Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

  • AAB: Applied Animal Behavior

    AUT: Autism

    BPH: Behavioral Pharmacology

    CBM: Clinical/Family/Behavioral Medicine

    CSE: Community Interventions, Social and Ethical Issues

    DDA: Developmental Disabilities

    DEV: Behavioral Development

    EAB: Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    EDC: Education

    TBA: Teaching Behavior Analysis

    TPC: Theoretical, Philosophical, and Conceptual Issues

Fourth International Conference; Australia, 2007

CE by Type: BACB

Manage My Personal Schedule


Invited Paper Session #3
CE Offered: BACB

Does Reinforcement Really Increase the Probability of Prior Responses?

Monday, August 13, 2007
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CE Instructor: Michael C. Davison, Ph.D.
Chair: Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury)
MICHAEL C. DAVISON (University of Auckland)
Dr. Michael C. Davison Michael was raised in the United Kingdom and completed his BSc (with honors) in Psychology at Bristol University. He then came to New Zealand on a Commonwealth Scholarship and completed his Ph.D. (on punishment) at Otago University, and stayed there for a year as a lecturer. He then spent a year as lecturer at University College London before returning to New Zealand and taking a lectureship at Auckland University, where he has remained, moving up through the ranks to full professor in 1987. He was given a DSc for research in 1982, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1987, and received a Silver Medal for research from the Royal Society of New Zealand in 2001. He has been Associate Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and has served many terms on the editorial board of that journal. He currently holds appointments as a Research Associate at The Liggins Institute, and in the National Research Centre for Growth and Development. His interests are in the quantitative analysis of choice, both from a theoretical perspective and, more recently, as applied to developmental influences on learning.

The law of effect has been a fundamental principle of behaviour analysis since 1898, but is it true and is it helpful? I will review a series of recent results from animals that question this law, and suggest an alternative conception that may understand some troubling results, and may imply some changes in the application of behaviour analysis.

Symposium #5
CE Offered: BACB
EIBI for Children with Autism: Four-Year Outcome, Parent Directed Supervision and Waiting List Controls
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Glen O. Sallows, Ph.D.

We will describe four-year outcome data for 35 children. IQ's rose from 61 to 76, with 49% of the children showing much larger gains. IQ's for these Rapid Learners increased to 103. The second speaker will present preliminary data for 8 children from sites in Vancouver, BC and Sydney Australia who received Parent Directed supervision (3 hours every other week). IQ's of these children increased from 60 to 94. More children will be tested prior to the conference, increasing the size of this sample. Children on a waiting list were tested at intake and approximately one year later when treatment began, thus creating a measure of the effects of available community treatment. Results for 11 children (sample size will increase by the time of the conference), showed a decline in IQ of 4 points. In addition to IQ scores, we will also present data in language and adaptive areas for each of these studies. Finally, we will present strategies used to arrive at the outcomes noted above. These include the use of a heirarchical supervision model, several updated intervention strategies for building skills as well as social interaction, and a set of interventions to overcome problems that arise during treatment.

Four-Year Outcome for 35 Children Who Participated in Intensive Behavioral Treatment.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: 35 children were randomly assigned to a Clinic Directed group, replicating the parameters of the UCLA Intensive behavioral treatment or to a Parent Directed group, receiving much less supervision. 17 of the children (49%) referred to as Rapid Learners in IQ, lanugage, social skills, academic skills and Vineland scores to the average range. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups. Measures reflecting behavior at home and at school were used to assess residual symptoms among Rapid Learners, and some were found. About one third of the Rapid Learners showed some difficulties in social areas but few were significant.
Replication of the Effectiveness of a Parent Directed Supervision Model.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Jill Hempin (Early Autism Project, Sydney), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: In their 2005 publication, Sallows and Graupner noted that there was no difference in outcome between the Clinic Directed model (replicating Lovaas' program), and a Parent Directed model, which received much less supervision, six hours per month. We have now used the Parent Directed model of supervision in two clinics, one in Vancouver, BC and one in Sydney, Australia. In both of these clinics, supervisors provided in-home training and supervision for one, three-hour session every two weeks. This presentation will describe preliminary data for eight children (sample size will be larger by the time of the conference). Pre and Post- treatment IQ, language and Vineland scores will be described. IQ scores increased from 60 to 94. These data document the effectiveness of Parent Directed supervision.
Assessment of Available Community Services Using a Waiting List Control.
TAMLYNN DIANNE GRAUPNER (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: Due to a change in funding in Wisconsin, children's families who desire to enroll in a program of early intensive behavioral intervention, have been put on a waiting list. This provided an opportunity to obtain test results for children tested at intake and approximately one year later just before the beginning of treatment, thereby providing a measure of the effectiveness of available community treatment. Testing included assessment of IQ, language and adaptive skills, which included a measure of social skills. Results for 11 children showed a decline in IQ of 4 points. This sample will increase by the time of the conference. This drop of 4 points is significantly lower than the rise in IQ of appoximately 26 points achieved by children who received treatment.
Staff Training and Intervention Strategies Necessary for Maximum Benefit From EIBI.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Jill Hempin (Early Autism Project, Sydney)
Abstract: Being skilled in delivering an ABA based treatment intervention begins with understanding principles of learning, knowledge of behavioral treatment strategies and access to a curriculum of skills. However, this is not enough to be able to carry out treatment proficiently or to individualize treatment and deal effectively with common problems. This presentation will cover staffing and training models as well as common problems and strategies for addressing them that were used in a successful replication of the UCLA model of Intensive Behavioral Treatment.
Symposium #7
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Developing University Courses in Behaviour Analysis around the World
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:30 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea)
CE Instructor: Simon Dymond, Ph.D.

From a baseline of near-zero, university courses in behaviour analysis have increased dramatically over recent years in many corners of the globe. This symposium brings together the founders of behavioural courses from Europe (UK and Norway) and Australasia (New Zealand) to share their experiences and, hopefully, stimulate future courses.

Developing a BACB-Approved Training Programme in Australasia.
OLIVER C. MUDFORD (University of Auckland)
Abstract: In 2002 the University of Auckland programme was the first BACB-approved programme for training ABA to BCBA level outside the US. I will describe the three-year postgraduate sequence for comprehensive ABA education, research thesis and supervised practicum. The pleasures and pitfalls of growing an ABA training programme through its first five years may advise others who are encouraged to develop similar course sequences.
Development, Evaluation, and Outcomes of the First BACB-Approved Courses in the UK: Lessons Learned.
NEIL T. MARTIN (The Treehouse Trust), Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea), Mecca Chiesa (University of Kent), Oliver C. Mudford (University of Auckland)
Abstract: In 2002, the Applied Behaviour Analysis Lecturers' Co-operative, in conjunction with The TreeHouse Trust, established the first approved course sequence in the UK to meet the coursework requirements of the Board Certified Associate Behaviour Analyst examination. Both the Co-operative and TreeHouse have evaluated each of the three course-offerings in terms of the effect on the development of individual skills and competencies, and general effect on practice. Findings are discussed and general outcomes shared in terms of the expansion of the behaviour analytic practice within the UK (there now exist several Masters-level courses in the UK) and the lessons learned from the process.
News from Norway: Establishing an Approved Course in Behaviour Analysis.
ERIK ARNTZEN (Akershus University College )
Abstract: Behavior analysis has a very strong position in Norway, mostly in applied settings. The traditional psychology courses have tended to not focus teaching on behaviour analysis at all. Therefore, we needed to establish a more academic education in behaviour analysis. Fortunately, the Norwegian authorities accredited the first master program in behaviour analysis in Norway in 2004. In the fall semester of 2004, the first students were accepted. In May 2006, the program was approved by BACB. The behaviour analysis track is one of three tracks in the master program called ‘Learning in Complex Systems’. In this presentation, I will describe the approved Masters course at Akershus University College and share our experience of establishing new courses in behaviour analysis.
Invited Paper Session #9
CE Offered: BACB

B. F. Skinner as Visionary: Walden Two

Monday, August 13, 2007
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Julie S. Vargas, Ph.D.
Chair: Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout)
JULIE S. VARGAS (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
Dr. Julie S. Vargas is the daughter of B. F. Skinner. She taught elementary school before getting her doctoral degree in educational research. She was a faculty member at West Virginia University from 1966 to 2004, where she worked with prospective and practicing teachers and published three books on contingency management in education. Professor Vargas helped found the B. F. Skinner Foundation in 1989 and is its president. In 2004, she moved with her husband to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where the Foundation now has its offices.

Skinners status is widely acknowledged as experimenter, engineer, and theorist. Equally important is his role as a visionary. He analyzed what behavioral science implied for ethical issues and raised concerns about social practices. In the explicit tradition of utopian thinkers, he dramatized these issues and concerns in his utopian novel, Walden II. This presentation presents a synopsis of these issues and concerns, linking their relevance to contemporary problems and quoting from his book in Skinners own voice.

Symposium #13
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Illustrations of Recent Research from New Zealand's BACB-Approved ABA Training Programmes
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Oliver C. Mudford (University of Auckland)
CE Instructor: Oliver C. Mudford, Ph.D.

There are two BACB-approved postgraduate training courses in New Zealand, at the University of Auckland and the University of Waikato. The symposium will show the types of research projects that our students conduct at different points in their courses. Academic faculty, current and former students of our programmes will present brief reports of research undertaken in recent years.

Recent Research in Behaviour Analysis at the University of Waikato.
JAMES MCEWAN (University of Waikato), Therese Mary Foster (University of Waikato)
Abstract: This paper will present an overview of recent applied and human experimental research in Behaviour Analysis at the University of Waikato. Data will be presented from a range of projects including; precision teaching and fluency of roller skating, the retention of maths facts practiced with either paced- or timed- practices, precision teaching of reading letters with children with ADHD, teaching analogue functional analysis skills to teachers, and the use of functional analysis to devise interventions for children with ADHD in the normal classroom. Some of the issues raised in attempting to undertake applied research as thesis projects to train students in research will be discussed.
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 1. Adolescents and Adults.
OLIVER C. MUDFORD (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Illustrations from the range of research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the first of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, work conducted with adolescents and adults in community and residential settings will be presented.
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 2. Children.
ANGELA M. ARNOLD SARITEPE (University of Auckland)
Abstract: A variety of research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the second of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, projects conducted with children with developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities will be described.
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 3. Educational Applications.
DENNIS ROSE (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the third of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, research conducted in educational settings will be shown.
Symposium #14
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Children with Autism
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Rachel S. F. Tarbox, Ph.D.

Treatments based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been scientifically demonstrated to be the most effective option for young children with autism. However, more research is needed in order to identify the most effective procedures, both for the assessment and reduction of challenging behavior, as well as teaching adaptive behavior. This symposium includes three presentations on empirical research on a variety of topics in the assessment and treatment of the behavior of individuals with autism, covering topics such as toilet training, preference assessment, and functional assessment. The symposium will be concluded with a discussion of the presentations.

