Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

Program by : Sunday, May 28, 2023


 

Symposium #138
CE Offered: BACB
Social Validity of Interventions and Outcomes in the Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Sunday, May 28, 2023
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom E
Area: CBM/CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Nicole C Demchuk (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Kathryn M. Peterson (Rutgers University and Children's Specialized Hospital)
CE Instructor: Kathryn M. Peterson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Social validity in behavior analytic service delivery is paramount. Recent trends in behavior analytic research and service delivery illustrate the intentions of researchers and practitioners to improve social validity of interventions (Ferguson et al., 2018). One sector of behavior analytic service delivery that has been particularly criticized is treatment of children with pediatric feeding disorders (Taylor & Taylor, 2022). Currently, the most empirically supported intervention is escape extinction or non-removal of the spoon (Peterson et al., 2018). This intervention has repeatedly shown rapid effectiveness in the published literature and is warranted for children who experience severe food refusal. Though escape extinction is a well-established behavioral treatment for feeding disorders, the intrusive nature of the procedure has led to questions and misconceptions related to social validity of interventions. The purpose of this symposium is to explore social validity related to various treatments and outcomes for pediatric feeding disorders.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Diversity, Pediatric Feeding, Social Validity
Target Audience:

Intermediate

Learning Objectives: (1) Attendees will be able to identify at least 3 new measures related to social validity in treatment of pediatric feeding disorders. (2) Attendees will learn about the social validity of at least 2 interventions related to pediatric feeding disorders. (3) Attendees will gain insight on outcomes of intensive treatment for feeding disorders related to race and ethnicity.
 

Assessing Physiological Responses and Emotional Expression During Pediatric Feeding Treatment

LAURA E PHIPPS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Trauma-informed care necessitates that practitioners understand and consider how their clients feel during treatment. Escape extinction during pediatric feeding treatment may be warranted for some children. Although these procedures are highly effective, it is unclear if any undesired emotional response that occurs during extinction has lingering effects on how children feel during future meals (i.e., a child may be consuming their bites efficiently, but still feel unhappy). Thus, the current study aims to assess the two dimensions of emotion (Gay & Leijdekkers, 2013) for children with pediatric feeding disorders while they receive treatment. Specifically, researchers recorded child indices of happiness and unhappiness (Phipps et al., 2022) to assess emotional valence and measured physiological responses using a wrist-worn biosensor to assess emotional arousal for children with pediatric feeding disorders. The findings from this study reveal the potential emotional experiences of children during treatment and further the discussion on the feasibility of measuring private events to inform practice.

 

Evaluating Undergarment Type and Nutritional Intake on Toileting Continence During Day Treatment Pediatric Feeding Program Enrollment

FAITH KIRKLAND (Florida Autism Center, a division of BlueSprig Pediatrics, University of South Florida), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami), Vivian F Ibanez (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Most day-treatment feeding programs aim to promote substantial and rapid changes in oral intake (Sharp et al., 2020). As such, a child will likely experience a shift in the amount and type of food and liquid consumed, which may impact toileting patterns and continence. Prior research has not targeted or monitored continence throughout a feeding admission despite the importance of independent toileting skills and the relation between intake and urine and stool output (Santos et al., 2017). We also know that modifying an individual’s undergarments can produce changes in toileting continence (Greer et al., 2016). In the current study, a 5-year-old female with Williams-Beuren syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, and diaper dependency was admitted to a day-treatment feeding program. Therefore, we measured and compared in-toilet eliminations, self-initiations, and nutritional intake while she was in diapers relative to underwear. Overall, in-toilet eliminations and self-initiations remained stable and increased when she wore underwear. We discuss the benefits of a hybrid program in which important adaptive skills like feeding and toileting can be dually addressed and plan to retrospectively review food and liquid intake to determine whether these changes affected outcomes.

