designed to improve attending to auditory environmental events in preschool- and kindergarten-aged children with autism were evaluated with a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that responding to the trained stimuli increased with the intervention. Maintenance and generalization to untrained situations and stimuli were also demonstrated.
Use of a Pictorial Prompting System to Improve Language Complexity in Children with Autism.
COLEEN SPARKMAN (Therapeutic PATHWAYS), Jenny Fischer (The Kendall School), Jane S. Howard (California State University, Stanislaus), Allyson Moore (Therapeutic PATHWAYS)
Abstract: Behavior analytic research has identified effective methods for improving many language skills in young children with autism. Research on procedures for increasing mean length of utterance and syntactical complexity is limited, however. The Fokes Sentence Builder is a program designed for use by speech -language pathologists to teach sentence structure to children with language delays. Generative instructional methods, including modifications to The Fokes Sentence Builder, were developed to teach syntactical frames to 3 preschoolers with autism. Acquisition of the targeted response classes and generalization to novel stimuli were demonstrated.
Invited Paper Session #37
CE Offered: BACB

Engaging People with Dementia in Life.

Monday, August 13, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: R. Mark Mathews, Ph.D.
Chair: Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
R. MARK MATHEWS (University of Sydney)
Prof. R. Mark Mathews is Sesquicentenary Chair of Ageing, Health and Disability at the University of Sydney. Professor Mathews received his Ph.D. in 1980 and previously held faculty appointments at the University of Hawaii and the University of Kansas. He is a Fellow of the Gerontology Society of America and received a distinguished teaching award from the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education. His research has been designed to contribute to understanding of factors that affect successful aging and application of that knowledge to social programs that optimize independence and autonomy. His behavioral gerontology research has been published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, Journal of Gerontological Nursing, Journal of Housing for the Elderly, and Alzheimer’s Care Quarterly. He is currently an investigator on research grants from the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute and the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. He has served as lead investigator on over USD$3,200,000 in grants funded by the National Institute on Aging, the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association, Kansas Department on Aging, Michigan Department of Health, and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

Dementia is the largest single contributor to the cost of care in nursing homes today, and the prevalence of dementia continues to increase at a much greater rate than both the total population and the older population. Dementia is associated with a decline in reasoning, memory, and other cognitive functioning that often results in challenging or disruptive behaviors such as agitation, aggression, repetitive questioning, and wandering. This decline also impairs the ability of the person to carry out many activities of daily living. The physical environment and well-meaning caregivers can exacerbate these behavioral excesses and deficits. Nursing home staff often ignores independent behaviors, but respond to dependent behaviors with enabling responses. This presentation will describe a range of environmental redesign and staff training procedures that have been demonstrated to help people with dementia engage in life and re-acquire a number of daily living.

Symposium #38
CE Offered: BACB
Widespread Training and Dissemination in Australia and New Zealand of a Non-Linear ABA Model for Supporting People with Challenging Behavior Part B
Monday, August 13, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gary W. LaVigna (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Wendi Beamish (Centre For Learning Research)
CE Instructor: Gary W. LaVigna, Ph.D.

For more than 15-years, the Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis (IABA) has been engaged in widespread training and dissemination of ABA in support of people with challenging behavior in Australia and New Zealand. This has included lecture courses covering basic principles; practicum training; and the training of trainers. Well over a thousand trainees have participated in these programs from all seven Australian states and from both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The results of this training and dissemination program have been reported in the literature in a number of journal articles. This two part symposium brings this literature up to date, with reports at the state and agency levels on systems impact (Part A) and with a number of Type III case studies demonstrating effectiveness across a wide range of behaviors and clientele, including those typically not represented in the published literature (Part B).

Titus Jabaltjari – Central Australian Desert Traditional Arrente Man: Out of the Locked Ward and on the Journey Home.
DARYL MURDOCK (Disability Support Team, Aged and Disability Program)
Abstract: This presentation describes the application of IABA’s non-linear, multi-element model in support of an Aboriginal man whose challenging behavior had resulted in years of incarceration in various psychiatric and forensic settings. As a result of ABA, he has been living in the community successfully and has been reunited with his family. The implications of this for the introduction of ABA to help people from other cultural backgrounds and settings are discussed as well as are the necessary considerations for such applications.
Type III Case Studies of Non-Linear Behavioral Support Working with Adults and Children.
MONIQUE GILLISSEN (Egmont Terrace Specialists Rooms), Lyn Platt (Waimokaia School), Gail Palmer (Hills Community Support Group, Western Australia), Adam Nobilia (Eastern Respite and Recreation; New South Wales; Australia), Charlotte Howell (Hills Community Support Group; Western Australia )
Abstract: Type III case studies are presented which add to the empirical base demonstrating the efficacy of positive, non-linear behavior analysis with both children and adults. The target behaviors addressed range from serious physical aggression toward others and self-injury to refusal to eat. The settings included public schools, a residential school, adult day service settings and a residential program. A school-wide application is also described.
Applications of IABA’s Multi-Element Model with Severe Self-Injury.
Abstract: The implications of IABA’s non-linear model for the treatment of self-injury are discussed. Among the issues is the need to observe and measure episodic severity when working with behavior that is potentially life threatening. Unfortunately, this measure is missing from the published literature. A literature review and case study data are used to outline a research agenda for the future.



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