Comparing Indirect, Descriptive, and Experimental Functional Assessments in Children with Autism.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Arthur E. Wilke (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Ryan Bergstrom (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Current standards of practice in psychological and educational services dictate the need for ascertaining the function of challenging behaviors before treating them and for behavioral interventions to be based on the function of behavior. At least three broad categories of functional assessments have been developed, including indirect, descriptive, and experimental procedures. Although experimental functional analyses are common in empirical research on behavioral intervention, indirect and descriptive functional assessment procedures may be more commonly used in clinical and educational practice. Little research has systematically compared indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments, let alone with participants within the autism population. The current study compares indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments, across several children with autism, representing a range of ages and topographies of challenging behavior.
Analyzing the Variables that Impact on Preference and Reinforcer Assessment Outcomes.
RICHARD B. GRAFF (New England Center for Children), Amy D. Lipcon (New England Center for Children), Leah Kara (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Individuals with autism frequently require programmed reinforcement for effective skill acquisition. Although behavior analysts possess the technology to identify effective reinforcers, little consideration is given to the variables that may impact on the results of preference and reinforcer assessments. In Study 1, stimulus preference assessments (SPA) were conducted with 7 adolescents with autism. In the first SPA (SPA-1), only highly preferred items were included. Another SPA (SPA-2) was then conducted, using the least-preferred stimulus from SPA-1, plus 7 new stimuli. The items ranked as least preferred on SPA-1 were now ranked as most preferred, suggesting that preference hierarchies are influenced by how stimuli are selected for assessment. Subsequent reinforcer assessments (RA) indicated that items classified as low-preference on SPA-1 functioned as reinforcers, but low-preference items from SPA-2 did not, suggesting that preference hierarchies generated through systematic preference assessments may not reflect absolute reinforcement value. Study 2 examined how the results of RA's were influenced by task difficulty. High- and low-preference stimuli were identified using paired-stimulus assessments. Reinforcer assessments (ABAB design) using easy tasks indicated that both high- and low-preference stimuli functioned as reinforcers, but when hard tasks were used, low-preference items did not consistently function as reinforcers.
Wearing a Dipaer during Toilet Training: An Evaluation of the Effects on Children Diagnosed with Autism.
RACHEL S. F. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Melody Nabizadeh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Urinary incontinence has been shown to be a pervasive problem in children with autism. Incontinence can affect a child both socially and in terms of risk of infectious diseases transmitted through bodily waste (Berk & Friman, 1990). Surveys have reported that anywhere from 50 -70% of all children with autism have difficulties with toileting (Whitely, 2004; Horvath, Papadimitriou, Rabsztyn, Drachenberg & Tildon, 1999). Recent research conducted with an adult with developmental disabilities demonstrated that wearing diapers may occasion urinary accidents (Tarbox, Williams & Friman, 2004). In the current investigation a reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of wearing a diaper during toilet training for two children diagnosed with autism. Results suggest that wearing a diaper may increase the likelihood of urinary incontinence. Moreover, successful voids increased during the course of evaluation. Treatment, follow-up, reliability and integrity data will be presented.
Invited Paper Session #16
CE Offered: BACB

Triple P as a Public Health Approach to Parenting: Current Status and Future Directions.

Monday, August 13, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Matthew R. Sanders, Ph.D.
Chair: John Tanner Blackledge (University of Wollongong)
MATTHEW R. SANDERS (University of Queensland)
Dr. Matthew Sanders is a Professor of Clinical Psychology and Director of the Parenting and Family Support Centre at The University of Queensland. He conducts research and has published extensively in the area of parenting, family psychology, and the prevention of behavioural and emotional problems in children. He is the founder of the internationally recognised Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, which has won a National Violence Prevention Award from the Commonwealth Heads of Government in Australia and is now run in 15 countries around the world. He has received an International Collaborative Prevention Research Award from the Society for Prevention Research and is a fellow of the Australian Psychological Society and the Academy of Experimental Criminology. He is a Visiting Professor in the School of Psychological Sciences at the University of Manchester and also the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Oxford. He has been a consultant to the Council of Europe on Positive Parenting.

A public health approach to parenting intervention offers communities an increasingly evidence-based suite of interventions for strengthening parenting skills at a whole of population level. As experience in the practical implementation of such a strategy develops, some of the special challenges begin to emerge. These include how to evaluate such whole of population interventions, dealing with ethnic diversity, managing program fidelity and program drift, and how to secure political and multiagency support. This presentation uses the experience of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program to review the evidence that underpins the public health approach and discusses a range of professional issues that may influence the effectiveness of the approach.

Invited Paper Session #19
CE Offered: BACB

Key Areas for Intervention for Children with Autism for Interpersonal Competency

Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Marjorie H. Charlop, Ph.D.
Chair: William L. Heward (The Ohio State University)
MARJORIE H. CHARLOP (Claremont McKenna College)
Dr. Marjorie H. Charlop-Christy is Professor of Psychology at Claremont McKenna College and the Director of The Claremont Autism Center, her renowned research and treatment center for children with autism and their families. Through her research, teaching, and writing, Dr. Charlop-Christy has made prolific contributions to the field of autism. Dr. Charlop-Christy has hundreds of professional conference presentations, workshops, and publications in the field of autism to her credit. Her book How to Treat the Child with Autism has been translated into Spanish and Chinese. Her upcoming book How to do Incidental Teaching with Autistic Spectrum Disorders will soon be released. Dr. Charlop-Christy has served as both Associate Editor, Editorial Board member, and ad hoc reviewer for numerous journals in the field of autism/mental retardation and applied behavioral analysis. She is known for her informative yet lively presentation style.

Deficits in interpersonal or social competency is a core feature of children with autism. Interpersonal competency has been defined as specific, identifiable skills that form the basis of social interactions, such as the contextually appropriate application of motor, cognitive, and affective behaviors. The literature is replete with various applications of ABA-oriented social skills programs. However, many programs are limited to acquisition of isolated social behaviors, or small changes in such, without pervasive generalization and maintenance effects. As well, only recently have we started to address deficits in perspective taking and the autistic childs predictions and responses to how others behave in social contexts. This presentation will focus on interventions that have been empirically verified, and have shown the most promise in terms of generalization and maintenance of interpersonal competency for children with autism. These interventions focus on such behaviors as greetings, social initiation, perspective taking, and verbal interactions. Procedures to be discussed will include Naturalistic Teaching Strategies, Incidental Teaching, Video Modeling, and Photo Scheduling. The efficacy of these types of interventions for interpersonal competency will be discussed.

Panel #21
CE Offered: BACB
International Panel - A Small Matter of Proof: The International Legacy of Donald M. Baer
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Karen S. Budd, Ph.D.
Chair: Karen S. Budd (DePaul University)
BARRY S. PARSONSON (Applied Psychology International, New Zealand)
JANE RAWLS (Applied Psychology International, New Zealand)
JAY S. BIRNBRAUER (Murdoch University)
R. MARK MATHEWS (University of Sydney)

In this panel discussion, we will show some highlights of the video record of a retirement celebration for Donald M. Baer, an eminent professor and scholar in behavioral science and a founder of applied behavior analysis. Four distinguished behavior analysts from Australia and New Zealand who were students and colleagues of Baer will serve as panelists to discuss the video and their recollections of working with Baer. In April of 2002, colleagues and friends of Baer gathered at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Over 100 participants from around the world celebrated in anticipation of Baers retirement. The retirement festivities included both scholarly and social agendas. The scholarship took the form of a research seminar with invited speakers, followed by interactive discussions in which Baer served as impromptu discussant. The seminar was followed by a banquet and an evening of commentaries by many of Baers friends and colleagues, in a joyful tribute of respect, love, and good humor. Baers untimely death only two weeks after the retirement celebration placed the events in an entirely new context. The video record provides young behavior analysts around the world a glimpse of an intellectual leader of applied behavior analysis.

Symposium #22
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in Verbal Capabilities, Observing Responses, and Parent Education from CABAS and Columbia University
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DEV; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.

We present four sets of experiments and observations about findings devoted to (a) the relations between observing responses and verbal capabilities or their underpinnings, (b) the role of multiple exemplar experiences in the acquisition of naming, and (c) procedures for effective parenting.

The Acquisition of Effective Parenting Repertoires as a Function of the CABAS® Parent Education Curriculum.
LYNN YUAN (Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: I investigated the components that were essential in teaching effective parenting skills in 2-experiments. The first study examined the effects of parent education training on their children's learning in school in a experimental and control group design. Dependent variables included standardized and criterion-referenced measures on thirty preschoolers. The independent variable consisted of parent education training package that included: (a) parent education workshops and (b) individual parent session. The second study was a continuation that taught parents to identify appropriate skills of a target repertoires via videotape observations of both teachers' and the parents instruction. After the mastery of the training package, post-experimental probes were conducted on: a) the parents' identification or target behaviors and generalization behaviors, and (b) children's mastery of the appropriate behaviors within a particular target repertoire.
More Evidence on the Source of Naming: SEI versus MEI.
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Lauren M. Stolfi (Columbia University Teachers College), Nirvana Pistoljevic (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We compared the effects of singular exemplar instruction (SEI) and multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the emergence of untaught listener and speaker responses, or naming, for 2-dimensional stimuli by preschool children who were missing the naming capability. In combined experimental-control group and nested single case multiple probe designs, we taught training sets of pictures using multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) to one group of 4-participants using a multiple probe design and the same sets using single exemplar instruction (SEI) to another set of 4-participants. Naming emerged from MEI but not SEI. Subsequently, the SEI group received MEI and naming emerged for them also.
Conditioning Two-Dimensional Visual Stimuli to Induce Two-Dimensional Match to Sample Responding in Preschoolers with Autism.
ANANYA GOSWAMI (Columbia University Teachers College), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Columbia University Teachers College & CABAS), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Dr. Shira A. Ackerman (Columbia University Teachers College), Jeanne Marie Speckman (Teachers College Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: We tested the effects of conditioned reinforcement for observing responses on the acquisition of eye contact, 3-D and 2-D discrimination of visual stimuli, and sensory discrimination across the senses. The participants were between the ages of three and six and diagnosed with educational disabilities, autism, and related communication disabilities. Prior to the onset of the study, the children did not make eye contact, attend to 3-D and 2-D stimuli, or demonstrate the capacity for matching across the five senses. Verbal developmental protocols associated with pre-listener levels of verbal capability and observing responses were implemented using a multiple probe design. The results showed significant increases in the acquisition of new verbal capabilities for the participants.
Observing Responses Associated with the Sequential Acquisition of Certain Aspects of Language.
DOLLEEN-DAY KEOHANE (Columbia University Teachers College & CABAS), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: We discuss the findings of a program of research on observing responses associated with the sequential acquisition of early verbal capabilities. These observing responses appear to be related to the discrimination and development of certain aspects of language. Conditioned reinforcement for listening to voices, stories and various genres of music as well as looking at stimuli, text and books may be prerequisites for the development of observing responses across listener, listener-speaker, speaker-as-own-listener and visual sensory modalities.
Invited Paper Session #25
CE Offered: BACB

If Applied Behavior Analysis Has So Much to Offer Education (and It Does), Why Does Education Take Such Limited Advantage of Its Findings?

Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: William L. Heward, Ph.D.
Chair: Neil T. Martin (The Treehouse Trust)
WILLIAM L. HEWARD (The Ohio State University)
Dr. William L. Heward has had an international impact on improving the education and treatment of people with disabilities by influencing the ways many teachers provide education to those children. He has accomplished this not only through his writing but also his university teaching and advising, consulting to schools and other educational programs, his extensive research programs in the field and numerous presentations at professional meetings for researchers and practitioners. Dr. Heward is perhaps best known for his publication (with Dr. John O. Cooper and Professor Timothy E. Heron) of the extremely widely-read Applied Behavior Analysis, an introduction to behavior analysis. Dr. Heward has written five other books, including Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, in its eighth edition and translated into multiple foreign languages. In addition, Dr. Heward has published more than 100 journal articles and book chapters, and has served on the editorial boards of The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Teacher Education and Special Education, Education and Treatment of Children, and Behavior Modification. In addition, Dr. Heward’s peers recognized him for his contributions to education by awarding him the 2006 American Psychological Association's Division 25 Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award.

Applied behavior analysiss (ABA) pragmatic, natural science approach to discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior and to developing a technology that takes practical advantage of those discoveries offers humankind our best hope for solving many of our problems. Unfortunately, ABA has had limited impact on society. Using public education as the exemplar, this presentation will explore the question, If ABA is so wonderful, why dont we (society) make greater use of it? Improving the effectiveness of education is one of societys most important problems, and for more than four decades applied behavior analysis has provided powerful demonstrations of how it can promote learning in the classroom. In spite of this evidence, behavior analysis is, at best, a bit player in efforts to reform education. Dr. Heward will identify a dozen reasons why ABA is ideally suited to help improve education, review a somewhat longer list of reasons that work against the widespread adoption of behavioral approaches in education, and suggest some actions that practitioners and researchers can take to enhance and further ABAs contributions to effective education.

Symposium #27
CE Offered: BACB
Using ABA to Teach Children with Autism Everything They Need to Know: The CARD Treatment Model and Curriculum Overview
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Rachel S. F. Tarbox, Ph.D.

Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, characterized by global and often severe deficits in virtually all areas of functioning. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the only treatment for autism with consistent scientific support. Nevertheless, many myths regarding the inadequacies of ABA persist. Commonly stated, yet unsubstantiated, criticisms include that ABA is only for young children, does not address complex social behavior, produces only rote or scripted improvements in behavior, and cannot address issues of complex cognitive functioning. In this symposium, we begin by describing the basic components of a comprehensive ABA program for children with autism and proceed with in-depth descriptions of how to teach play, language, and executive function.


Comprehensive Behavioral Services for Children with Autism: Introductory Program Description for the Center for Autism and Related Disorders.

KAREN WONG (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Erika Ford (University of Auckland, Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)

The Center for Autism and Related Disorders is a global organization which provides comprehensive behavioral services for children with autism. This presentation provides an overview of the CARD treatment model and describes the primary components of a comprehensive ABA program for children with autism. Goals of assessment and intervention, as well as teaching strategies such as discrete trial training, natural environment training, and fluency training, will be described and discussed.

From Simple Mands and Tacts to Abstract Concept Formation: A Comprehensive Curriculum for Teaching Language to Children with Autism.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A core deficit characterizing autism is impairment in language and therefore a core feature of any comprehensive ABA program for children with autism is a focus on teaching language. We describe a comprehensive behavioral curriculum for establishing language in children with autism, ranging from simple echoics, mands, and tacts, to complex conversational intraverbals and relational concept formation. The curriculum is based on Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior and on an analysis of complex concept formation as generalized operant behavior.
From Functional Pretend to Abstract: A Comprehensive Behavioral Curriculum for Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism.
SARAH BEWICK (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: One of the primary areas of concern for the treatment of individuals with autism is remediation of deficits in social interaction. Playing is a form of social interaction which is crucial to childhood development. We describe a comprehensive play curriculum, starting with the earliest forms of beginning and “functional pretend” play, ranging to complex and abstract “imaginary” and “socio-dramatic” play. All major areas of play are taught via interdependent teaching programs, broken down into small teachable steps, and taught and assessed as generalized operant classes.
Teaching “Executive Function” Skills to Children with Autism.
PAUL HARRIS (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Executive functions are said to be the brain functions which control goal-directed behavior. A significant amount of research has documented deficits in executive function in children with autism. However, the only evidence for the presence or absence of executive function is the presence or absence of particular skills, that is, behavior. We describe a behavioral curriculum for establishing the skills deemed “executive function” in children with autism. Generalized skills are established which improve “planning,” “inhibition,” “attention,” “working memory,” “problem-solving,” and “self-monitoring,” among others. Teaching these executive functions involves breaking down each area into small, teachable units, and teaching multiple exemplars, so that generalized operant classes form, yielding generalization across settings and people.
Symposium #29
CE Offered: BACB
Widespread Training and Dissemination In Australia and New Zealand of a Non-Linear ABA Model for Supporting People with Challenging Behaviour Part A
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA/TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gary W. LaVigna (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis)
CE Instructor: Gary W. LaVigna, Ph.D.

For more than 15-years, the Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis (IABA) has been engaged in widespread training and dissemination of ABA in support of people with challenging behavior in Australia and New Zealand. This has included lecture courses covering basic principles; practicum training; and the training of trainers. Well over a thousand trainees have participated in these programs from all seven Australian states and from both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The results of this training and dissemination program have been reported in the literature in a number of journal articles. This two part symposium brings this literature up to date, with reports at the state and agency levels on systems impact (Part A) and with a number of Type III case studies demonstrating effectiveness across a wide range of behaviors and clientele, including those typically not represented in the published literature (Part B).

Tasmanian Training of Trainers: Training Practitioners to Meet Defined Standards and Resulting Client Outcomes.
MATTHEW SPICER (Tasmanian Disability Services: Tasmania, Australia), Nicola Crates (Tasmanian Disability Services: Tasmania, Australia)
Abstract: A recently published study reported that IABA's training of trainers program was capable of training a team of trainers (in New Zealand) to train behavioral practitioners to carry out comprehensive functional assessments and to develop multi-element support plans that met defined standards to the same level of performance that their own trainees are able to attain. However, the effects of this program on client behaviors were not reported in that study. This paper reports a replication of IABA’s training of trainers program in Tasmania and shows similar outcomes. However, the effects on client outcomes was also measured and showed that client behavior, both in terms of occurrence and episodic severity, were also dramatically improved. Client profiles included those with forensic backgrounds, brain injury, intellectual disabilities and autism.
The Development of Community Based, Behavior Intervention Support Teams In Victoria Australia: Current Status.
GARY RADLER (ABA Private Practice)
Abstract: Fifteen years ago, IABA's multi-element model provided the framework for the development of state-wide, community based, behavior intervention support teams (BIST’s) throughout Victoria. Previously published studies reported that the “overall success rate was substantial” in terms of client outcomes and that this model for providing support was “cost efficient.” This paper reports the extent to which the IABA model continues to provide the framework for BIST, the extent to which BIST practices may have varied from the model, and the extent to which BIST has kept up with the model’s continuing development over the past 15-years.
Using Organization Behavior Management to Improve and Maintain Service Quality.
ADRIAN HIGGINS (Dunedin Community Care Trust; Dunedin, New Zealand)
Abstract: One compenent of IABA’s multi-element model, referred to as Periodic Service Review (PSR), involves the use of the principles and procedures of organizational behavior management to assure the quality of behavioral and other services and to assure the consistent implementation of behavioral support plans. A PSR system has four elements: operationally defined process and outcome standards, frequent monitory against those standards, the use of visual feedback graphs to motivate staff, and competency based, criterion referenced staff training. After briefly reviewing the published literature on PSR applications, this paper reports an agency wide application and the results obtained in improving and maintaining service quality as measured against operationally defined outcome and process standards.
Training Parents to Reliably Measure the Quality of Behavioral Services against Defined Standards.
YVONNE CREW (ABA Private Practice; Queensland, Australia), Alice Corcoran (Parent)
Abstract: IABA has derived a set of defined standards from the published ABA literature for the purposes of evaluating the quality of behavioral services in the area of challenging behavior. These standards have been used to reliably evaluate the behavioral services provided by IABA staff, IABA trainees, and the trainees of the trainers trained by IABA. This study investigated whether parents of children with disabilities could be trained to reliably evaluate the kinds of behavioral services that might be needed by their child. Specifically, parents were trained to use an instrument that defined 140 separate criteria for evaluating Comprehensive Functional Assessments and their resulting recommended Multi-element Behavioral Support Plans. After training, by comparing different parent’s, criteria by criteria, independent evaluations to each other, criteria by criteria agreements and disagreements were identified and reliability indices were calculated. The conclusion is that parents can be trained to reliably evaluate the quality of behavioral services against defined criteria. The implications of this for parent training and for holding services agencies accountable to the consumers they service are discussed.
Invited Paper Session #30
CE Offered: BACB

Behavior Analysis and AIDS Education: The Evolution of a Self-Management Program.

Monday, August 13, 2007
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Thomas A. Brigham, Ph.D.
THOMAS A. BRIGHAM (Washington State University), Ryan Sain (Washington State University), Dana F. Lindemann (Washington State University)
Dr. Thomas A. Brigham has been a major contributor to the understanding of self-management and self-control by taking such basic research findings as those on choice and preference and effectively extending them to applications among young people. He has published 53 papers and 7 books, including co-editing the influential Handbook of Applied Behavioral Research. He has served as Associate Editor of Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, The Behavior Analyst, and Behavioral Interventions. Dr. Brigham has held several distinguished positions, including an Erskine Fellowship at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand and a Senior Visiting Fellowship at University College in Cardiff, Wales. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Behavior Analysis and won the ABA Outreach Award in 1992. At Washington State University, he was honored with the Mullen Teaching Award, the College of Liberal Arts Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award, and the Sahlin Award. He has also served the field of Behavior Analysis as President of Northwest ABA and as an Area Coordinator for the ABA convention program.

Psychology 106 (Psychology applied to daily living: Dealing with friends, alcohol, and sex) and its supporting structure are the product of analyzing literature on AIDS prevention, especially the work of Kelly and his associates (e.g., Kelly, 1995a, 1995b) and the Fishers (e.g. Fisher et al., 1996), and several years of our own research (Brigham, Gilbert, Donahoe, Thomas, & Zemke, 2002; Horn & Brigham, 1996; Lindemann, Brigham, Harbke, and Alexander, 2005). The resulting program has several critical features worth noting. First, as a graded one-credit course offered as an optional component of Introductory Psychology, it has both academic and experiential content. Second, the course involves small sections of approximately 20 students with instruction based on discussion and exercises with minimal lecture. Third, students actively and systematically collect data on their own behavior and evaluate the information in relation to their own goals and values. Fourth, teams of two junior-senior-level undergraduate peer instructors trained in both the course content and instructional procedures teach the sections. Finally, information on HIV/AIDS is presented within the context of an integrated conceptual framework for personal and sexual decision-making that also covers other STIs, sexual assault, and related issues. The features of the program have evolved as a function of experimental and qualitative research and continue to be assessed each time the class is taught. The results of several experiments assessing the effectiveness of the program show it reduces student high-risk sexual behavior, reduces student alcohol consumption and increases the numbers of students practicing abstinence. The American Association of Colleges and Universities has recognized the course as a model AIDS education and prevention program. Also, the course is currently taught at several other universities across the United States and we are working to introduce it at universities in South Africa.