 

Assessment of Social Validity and Passive Refusal in the Treatment of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

EMILY KATE RUBIO (Emory University School of Medicine), Valerie M. Volkert (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Children with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder may refuse to consume an adequate variety and/or volume of food to maintain expected growth and cognition (APA, 2013). They can consume food by mouth but may actively (e.g., turning head, hitting spoon) or passively (e.g., clenching mouth while sitting still) refuse to escape or avoid eating. Behavioral interventions like positive reinforcement and stimulus fading with escape prevention have been shown to increase consumption and decrease refusal in these children. However, sometimes these interventions are insufficient, especially in treating passive refusal. In these cases, physical guidance procedures may be utilized to prompt an open mouth to deposit food. Research indicates that these procedures are effective and rated as acceptable. However, additional research is warranted as these interventions may be conceptualized as punishment and should be used only if necessary (BACB, 2014). This study replicated an existing physical guidance procedure, the finger prompt (Rubio et al., 2020), and compared its efficacy and acceptability to that of a clinically utilized procedure, a spoon prompt, not yet empirically evaluated. This study further extended research by defining and measuring passive refusal as a dependent variable and assessing social validity among different stakeholders and time points.

 

Outcomes of Intensive Multidisciplinary Intervention for Patients With Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) Through a Lens of Cultural Diversity

SANDHYA RAJAGOPAL (Marcus Autism Center), Emily Kate Rubio (Emory University School of Medicine), Valerie M. Volkert (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Abby Hodges (Emory University School of Medicine, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta)
Abstract:

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is the psychiatric diagnosis for feeding disorders, and requires the failure to achieve proper weight gain, presence of nutritional deficiencies, dependence on eternal or oral supplementation, and/or psychosocial factors such as increased stress in caregivers (DSM-5). The recognized standard of care for chronic and severe pediatric feeding problems is intensive multidisciplinary intervention including psychology, nutrition, medicine, and speech-language pathology/occupational therapy; the most common treatment component being behavioral intervention (Sharp et al., 2016). Recent evaluation of our intensive multidisciplinary program yields positive outcomes such as increases in acceptance and swallowing of new foods, reductions in problematic mealtime behaviors, a high percentage of goals met during the child’s admission, and high caregiver satisfaction across clinical presentations of ARFID (i.e., tube dependence/food refusal and severe food selectivity; Sharp et al., 2020; Volkert et al., 2021). This paper extends the analysis of outcomes for subtypes of ARFID by considering race and ethnicity. A closer examination of these outcomes may illuminate disparities and therefore assist in the identification of steps to enhance program outcomes.

 
 
Symposium #141
CE Offered: BACB
How Effective Collaboration Leads to Increased Ethical and Inclusive Practice Across the Consumers of Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 28, 2023
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Convention Center 401/402
Area: TBA/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: Alan Kinsella (Endicott College)
CE Instructor: Lisa Tereshko, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Within the human service industry, often a diversity of professionals with various backgrounds, training, and credential come together to support individuals. This diversity can create more specialized treatment for the individuals they support but also may create difficulty when working to support individuals. Collaboration with all levels of professionals working with our clients and stakeholders is essential to ensure ethical and inclusive practices for all consumers of behavior analysis. The papers presented here represent a behavior analytic approach to measuring collaboration as it relates to ethical and inclusive practice. Included here are the results of an inclusive team collaboration model implemented in a special education school that includes direct instructional staff to increase staff and student performance, the results of a survey of behavior analysts and other professionals that collaborate with behavior analysts on collaboration and the use of soft skills, the results of surveys of students and faculty of behavior analysis on inclusive practices within their experiences in higher education as it relates to inclusivity and belonging, and the results of an ethical decision making model as it relates to both behavior analysts and registered behavior technicians.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Collaboration, Ethical, Inclusivity
Target Audience:

Intermediate audience is required. Those who supervise or teach behavior analytic programs are recommended. Experience with supervision and collaboration of staff members across domains and at various levels of education would assist in comprehension of material presented.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify ways within their daily work responsibilities to increase collaboration of all team members; (2) increase their ability to assess team members sense of belonging and inclusivity; (3) increase their ability to assess and assist team members when faced with ethical dilemmas
 

Increasing Opportunities to Respond Through Inclusive Team Collaboration

KATHLEEN I DYER (Endicott College)
Abstract:

There is a substantial body of research on the importance of providing frequent opportunities to respond (OTR) to increase learning outcomes for students. In special education classrooms with multiple treatment providers, treatment coordination to ensure that these opportunities are provided can be complex and challenging. This paper will discuss an intervention designed to increase the opportunities to respond for 3 students in an autism classroom in the context of a multiple-baseline design. An inclusive team model, involving weekly scheduled meetings with the direct instructional staff, the classroom teacher, clinical team members, and a lead BCBA-D interventionist was implemented. The results showed that collaborative goal setting, nondirective consultation, feedback, and reinforcement strategies implemented at the meetings were effective in increasing OTR to IEP programs. The positive role of team collaboration was reflected in acceptability surveys, where direct care staff rated the team discussions as the most helpful treatment component.