Symposium #34
CE Offered: BACB
Promoting Listening and Speaking Skills in Learners with Autism and Related Disorders
Monday, August 13, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gina Green (San Diego State University)
Discussant: Jay S. Birnbrauer (Murdoch University)
CE Instructor: Gina Green, Ph.D.

Although behavior analytic methods have proved effective for building a wide array of communication skills in young children with autism, there is a paucity of research on procedures for promoting certain skills in that domain. We describe three investigations of procedures for teaching skills ranging from discriminating simple auditory stimuli to producing syntactically correct utterances. Implications for designing and implementing communication training curricula for learners with autism and related disorders are discussed.

Research to Practice: Teaching Auditory Discriminations to Learners with Autism.
GINA GREEN (San Diego State University), Kristine L. Marino (Connecticut Center for Child Development)
Abstract: Many learners with autism have difficulty acquiring receptive language skills, such as matching spoken words to objects. Those seemingly simple performances involve auditory-visual conditional discriminations, which are composed of both simple successive discriminations among auditory stimuli and simple simultaneous discriminations among visual stimuli. Research suggests that learners who fail to acquire auditory-visual conditional discriminations often do not demonstrate the component simple discriminations, but can acquire conditional discriminations after the component skills have been trained. Most previous studies of methods for teaching simple discriminations to learners with developmental disabilities used visual stimuli. We investigated two sets of procedures for teaching simple auditory discriminations to learners with autism and mental retardation. The first experiment was conducted in a learning laboratory with touchscreen-equipped computers using specialized software. Results indicated that 6 of 9 learners readily acquired 4 simple auditory discriminations. For the second experiment, the laboratory procedures have been translated into a “tabletop” format that could be used in classrooms. Preliminary data on the effectiveness of the “tabletop” procedures are described, and the potential benefits of establishing flexible auditory discrimination skills in learners with autism are outlined.
Improving the Responsiveness of Children with Autism to Auditory Environmental Events.
JANE S. HOWARD (California State University, Stanislaus), Mette Madsen (The Kendall School)
Abstract: Children with autism are sometimes described as having deficits in attending to stimuli in their environments. This lack of responsiveness may jeopardize the children’s safety, limit their interactions with others, and preclude participation in a variety of learning opportunities. In this study, procedures designed to improve attending to auditory environmental events in preschool- and kindergarten-aged children with autism were evaluated with a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that responding to the trained stimuli increased with the intervention. Maintenance and generalization to untrained situations and stimuli were also demonstrated.
Use of a Pictorial Prompting System to Improve Language Complexity in Children with Autism.
COLEEN SPARKMAN (Therapeutic PATHWAYS), Jenny Fischer (The Kendall School), Jane S. Howard (California State University, Stanislaus), Allyson Moore (Therapeutic PATHWAYS)
Abstract: Behavior analytic research has identified effective methods for improving many language skills in young children with autism. Research on procedures for increasing mean length of utterance and syntactical complexity is limited, however. The Fokes Sentence Builder is a program designed for use by speech -language pathologists to teach sentence structure to children with language delays. Generative instructional methods, including modifications to The Fokes Sentence Builder, were developed to teach syntactical frames to 3 preschoolers with autism. Acquisition of the targeted response classes and generalization to novel stimuli were demonstrated.
Invited Paper Session #37
CE Offered: BACB

Engaging People with Dementia in Life.

Monday, August 13, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: R. Mark Mathews, Ph.D.
Chair: Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
R. MARK MATHEWS (University of Sydney)
Prof. R. Mark Mathews is Sesquicentenary Chair of Ageing, Health and Disability at the University of Sydney. Professor Mathews received his Ph.D. in 1980 and previously held faculty appointments at the University of Hawaii and the University of Kansas. He is a Fellow of the Gerontology Society of America and received a distinguished teaching award from the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education. His research has been designed to contribute to understanding of factors that affect successful aging and application of that knowledge to social programs that optimize independence and autonomy. His behavioral gerontology research has been published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, Journal of Gerontological Nursing, Journal of Housing for the Elderly, and Alzheimer’s Care Quarterly. He is currently an investigator on research grants from the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute and the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. He has served as lead investigator on over USD$3,200,000 in grants funded by the National Institute on Aging, the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association, Kansas Department on Aging, Michigan Department of Health, and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

Dementia is the largest single contributor to the cost of care in nursing homes today, and the prevalence of dementia continues to increase at a much greater rate than both the total population and the older population. Dementia is associated with a decline in reasoning, memory, and other cognitive functioning that often results in challenging or disruptive behaviors such as agitation, aggression, repetitive questioning, and wandering. This decline also impairs the ability of the person to carry out many activities of daily living. The physical environment and well-meaning caregivers can exacerbate these behavioral excesses and deficits. Nursing home staff often ignores independent behaviors, but respond to dependent behaviors with enabling responses. This presentation will describe a range of environmental redesign and staff training procedures that have been demonstrated to help people with dementia engage in life and re-acquire a number of daily living.

Symposium #38
CE Offered: BACB
Widespread Training and Dissemination in Australia and New Zealand of a Non-Linear ABA Model for Supporting People with Challenging Behavior Part B
Monday, August 13, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gary W. LaVigna (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Wendi Beamish (Centre For Learning Research)
CE Instructor: Gary W. LaVigna, Ph.D.

For more than 15-years, the Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis (IABA) has been engaged in widespread training and dissemination of ABA in support of people with challenging behavior in Australia and New Zealand. This has included lecture courses covering basic principles; practicum training; and the training of trainers. Well over a thousand trainees have participated in these programs from all seven Australian states and from both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The results of this training and dissemination program have been reported in the literature in a number of journal articles. This two part symposium brings this literature up to date, with reports at the state and agency levels on systems impact (Part A) and with a number of Type III case studies demonstrating effectiveness across a wide range of behaviors and clientele, including those typically not represented in the published literature (Part B).

Titus Jabaltjari – Central Australian Desert Traditional Arrente Man: Out of the Locked Ward and on the Journey Home.
DARYL MURDOCK (Disability Support Team, Aged and Disability Program)
Abstract: This presentation describes the application of IABA’s non-linear, multi-element model in support of an Aboriginal man whose challenging behavior had resulted in years of incarceration in various psychiatric and forensic settings. As a result of ABA, he has been living in the community successfully and has been reunited with his family. The implications of this for the introduction of ABA to help people from other cultural backgrounds and settings are discussed as well as are the necessary considerations for such applications.
Type III Case Studies of Non-Linear Behavioral Support Working with Adults and Children.
MONIQUE GILLISSEN (Egmont Terrace Specialists Rooms), Lyn Platt (Waimokaia School), Gail Palmer (Hills Community Support Group, Western Australia), Adam Nobilia (Eastern Respite and Recreation; New South Wales; Australia), Charlotte Howell (Hills Community Support Group; Western Australia )
Abstract: Type III case studies are presented which add to the empirical base demonstrating the efficacy of positive, non-linear behavior analysis with both children and adults. The target behaviors addressed range from serious physical aggression toward others and self-injury to refusal to eat. The settings included public schools, a residential school, adult day service settings and a residential program. A school-wide application is also described.
Applications of IABA’s Multi-Element Model with Severe Self-Injury.
Abstract: The implications of IABA’s non-linear model for the treatment of self-injury are discussed. Among the issues is the need to observe and measure episodic severity when working with behavior that is potentially life threatening. Unfortunately, this measure is missing from the published literature. A literature review and case study data are used to outline a research agenda for the future.
Invited Paper Session #49
CE Offered: BACB

Why Tolerance to Cocaine's Effects on Fixed-Interval Performance is Different from That on Fixed-Ratio Performance

Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CE Instructor: Marc N. Branch, Ph.D.
Chair: Kennon A. Lattal (West Virginia University)
MARC N. BRANCH (University of Florida)
Dr. Marc Branch has conducted impressive and definitive research in a number of areas related to basic operant conditioning, including memory, observing behavior, and reinforcement schedules. He is best known for directing one of the country's leading programs in behavioral pharmacology. He and his students have conducted a long line of research on agents such as pentobarbital, d-amphetamine, and cocaine, and on environmental factors that influence drug tolerance. This work has been funded continuously for 30 years by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and has been published in the flagship journals in both behavior analysis and pharmacology. In recognition of this consistent track record of excellence, he has been the recipient of a coveted research career award from NIMH. Dr. Branch has held a number of leadership positions in our field, including president of ABA International and Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, editor of Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and The Behavior Analyst, and either member or chair of study sections for the past 25 years. He is a Fellow in both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society.

Previous research has revealed that tolerance to cocaine's effects on behavior under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules depends on the FR parameter. In contrast, tolerance to the drug's effects on behavior under fixed-interval schedules has been unrelated to FI parameter. Although FI and FR schedules with equivalent inter-reinforcement times result in roughly equivalent average post-reinforcement pause times, the distributions of pauses differ. Specifically, the conditional probability of ending the pause grows with time on FI schedules, but remains constant on FR schedules, a difference that may be related to the fact that longer pauses on FI schedules are associated with shorter delays to reinforcement, whereas that relation does not exist for FR schedules. To test whether that difference plays a role in the FI-FR difference in drug effects, pigeons were trained under a response-initiated FI schedule, wherein the FI starts timing when the pause ends. Under those conditions, tolerance was related to FI parameter.

Symposium #52
CE Offered: BACB
Descriptive and Experimental Analyses of Critical Components of EIBI for Children with ASDs
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AAB/VRB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: William H. Ahearn, Ph.D.

This symposium will discuss critical components of effective early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. There will be four presentations of descriptive or experimental analyses of variables related to providing effective treatment. Doreen Granpeesheh will present two case studies of children with ASDs who have achieved typical or near-typical functioning through early intensive behavioral intervention. Rick Graff will discuss variables related to reinforcing behavior. Effective reinforcement is critically related to accurately identifying events that children prefer. Graff and colleagues compared a childs verbal report of their preferences to assessments that involved varying access to those events. They also surveyed parents of children with ASDs about their childs preferences and compared this to assessments the parents subsequently conducted with them. Bill Ahearn will then present analyses of delayed echolalia and appropriate vocal verbal behavior. An emphasis will be placed on the effects of tact training on appropriate and inappropriate vocal responses. He will then discuss social motivational deficits of children with autism and some of the difficulties these present for the child once they have learned to communicate. Several measures of social preference and joint attention-related behavior will be presented for typically developing children and children with autism.

Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism: Case Studies of Optimal Outcome.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Mary Ann Cassell (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Green (2002) identified the need for detailed case studies of the effects of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism, at the level of the individual client. This presentation describes the course and outcome of such intervention for two young children who achieved optimal outcomes. Direct behavioral measures and results of standardized, age-normed assessment indicate substantial improvements in language, social behavior, and adaptive functioning, to near-typical or typical ranges, across domains. Keywords: early intensive behavioral intervention, outcomes, autism
Skill Acquisition in Individuals with Autism: The Importance of Accurate Identification of Reinforcers.
RICHARD B. GRAFF (New England Center for Children), Theresa Cerrone (New England Center for Children), Jennifer Keras (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: In order to maximize skill acquisition in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), effective reinforcers must be used. First, data will be presented suggesting that many teachers and clinicians working with individuals with ASD rely on self-report or caregiver opinion to identify potential reinforcers. Next, data will be presented demonstrating that some individuals with ASD cannot effectively communicate which items they prefer, and that caregiver opinion may not identify an individual’s most potent reinforcers. In Study 1, verbal and tangible preference assessments were compared in 4 preschoolers with ASD. In the tangible assessment, on each trial two stimuli were placed in front of the participant; in the verbal assessment, participants were asked, “Do you want x or y”. The two assessments identified the same most- and least-preferred item for only 2 of 4 participants, suggesting that self-report may not accurately identify preferred stimuli. In Study 2, parents of 8 children with autism were asked to rank their child’s most potent reinforcers. Next, parents conducted systematic preference assessments with their children. Results indicated that only 1 of 8 parents accurately predicted their child’s most preferred item. Results are discussed in terms of the need for accurate reinforcer identification for skill acquisition.
Vocal Stereotypy, Requesting, and Commenting: From Purely Vocal to Vocal Verbal Behavior.
WILLIAM H. AHEARN (New England Center for Children), Kathleen M. Clark (New England Center for Children), Jessica Masalsky (New England Center for Children), Sarah Kingery (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This presentation will discuss both undesirable vocal behavior and desirable vocal verbal behavior of children with autism. Delayed and immediate echolalia are frequently encountered in this population. This presentation will describe assessment and treatment of delayed echolalia. First, methods for assessing, and functional hypotheses of, vocal stereotypy will be described. Systematic, experimental analyses imply that vocal stereotypy can serve various functions for the child with autism but the most common function of vocal stereotypy is the production of sensory stimulation. Along with the putative function of the vocal stereotypy for several children with autism, successful intervention strategies will be described. The primary focus will be on response interruption and redirection (RIRD). Next, forms of appropriate vocal verbal behavior that emerge during redirection will be described. Among the appropriate vocal verbal responses that have been observed are mands or requests. Mands are often the most common forms of vocal verbal behavior freely emitted by children with autism. However, specific training procedures can foster the development of tacts or comments. The procedures that produced prompted and spontaneous vocal verbal behavior will be analyzed. Finally, some implications of these investigations on the nature of autism spectrum disorders will be forwarded.
Social Motivational Deficits for Children with ASDs: Social Preference and Joint Attention Responding.
WILLIAM H. AHEARN (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This presentation will discuss autism as a deficit in social functioning due to genetic inheritance and environmental experience. It is thought that autism is prenatally determined and is the product of abnormal brain growth regulation. Supporting research will be briefly reviewed. Aspects of communicative impairment, play, and other social skill deficits, considered characteristic of autism, will then be conceptually analyzed. This conceptual analysis will be based on descriptive and experimental analyses of behavior. Some of the data presented will include assessments of children’s preferences for social interaction, assessment of preference for social stimuli (e.g., hugs, praise, hi-fives) and descriptive analyses of joint attention responding and initiation. Several studies of play taught through video modeling will also be briefly discussed. The practical implications of these analyses will be outlined and a theory of abnormal development that leads to the diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder will be suggested.
Symposium #53
CE Offered: BACB
Disseminating Behavior Analysis through Community Outreach: Three Effective and Efficient Strategies for Making a Difference
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
L4 Room 1
Area: CSE/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jennifer L. Austin (California State University, Fresno)
Discussant: Joseph E. Morrow (Applied Behavior Consultants)
CE Instructor: Jennifer L. Austin, Ph.D.

Effective dissemination of behavior analysis has always been a problem for our field. Although marketing mistakes might account for some of these difficulties, exploration of more basic issues might be warranted before tackling our historical PR problems. Three key issues seem to elucidate the scope of the problem: 1) many people do not know that the field of behavior analysis exists; 2) those who do know that the field exists are often confused about our nature and scope; 3) those who understand the benefits of our science often do not have access to our services. For all three problems, a common outcome is that those who could benefit most from behavior analysis are not afforded the opportunities to realize those benefits. This session will present three potential options for addressing these problems. Specifically, it will address three specific strategies for increasing knowledge about and access to behavior analytic services.

Spreading the Word without Using the Words: Community Outreach Conferences as a Mechanism for Informing Laypersons about Behavior Analysis.
JENNIFER L. AUSTIN (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: In a market flooded with non-empirical strategies for behavior change, dissemination of factual information about what “works” is more important than ever. This presentation will address the process and outcomes of organizing behavior analytic conferences for lay audiences as a mechanism for disseminating accurate information. It will cover such important issues as developing conference programs that fit with the needs of the community, selecting speakers who are likely to be good PR agents for ABA, marketing the conference to the people who could most benefit from attending, and ensuring reinforcing experiences for conference attendees. Descriptive data derived from conference attendees will be shared to elucidate some challenges for dissemination.
Family-Based Behavior Analysis: Positive Parenting Classes to Increase Access to Resources.
CRISS WILHITE (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: In Central California, parents of children with disabilities have access to a nine-week behavior analytic parent training course. A state-funded agency that provides services to the disabled contracts with the local state university to provide the service. Parents attend six classes taught by a graduate student in Applied Behavior Analysis while their children are being cared for in other rooms by the program supervisor and undergraduate behavior analysis students. Each parent also has a student intern to help with individual questions, program design and homework. Three home visits are made by the intern and a childcare worker familiar with the client child to ensure the principles and techniques learned in class are generalizing to the home. Classes are offered in English and Spanish with user friendly materials provide in both languages.
Fresno State Autism Research and Treatment Center: Reaching out to a Community in Need.
AMANDA N. ADAMS (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: This presentation will describe Fresno State’s center-based program for young children with autism. The goals of this program are threefold: 1) to provide the community with outstanding behavior analysis programs for children with ASD; 2) to provide excellent training and experience in behavioral treatment for children with autism to undergraduate and graduate students; 3) to conduct and promote active research in best practices for behavioral treatment for autism. This presentation will highlight the process for developing the program and describe how such programs can be mutually beneficial to communities and service providers. Specific attention will be given to factors that present challenges to development and service delivery, such as working with diverse cultural and socio-economic populations, acquiring resources from existing human service agencies, and developing services in non-urban areas.
Symposium #54
CE Offered: BACB
Judging Evidence of Treatment Efficacy in Scientific Literature on Low Incidence Populations
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
L2 Room 3
Area: TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Howard Goldstein (Florida State University)
Discussant: Cameron J. Camp (Myers Research Institute)
CE Instructor: Howard Goldstein, Ph.D.

Information clearinghouses, professional organizations, and government agencies have developed criteria to identify Evidence-Based Practices. Three presenters will discuss applications of those criteria. Goldstein will discuss why different stakeholders (i.e., interventionists, client-consumers, policy makers, and scientists) propose different evaluation criteria and why single subject design research has been largely ignored. He will introduce a set of criteria that have general applicability to group and single-subject experimental designs and illustrate its application to47 articles investigating social skills interventions for preschoolers with autism. Results will be summarized using a Consumer Reports format. Dr. Green will focus on the development of the National Autism Centers rating scheme used to develop evidence-based guidelines for behavioral interventions for autism. Application is illustrated using research on "Applied Verbal Behavior" techniques. Dr. Bourgeois will discuss the application of a set of guidelines to evaluate evidence for behavioral treatments for adult neurogenic disorders (i.e., dementia, traumatic brain injury, aphasia). She will discuss shortcomings of current evaluation systems and propose an alternative that will more adequately reflect the empirical support for interventions in the area of dementia in particular. Dr. Camp will offer perspectives on the state of intervention research on low incidence populations in his role as discussant.

Application of a Consumer Reports Evaluation of Social Skills Interventions in Autism.
HOWARD GOLDSTEIN (Florida State University)
Abstract: A variety of information clearinghouses, professional organizations, and government agencies have developed criteria to judge Evidence-Based Practices (EBP). It is important to consider why different stakeholders might select different evaluation criteria and perhaps why there has been a tendency to ignore single subject experimental design research. How perspectives are expected to differ among interventionists, client-consumers, policy makers, and scientists will be discussed. The presentation will introduce a set of criteria that have general applicability to experimental research. These criteria can be used to judge empirical support associated with various intervention strategies used with different populations. A set of 14 criteria were developed to evaluate single-subject and group experimental designs according to: (a) Experimental design characteristics, (b) Measurement and reliability, (c) Evaluation of treatment effects, and (d) External validity dimensions. A good deal of literature has reported interventions targeting social and communication skills in preschoolers with autism. Use of this EBP system will be illustrated through an examination of 47 articles investigating social skills interventions in this population. Results of this review will be summarized and tables using a Consumer Reports format will illustrate the adequacy of the studies across the dimensions rated. Applicability to various stakeholder groups will be discussed.
Promoting Inclusion of Behavior Analytic Research in Evidence-Based Guidelines for Autism Intervention.
GINA GREEN (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Many protocols for developing evidence-based practice guidelines exclude evidence from behavior analytic studies. To date, the few guidelines that have incorporated such evidence have been based on evaluations of only limited aspects of single-case studies, or have included only studies that met formulaic criteria regarding design. Most neglected the essential components of measurement and clear demonstration of functional relations. This paper describes a comprehensive method for evaluating single-case studies that is consistent with behavior analytic research methods as defined by Sidman (1960) and Johnston and Pennypacker (1993) as well as contemporary research on autism treatment. The strength of the evidence produced by each study is inferred from quantitative ratings of each of the following components: design, measurement of the dependent variable, measurement of the independent variable, participant ascertainment, treatment effect, and generality of treatment effect. This rating scheme has been proposed for use in the National Autism Center’s project to develop evidence-based guidelines for behavioral and educational interventions for autism. Application of the rating scheme is illustrated using research on "Applied Verbal Behavior" techniques. Possibilities for using the rating scheme to improve behavior analytic research and to promote wider acceptance of behavior analytic research methods are discussed.
Evaluating Evidence for Behavioral Treatments of Individuals with Neurological Impairments.
MICHELLE S. BOURGEOIS (Florida State University)
Abstract: The application of a set of guidelines to evaluate evidence for behavioral treatments for adult neurogenic disorders (i.e., dementia, traumatic brain injury (TBI), aphasia) will be presented. In 2001, an ad hoc committee of the Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders and Sciences proposed to develop evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of communication disorders in individuals with neurological impairments individuals. To date, comprehensive reviews of the treatment literature in the areas of aphasia, dementia, dysarthria, and traumatic brain injury have been published in the Journal of Medical Speech Language Pathology. The paucity of randomized control trials studies with these clinical populations, and the rejection of single-subject studies as unable to index treatment efficacy (Robey and Schultz, 1998), are the reasons why the endorsement of most of the current treatment approaches for these populations are limited. The shortcomings of current evaluations systems will be outlined and an alternative approach that will more adequately reflect the empirical support for interventions in the area of dementia in particular will be offered.
Invited Paper Session #56
CE Offered: BACB

Behavioral Contingency Analysis and Human Affairs: A New Discipline?

Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Francis Mechner, Ph.D.
Chair: David C. Palmer (Smith College)
FRANCIS MECHNER (The Mechner Foundation)
Dr. Francis Mechner Born in Vienna, Mechner received his doctorate from Columbia University in 1957 under Keller and Schoenfeld, and then continued in the department as lecturer in experimental psychology until 1960. He developed the “counting schedule” and schedules for time estimation, and built a computerized psychopharmacology laboratory at Schering Corporation that featured the use of “rat rotors.” In 1959, he published a notation system for behavioral contingencies, the ancestor of his present system for the analysis of behavioral contingencies in human affairs. Mechner has also published numerous papers and chapters on his extensive research in the field of learning, some of it related to his avocational accomplishments as a pianist of concert caliber, linguist, chess and go master, and painter. Mechner has been funding his research activity personally through companies that he founded. The first, in 1960, was Basic Systems, Inc., which pioneered programmed learning, followed by ten more companies, each based on some innovative technology. From 1963-65, Mechner worked with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in upgrading science teaching in South America and Asia. In 1970 he participated in the development of Sesame Street. In the 1970s, he implemented early childhood development programs for state governments, and large-scale manpower development programs for the Brazilian government. He is currently a Trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.

A detailed understanding of the prevailing behavioral contingencies is a precondition for the management of most human affairs. This paper presents a language for analyzing and diagramming any system of behavioral contingencies, including the complex ones encountered in the fields of law, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and economics. The language for such analysis, and its associated notation system, specifies the if, then relationships between acts, their consequences, and the termination of time periods. Analyses and diagrams of wide-ranging examples like fraud, betting, blackmail, various games, theft, contracts, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, loan transactions, insurance, elections, global warming, personal tipping, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, mistaken identity, etc. are presented as illustrations of the ability of the languages three-term vocabulary (acts, consequences, and time period terminations) and the associated simple syntax to generate the myriad nuances of meaning needed to provide the required generality and reach. A process is outlined for using the system as a tool for addressing practical problems in the above areas. One approach is to develop computer software for simulating and modeling the ways in which various possible assumptions and contingency designs would play out, and the behavioral dynamics that would ensue.

Symposium #57
CE Offered: BACB
Addressing the Needs of Low Functioning Children with Autism: Developing and Assessing Social Skills Programs
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 4
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Discussant: Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
CE Instructor: Marjorie H. Charlop, Ph.D.

Low functioning children with autism (LFA) have few social skills programs developed to address their specific needs. LFA have often been considered to be recipients of social overtures, but not initiators. In the present symposium, several new social skills interventions have been designed and empirically validated with low functioning children with autism. In presentation 1, LFA were taught social initiations via Discrete Trial Training (DTT) and Multiple Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS), with a robust assessment of generalization of the social initiations. The results suggested that the MITS procedure was effective with LFA in terms of acquisition and generalization of social initiations. In presentation 2, a functional analysis was performed to determine whether LFA demonstrated inappropriate behaviors that served social functions. After the functional analysis revealed social intent, appropriate social initiations were taught as replacement behaviors. Finally, in presentation 3, a new social skills training procedure, Steps to Social Success was developed, empirically validated, and then compared with the Social Stories procedure. The social skills procedures presented in this symposium will be discussed in terms of creating socials skills protocols that are modifiable for all levels of functioning and provide both empirical evidence and hope for lower functioning children with autism.

Teaching Low Functioning Children with Autism to be Social Initiators: An Assessment and Comparison of a Naturalistic Based Teaching Strategy and Traditional Discrete Trial Training.
KARI BERQUIST (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Few empirical research studies have attempted to teach low functioning children with autism to be social initiators, thus suggesting that their ability to learn such complex social behaviors is questionable. However research shows that low functioning children with autism have acquired a vast amount of skills, from imitation to speech. To address the needs of low functioning children and the noticeable gap in the literature, this study was conducted to teach nonverbal social initiations (e.g., greetings, sharing) to three low functioning children with autism. Children were taught two different social initiation behaviors, using two empirically validated teaching techniques, Modified Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS), a Naturalistic Teaching Strategy (NaTS), and Discrete Trial Training (DTT). An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness of MITS and DTT in terms of acquisition and generalization. Results show that low functioning children were able to acquire behaviors using either treatment (MITS or DTT); however rate of acquisition occurred more rapidly with target behaviors taught using MITS. In addition, results show that only behaviors taught using MITS successfully showed rapid acquisition and evidence of generalization and maintenance. Results are discussed in terms of evaluation of different treatments and performance of low functioning children.
Social Functions of Inappropriate Behaviors: Increasing Social Initiations in Low Functioning Children with Autism through Functional Analysis and Communication Training.
ALISSA GREENBERG (Claremont McKenna College), Katherine K. Byrd (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Previous social skills programs have failed to recognize that low functioning children with autism may already possess social intent, expressed through their aberrant behaviors. This two experiment investigation uses an innovative approach to teach low functioning children with autism how to initiate social interactions by taking advantage of the socio-communicative functions of their preexisting aberrant behaviors. In Experiment 1, a functional analysis was performed to classify aberrant behaviors (e.g., grabbing and stereotypy) of three children in terms of their social function. Results indicated that these behaviors served as social initiations. In Experiment 2, appropriate social behaviors that served the same socio-communicative function were chosen as replacement for the children’s inappropriate behaviors. Two children successfully learned appropriate social initiating behaviors through the use of functional communication training in the children’s natural environments. Furthermore, the learned social behaviors replaced the previously identified inappropriate behaviors and the children demonstrated some generalization and maintenance of the target skills. These findings suggest that it would be negligent for social skills programs to continue to ignore the needs of low functioning children. Low functioning children with autism can learn to perform social initiations and identifying the social function of their inappropriate behaviors may facilitate this process.
Social Skills Chaining with Children with Autism to Form Complex Social Interactions.
DEBRA BERRY MALMBERG (Claremont Graduate University), Sabrina D. Daneshvar (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Steps to Social Success (SSS) is a social skills training program based on the chaining of smaller social skills as steps, until each of the smaller skills forms a more complex social interaction. The SSS procedure also included facilitators for motivation, generalization and maintenance of skills. The present study compared this new social skills program to a widely-used program, Social Stories (Gray & Garand, 1993). Whereas the new SSS procedure was based on the empirical literature of chaining and facilitation of motivation and generalization, the few studies on the effectiveness of Social Stories have focused on maladaptive behaviors rather than teaching appropriate social behaviors. An alternating treatments design with a multiple baseline across children was used to empirically assess and compare the effectiveness of Social Stories and the SSS program in teaching social skills to four children with autism. Results found that SSS program was effective in teaching complex social behaviors (e.g., sharing, initiating conversation) to all children, whereas Social Stories did not result in any increased social behaviors. Results also showed greater ancillary increases in spontaneous social behavior (e.g., initiations, eye contact) and decreases in inappropriate behavior in the SSS condition. Comparisons of the two strategies will be discussed.
Symposium #60
CE Offered: BACB
Assessing Change from Behavioral Treatment of Children with Autism
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Discussant: Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Gerald E. Harris, Ph.D.

Demonstrating reliable changes in children with Autism from behavioral intervention is crucial to advancing the science of ABA. Scientific and accurate representation of treatment benefits is necessary to show others the value of ABA for this population. The 3 presentations in this symposium present data that increases the psychometric knowledge, and thus the utility, of the most widely used measures of intelligence and behavior problems in the autistic population. Data were collected from comprehensive assessments of a large sample of children diagnosed with autistic disorder as they participated in behavioral treatment programs. Sample sizes for the data analytic procedures are thus much larger than usually seen in this area. The first presentation presents a method for determining the reliability of change scores on the most popular comprehensive intelligence test, the WPPSI-III. The second presentation looks at an initial normative base for the WPPSI-III for use with children with autism. The third presentation investigates the interobserver agreement and outcome utility of an efficient behavior report instrument, the CBCL, for this special population. Together, these presentations advance our ability to demonstrate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions.

The Reliability of Change: The Clinical Significance of Outcome Data for Children with Autism.
GERALD E. HARRIS (Texas Young Autism Project), Wendy J. Neely (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Increasing research findings indicate that behavioral intervention does improve cognitive abilities in children with Autism. This presentation uses outcome data from a large sample of children with autism participating in behavioral treatment to address the reliability and clinical significance of cognitive change. Holw many children benefit, and to what degree? Pre-treatment and post-treatment cognitive test data from 95 young children participating in long-term behavioral treatment programs are examined using state of the art statistical procedures to assess change over time as well as the significance of that change across and within children. Findings support previous research that children with autism do exhibit increased cognitive ability following intervention, and show more clearly the extent and significance of the improvement. Implications for diagnostic and treatment outcome interpretations are discussed.
WPPSI-III Intelligence Test for Children: A Normative Database for Children with Autism.
WENDY J. NEELY (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project), Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: In order to properly diagnose, and then plan, monitor, and evaluate behavioral interventions, accurate assessment of cognitive abilities of children with autism is crucial . While frequently used, little is actuallyknown about the psychometrics of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - 3rd Ed., for this population. Wechsler's study in the WPPSI-III Technical Manual (The Psychological Corporation, 2002) addressing utility for this special population has several significant methodological problems, including a very small sample size (n = 21), restrictions of age and I.Q., as well as unknown test administration and scoring procedures for the data. In the present study, data from standard initial administrations of the WPPSI-III for a much larger sample of children diagnosed with autism (n = 270), as well as subsequent administrations, were analyzed. The results compared to the findings from the Wechsler study. Significant differences were found in means and distributions of subtest and composite area standard scores. In particular, scores for lower functioning (I.Q. < 60) children with autism were very different, and the psychometrics of their responses changed over time. These results provide a foundation for development of norms specifically for use with children with autism.
Behavior Reports: Outcome Utility and Interobserver Agreement of the CBCL for Children with Autism.
GERI MARIA HARRIS (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is one of the most widely used measures of child behavior, yet little is known about its psychometric properties in relation to children with autism. This study examined usefulness of the CBCL as an outcome measure for children with autism participating in behavioral treatment, including assessing the accuracy or interobserver agreement of parents in the autistic population. Levels of inter-parental agreement in the autistic population were also compared with the levels of inter-parental agreement in other populations, such as typically developing children and children in high-risk families. Results for a sample of 165 mother-father pairs show that parents of children with autism overall exhibit a high level of inter-observer agreement and that some treatment changes can be detected and measured by the CBCL.
Symposium #61
CE Offered: BACB
Effects of Reinforcement History: From Laboratory to Application
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Claire C St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Carlos A. Bruner (National University of Mexico)
CE Instructor: Claire C St. Peter, Ph.D.

Recently, Critchfield (2006) urged behavior analysts to submit symposia geared toward diverse audiences as one way of maintaining the continuity of the field. We have attempted to answer his call by developing a symposium focused on reinforcement history, but approaching the topic from diverse perspectives. We therefore included a review of the use of nave animals in studies published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (Lattal & Okouchi), a research study examining effects of the order of delays in delay-discounting procedures (Anderson, Diller, & Slezack), and a research study examining the effects of exposure to reinforcement schedules commonly used in applied behavior analysis during baseline and treatment (St. Peter Pipkin & Vollmer). In all, we examine the potential effects of reinforcement history in nonhuman animal, human operant, and applied research in the hopes of building bridges across seldom-connected disciplines. Reinforcement history has important implications for all areas of behavior analysis; we hope to illuminate a portion of these in our presentations.

To Be or Not to Be Naïve: On the Behavioral Histories of Subjects in Experiments.
KENNON A. LATTAL (West Virginia University), Hiroto Okouchi (Osaka Kyoiku University)
Abstract: We reviewed all of the experimental studies involving nonhuman animals published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior between 1958 and 2005 to determine the extent to which experimenters used subjects that were or were not experimentally naïve. Over the years, the use of naive animals has declined in favor of animals with a prior history of use in behavioral experiments. There are differences in species, with monkeys and pigeons being more likely to have had a prior history of experimentation. Using naïve or non-naïve animals also depended on the nature of the experiment, in particular whether the experiment was a part of a series of experiments on a given topic. These outcomes are discussed in relation to Skinner’s suggestion in a JEAB paper on the future of behavior analysis that the importance of using naïve animals in experiments is exaggerated.
History of Delayed Presentation Affects Delay-Discounting Function.
KAREN G. ANDERSON (West Virginia University), James W. Diller (West Virginia University), Jonathan M. Slezak (James Madison University)
Abstract: As the delay to the presentation of a relatively large reinforcer is increased, the choice for that outcome (the self-controlled option) may be reduced below the choice for an alternative smaller, more immediate reinforcer (the impulsive option). The rate at which the value of the larger reinforcer is discounted as its delay increases has been shown to vary across individuals. Higher rates of delay discounting have been correlated with various behavioral disorders, e.g., substance abuse, gambling, violence. To examine a role for behavioral history in influencing differential rates of discounting, rats were exposed to a choice between one food pellet delivered immediately and three food pellets delivered after different delays. In one study, history with a fixed, ascending order of delay presentation systematically decreased larger-reinforcer choices. In subsequent studies, the order (within and across sessions) in which the various delays to the larger reinforcer were presented affected later delay-discounting functions. Together, these studies have implications for interpreting data from delay-discounting paradigms and may suggest ways to affect impulsive choice. A better understanding of the historical variables that determine impulsive/self-control choice may yield better prevention and treatment strategies for many behavioral disorders.
Effects of Recent Reinforcement History on Responding During Random-Ratio Schedules.
CLAIRE C ST. PETER (West Virginia University), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Recent reinforcement history may affect responding during subsequent reinforcement schedules, but these types of “history effects” have not been thoroughly examined in relation to applied issues. For example, we do not yet know the effects histories with the schedules commonly used in applied research on subsequent responding. We examined the effects of typical baseline (concurrent FR1/EXT) and full treatment (concurrent EXT/FR1) histories on responding during equal random ratio schedule (concurrent RR2/RR2) in a reversal design, using both human operant and applied methods. A computer analog for problem and appropriate behavior was used in experiments I and II, with nonclinical human adults as participants. Experiment I evaluated possible history effects with brief exposures to each type of reinforcement schedule. In experiment II, phases were conducted to stability to assess the potential long-term impact of history and to determine if effects observed in experiment I were merely transition states. Experiment III involved a replication of experiment II with a child with disabilities who engaged in aggression in a school setting. In all three experiments, recent reinforcement history affected responding during the random ratio schedules. We conclude by discussing implications of history for application and possible avenues for further examination of history effects.
Symposium #62
CE Offered: BACB
Simulation-Based Training to Improve Health Care Team Skills and Reduce Medical Errors
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
9:30 AM–10:50 AM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: R. Wayne Fuqua, Ph.D.

This symposium describes the use of simulation-based assessment and training to improve the performance of high-risk, low frequency skills that must be performed with high fidelity on every response opportunity. Topics covered include: the characteristics of simulations, the advantages and disadvantages of simulation-based assessment and training, the contributions of behavior analysis concepts to the design of effective simulation-based assessment and training, the identification and training of team skills, and the application of in-situ simulations to assess and improve team skills in critical health care environments.

Simulation-Based Assessment and Training: An Overview.
KRYSTYNA A. ORIZONDO-KOROTKO (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation describes the defining features of simulation-based assessment and gives examples of the use of simulations in behavior analysis and in related disciplines. The advantages and limitations of simulation-based assessment and training are discussed.
Behavior Analytic Concepts in the Design of Simulation-Based Assessment and Training.
AMY GROSS (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation describes the contribution of behavior analysis concepts to the design and implementation of simulation based assessment and training. Concepts to be considered in designing simulations include: response topography, temporal dimensions of responding, discriminative stimuli, setting events, motivative variables, response consequences, and concurrent behaviors.
Training and Assessing Team Skills: A Review and Synopsis of the Empirical Literature.
R. WAYNE FUQUA (Western Michigan University), Shannon M. Loewy (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The communication and coordination skills that are essential for effective operation of a team are identified. Strategies for assessing and training team skills are reviewed and evaluated.
In Situ Simulation®: Assessing and Training Clinical Operations in Health Care Settings.
WILLIAM HAMMAN (Western Michigan University), R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University), Jeff Beaubien (Aptima, Inc.), Amy M. Gullickson (Western Michigan University), Rick Lammers (Michigan State University/Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies ), William Rutherford (Western Michigan University), Beth Seiler (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This presentation describes the use of in-situ simulations in health care settings to assess and train communication skills and team resource management in critical health care environments.
Invited Paper Session #63
CE Offered: BACB

Why Humans Are So Cruel, and What Can We Do About It?

Tuesday, August 14, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CE Instructor: Joseph Ciarrochi, Ph.D.
Chair: JoAnne Dahl (Uppsala University, Sweden)
JOSEPH CIARROCHI (University of Wollongong)
Dr. Joseph Ciarrochi Joseph Ciarrochi has published several books, numerous book chapters, and over 40 peer-reviewed journal articles. His research focuses on understanding how to reduce suffering, promote vitality, and promote social effectiveness. One line of research seeks to identify the skills people need to optimally adapt to difficult life situations. Dr. Ciarrochi is currently collecting the fifth year of data for a large longitudinal study that examines how adolescent resilience develops and changes. A second line of research focuses on evaluating Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) interventions amongst a variety of populations (e.g., police force, people diagnosed with cancer).Recently, my colleagues and I are developing an internet-based system for delivering ACT.

Why do humans behave so badly towards one another, in the absence on any obvious deprivation or threat? Most importantly, what can practitioners do about it? My talk will look at the pervasiveness of cruelty and aversive interpersonal behavior, which ranges from the common and mundane (A husband trying to "hurt" his wife with words) to the extraordinary (e.g., the holocaust). Situationist, evolutionary, and cognitive theories provide valuable insights into the problem, but fall short in two ways. First, they explain a relatively limited range of aversive interpersonal behavior, and/or second, they provide limited accounts of how to reduce such behavior. I then illustrate how a behavioral model (ACT/RFT) provides a more comprehensive account of how to predict-and-reduce aversive interpersonal behavior. Finally, I will provide some concrete examples of how an ACT practitioner might go about reducing cruelty and promoting kindness.

Symposium #82
CE Offered: BACB
Advances in PECS Research and Use
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Andy Bondy (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
CE Instructor: Andy Bondy, Ph.D.

The effective use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) continues to expand worldwide, as indicated by descriptive and research-based publications regarding autism as well as other developmental disabilities. This symposium will review recent extensions of PECS regarding Occupational Therapy, behavior management, and transitional issues to other communication modalities. We also will review some recent research findings as well as point out a number of myths often associated with PECS.

Using PECS and Visual Supports within Occupational Therapy.
RACHEL VAN DER LINDEN (Pyramid Education Consultants, Australia)
Abstract: The World Federation of Occupational Therapists has stated that its primary goal is to "enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life." This goal is wholly consistent with the functional orientation of behavior analysis and the Pyramid Approach to Education. This talk will focus on how the use of PECS and other visual strategies can help achieve this broad outcome that Occupational Therapists seek to achieve.
Transitioning from The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to Alternative Modalities.
AMANDA REED (Pyramid Educational Consultants), Lori Frost (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
Abstract: This paper will outline issues related to transitioning from PECS to speech, picture point systems and/or voice output communication aides (VOCAs). Specific areas of discussion regarding the transition to speech-based communication will include: speech intelligibility, delayed versus disordered speech development, utterance length, initiation of communication, and vocabulary expansion. In addition, issues related to transitioning from PECS to a picture point system and/or voice output communication aides (VOCAs) will be discussed. The application of a picture point system as an intermediate step prior to device selection will be considered. Finally, the use of PECS as a communication repair strategy following the transition to speech, picture point communication or a VOCA will be described. The content of the paper will be compiled through a review of the current literature, in addition to anecdotal reports.
Myths Associated with PECS: Facts vs. Fiction.
LORI FROST (Pyramid Educational Consultants), Andy Bondy (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
Abstract: PECS has substantially grown in popularity around the world, as has its empirical support. With that growth has come many misunderstanding, misinterpretations and myths associated with PECS and its use. This paper will review many of the common myths, some of which have the form "You can do PECS with X," and discuss how these perspective may be inconsistent with established protocol, behavior analytic theory, as well as empirical evidence from recent research.
How PECS Can Help with Challenging Behaviors.
ANDY BONDY (Pyramid Educational Consultants), Lori Frost (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
Abstract: The hallmark of behavior analysis is its emphasis function over form. This orientation is critical when planning to deal with contextually inappropriate behaviors (CIBs). The function of some CIBs appears to be communicative and this talk will discuss practical application and research findings associated with the use of PECS with intervention packages. Included will be reactive and preventive strategies.
Symposium #84
CE Offered: BACB
Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) as Early Intervention for Young Children with Behavioral and Developmental Disorders
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM/AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Sheila Eyberg (University of Florida)
Discussant: Sheila Eyberg (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Trevor F. Stokes, Ph.D.

Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically-supported treatment for conduct-disordered young children that emphasizes changing parent-child interaction patterns to increase childrens prosocial behavior and decrease negative behavior. This treatment focuses on two basic interactions. In Child Directed Interaction (CDI), parents engage their child in a play situation with the goal of strengthening the parent-child attachment through differential social attention. In Parent Directed Interaction (PDI), parents learn to use specific behavioral analysis and therapy techniques to direct their childs behavior and follow through effectively. PCIT outcome research has demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvements in the conduct-disordered behavior of young children. These effects were superior to waitlist controls and to parent group didactic training. This symposium will provide an overview of PCIT and present recent data on PCIT efficacy with conduct-disordered children as well as effectiveness data with low income urban families and with families of children with autism.

An Overview of the Efficacy of PCIT.
STEPHEN R. BOGGS (University Of Florida), Melanie M. Nelson (University of Oklahoma ), Sheila Eyberg (University of Florida)
Abstract: This study evaluated the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with 100 families of 3- through 6-year old children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Families were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment (IT) or a wait-list control (WL) condition. Four months after pretreatment assessment, families in both conditions were seen for a second assessment. Assessments included direct observations of parent-child interactions, parent report of child behavior problems, and measures of parent adjustment. The primary analyses comparing families in IT and WL conditions were analyses of covariance with pretreatment scores on the respective measures used as covariates. Direct observation measures indicated that parents in the IT condition interacted more positively with their children, gave fewer commands, and were less likely to engage in negative behavior (e.g., criticism, smart talk) than parents in the WL condition. Children in the IT condition were observed to be significantly more compliant to parent commands and less likely to engage in inappropriate behavior. In addition, parents in IT reported clinically significant improvements in their child’s behavior following PCIT and also reported decreased parenting stress. All families that received treatment reported high levels of satisfaction with both the process and outcome of PCIT.
Disseminating PCIT in an Urban Community Mental Health Center.
KAREN S. BUDD (DePaul University), Aaron Lyon (DePaul University), Steven Behling (DePaul University), Rachel Gershenson (DePaul University)
Abstract: Transporting PCIT from research settings, where its efficacy has been established, to the community entails changes at many levels, including the organization (e.g., constituent priorities, funding, and delivery sites), staff (e.g., clinician level and responsibilities), and participants (e.g., referral and demographics). This paper summarizes findings of the first two years of dissemination of PCIT in the DePaul University Community Mental Health Center, which serves predominantly ethnic minority, low-income, urban families in a public mental health context. Although PCIT efficacy studies have included diverse and economically disadvantaged participants, their numbers have been too few to establish that PCIT is a beneficial treatment for these families. Our findings show that PCIT leads to substantial positive changes for families who participate consistently; however, one-half of families terminated PCIT prematurely, often following major stressors (e.g., hotline calls, child’s dismissal from preschool, or parent unemployment). We present outcome data on the families served and describe adaptations to engage and retain families (e.g., scheduling sessions at a local daycare center, temporarily suspending PCIT sessions until family conditions stabilize). Based on our preliminary findings, we propose directions for enhancing treatment effectiveness of PCIT in community settings.
Applying PCIT to Parents and Siblings of Children with Autism.
TREVOR F. STOKES (University of South Florida), Amy Green (University of South Florida), Jessica Lynn Curley Ross (University of South Florida), Idia Binitie (University of South Florida), Sheri Jacobs (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Applying Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) to different diagnostic populations of children and families has increased in recent years as PCIT has been shown to be an efficacious intervention for children with disorders of behavior. This paper summarizes the adaptation of PCIT to families of children with autism. Specifically, both parents and siblings of children with autism were coached concurrently in the procedures of Child Directed Interaction (CDI), which are pivotal skills of powerful differential attention treatment interventions. Techniques involved the management of interactions though reduction in less functional repertoires of asking questions, giving commands, and using negative talk, while increasing behavioral descriptions, reflections, labeled praise and positive touch. Two clusters of CDI skills were introduced within a multiple baseline design across behaviors. Treatment occurred within ongoing clinical sessions at a university-based psychological services center. Consistent with an approved IRB protocol, videotapes of casework sessions were reviewed and analyzed post-hoc to document behavior changes and establish the reliability of observation within four single case experimental designs.
Symposium #88
CE Offered: BACB
Description, Explanation and Causation: A Host of Conceptual Confusions in Behavior Analysis of Development
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
L4 Room 2
Area: DEV/TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
Discussant: Michael J. Dougher (University of New Mexico)
CE Instructor: Martha Pelaez, Ph.D.

Three presentations by Per Holth, Martha Pelaez, and Jack Marr, along with the discussion by Michael Dougher, examine theoretical and empirical problems related to category mistakes in psychology, the nature of causation in developmental behavior analysis, the relations between behavioral description and explanation, and current limitations on behavioral explanations of development. Various "isms" (from "holism" to "mechanism") make an appearance, but we hope to clarify the "isms" as well as their relevance to behavior analysis and allied philosophical traditions. The lack of appropriate methodology for capturing the effects of these multiple interactions is emphasized as well as a host of conceptual confusions.

Avoiding Category Mistakes - Tougher Than You Think.
PER HOLTH (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Almost 60 years have now passed since the publication of Gilbert Ryle's (1949) The Concept of Mind, in which he demonstrated quite forcefully how psychology and philosophy at the time were misled into making the type of errors he called 'category mistakes'. Although the mistakes involved in Ryle's simpler examples were easy to understand, we are still likely to make the same types of mistakes when confronted with more complex behavioral phenomena. Psychology texts are, typically, pervaded by category mistakes. Within behavior analysis, more effort has been put into avoiding such errors. Yet, they still occur in behavior-analytic texts, too, and additional teaching procedures seem needed to eschew them.
The Nature of Causation in Human Development.
MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University)
Abstract: The case is made that human development call for both, description and explanation. The author discusses different causes of behavior development from a dynamic systems approach and argues for their interrelatedness. None of these different causal explanations works in isolation-- without specification of the other. A rationale for embracing both, contextualism as an epistemological tool, and mechanism as an experimental practice in our understanding of these causes is presented. And the concept of contextual interacting variables or "interactants" is highlighted as well as the enormous challenges the study of multiple interactions in mother-child research presents to the scientist. The lack of appropriate methodology for capturing the effects of these multiple interactions is emphasized and some experimental examples provided.
How Do Things Work?
M. JACKSON MARR (Georgia Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Well over a decade ago there was a major flurry among the behaviorist community on the topic of "contextualism versus mechanism". At least among some significant quarters, for example, those still calling themselves "contextualists", this remains a matter of contention. In addition, those calling themselves "selectionists", who are beguiled by a rather loose metaphorical relation between evolutionary biology and the shaping of operant behavior, are also uncomfortable with something they call mechanism. In neither case is there compelling justification for such an anti-mechanistic position. Largely in the context of selection, I review some history of this anti-mechanistic stance, including what I think are a host of conceptual confusions, and, again, attempt to show that as behavioral scientists and engineers, we all, necessarily, are "mechanists"--we want to know how things work.
Symposium #89
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Approaches to Language Intervention for Children with Autism
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: James E. Carr (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: James E. Carr, Ph.D.

This symposium will present contemporary research relevant to behavioral language training for children with autism. In the first study, Barbara Esch will present data demonstrating that the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure is useful in increasing vocalizations via automatic reinforcement such that they can be directly reinforced. In the second study, John Esch will present data demonstrating that lag reinforcement schedules can be used to increase vocal variability. In the third study, Jim Carr will present data on the use of multiple schedules and signaled delayed reinforcement in the reduction, but not elimination, of high-rate mands. In the final study, Linda LeBlanc will present data demonstrating how transfer of stimulus control procedures can be used to teach intraverbal categorization.

The Role of Automatic Reinforcement in Early Speech Acquisition.
BARBARA E. ESCH (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University), Laura L. Grow (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Children who emit few speech vocalizations and whose echoic repertoires are weak are at an instructional disadvantage for speech acquisition. Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) has been shown to produce temporary increases, possibly attributable to automatic reinforcement, in post-pairing vocalizations (e.g., Yoon & Bennett, 2000), thus allowing subsequent direct reinforcement of these responses as verbal operants. Although the behavioral principles supporting an automatic reinforcement role in SSP are well established, empirical support for SSP is not robust (e.g., Esch, Carr, & Michael, 2005; Miguel, Carr, & Michael, 2002), calling into question the ability of SSP to establish speech as a conditioned reinforcer. This study presents empirical results of SSP procedural modifications that produced increases in within-session vocalizations that were subsequently directly reinforced as mands. The separate and combined contributions of these modifications are discussed in the context of the role of automatic reinforcement of speech responses.
Increasing Vocal Variability with a Lag Schedule of Differential Reinforcement.
JOHN W. ESCH (ESCH Behavior Consultants, Inc.), Jessa R. Love (Western Michigan University), Barbara E. Esch (Esch Behavior Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: Many children with autism have vocal repertoires that are too limited to allow successful shaping of more complex vocal responses. Vocal variability would provide a greater number of phonemes available for reinforcement, thus increasing the overall complexity of the speech repertoire. Previous research (e.g., Page & Neuringer, 1985) shows that variability is a reinforceable dimension of behavior, much like frequency or intensity. In applied settings, it has been demonstrated that Lag schedules (differentially reinforcing behaviors that differ from the previous behavior) can alter behavioral variability. This study used a Lag 1 schedule to increase vocal variability in a child with a diagnosis of autism. An unexpected effect of this procedure was a slight increase in echoic approximations to the vocal model.
Reducing High-Rate Mands of Children with Autism: An Evaluation of Stimulus Control and Delayed Reinforcement Procedures.
JAMES E. CARR (Western Michigan University), Tina Sidener (Caldwell College), Jamie M. Severtson (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: When teaching children with disabilities to request (mand) for items, it is often necessary to deliver the requested item immediately and frequently. Such delivery might result in undesirably high rates of requesting to the extent that it is neither appropriate nor practical. The purpose of the present investigation was to replicate and extend previous research by evaluating the efficacy of different procedures for maintaining practical rates of manding: (a) signaled delay to reinforcement, (b) multiple CRF-EXT schedules. Our data suggest that (a) multiple schedules resulted in a substantial decrease in rates of manding to stable and more practical levels, (b) delay to reinforcement with continuous signals resulted in better response reduction and maintenance than delay to reinforcement with brief signals.
Teaching Intraverbal Behavior to Children with Autism.
LINDA A. LEBLANC (Western Michigan University), Tina R. Goldsmith (Western Michigan University), Rachael A. Sautter (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Skinner’s conceptual analysis of language has influenced one model of early and intensive behavioral intervention with children, which incorporates verbal operants including mands, tacts, intraverbals, etc. Many studies have examined the mand and tact relations, with little focus on teaching intraverbal behavior. In the present experiment, children with autism were taught categorical intraverbals using a transfer-of-stimulus-control procedure (i.e., tact to intraverbal) in combination with errorless learning (i.e., delayed prompting). Each of three children learned to name items associated with preselected categories (e.g., “What are some colors?”) with limited generalization to a fourth, non-targeted category, and limited maintenance of skills.



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