 

Understanding the Perspectives of Our Colleagues: How Behavior Analysts Are Perceived

KRISTIN BOWMAN (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College), Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College), Karen Rose (Horry County Schools/Endicott College)
Abstract:

Scientifically established, effective treatments for autism are based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. With the increasingly high prevalence of autism and growing demand for effective behavioral interventions, now, more than 70% of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) certificants work in professional areas specific to autism. However, given the complex symptomatology and dynamic interaction of the deficits associated with autism, treatment from an array of professionals, each representing different disciplines and specialties within medicine, education, and allied health is typically warranted. Therefore, to best meet the various needs of individuals on the autism spectrum, behavior analysts will often be required to work collaboratively with professionals from other disciplines and must acquire the skills to do so effectively. To learn more about these collaborative relationships and identify opportunities for further education and training, we surveyed behavior analysts and professionals from other disciplines including speech-language pathologists, occupational therapists, educators, administrators, and psychologists. Overall, participants agreed that continued collaboration was useful although the results indicate challenges in collaboration and disparities in reported perceptions and experiences. These findings, as well as ideas for fostering better collaboration will be reviewed.

 

Assessing Perceptions of Inclusivity Among Students and Staff Within an Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Department

LISA TERESHKO (Endicott College), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College), Videsha Marya (Endicott College), Christen Russell (Endicott College), Natalie M. Driscoll (Seven Hills Foundation & Endicott College), Kathleen I Dyer (Endicott College), Rebecca Shinn (Endicott College), Sacha KG Shaw (Endicott College )
Abstract:

Recent events have confirmed the need for behavior analysis to attend to issues of diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging in service provision and in higher education. This leads to a call to action to increase cultural responsiveness and cultural humility in training opportunities for students of behavior analysis and practicing behavior analysts. In order to ensure that training opportunities for students and staff appropriately address these issues in the field, surveys were developed and deployed across an ABA department of higher education to assess the effects of various initiatives taken by the department to increase inclusivity and belonging. The surveys identified areas of growth for the department and serve as ongoing assessments for inclusivity and belonging within the department and the higher education institution as a whole.

 
Promoting Ethical Discussions and Decision Making in a Human Services Agency: Updates to LeBlanc et al.’s (2020) Ethics Network
Amber Valentino (Trumpet Behavioral Health ), ROXANNE GAYLE (Trumpet Behavioral Health, Endicott College, Pepperdine University), Amanda J George (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (Trumpet Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Ethical behavior is operant behavior, evoked and maintained by environmental variables; as such, it can be taught. Behavior analysts have focused on effective ways to teach and establish ethical behavior in both individual practitioners and within organizations. Teaching people to notice ethical issues in their environment is an important first step in promoting ethical discussions and decision-making. In 2022, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB®) issued two revised ethics codes—one for behavior analysts and one for registered behavior technicians (RBTs ®). In the current study, we expanded upon the work of LeBlanc et al. (2020) by updating an Ethics Network and hotline submission form within a human service agency to reflect both new codes of ethics. We provide data for the first seven months of the updated system and analyze the data for common themes. We detail the updates to our system for readers wishing to create similar infrastructure in other organizations.
 
 
Panel #146
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Exploring Commitments to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Efforts: From Values to Actions
Sunday, May 28, 2023
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Gabrielle Indah Torres, M.S.
Chair: Gabrielle Indah Torres (Autism Aid Foundation / Find Your Balance LLC / Capella University )
ELIZABETH M. MATTHEWS (EMG Consulting)
KATIE WOLFE (University of South Carolina)
Abstract:

Organizations may commit to diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts, but getting from a simple commitment to real actions takes work. This panel consisting of behavior analysis state chapter leaders will explore what it takes to truly commit to actions rooted in increasing diversity, expanding inclusion, and fostering equity beyond a simple addition to their mission statement. Based on your questions, our chair, who serves as the Diversity Equity & Inclusion Coordinator for District ABA, will lead us through a conversation with chapter leaders from Arizona, South Carolina and Virginia, that will explore steps taken, successes achieved, road bumps encountered, strategies considered, future plans, and what behavior analytic principles helped guide their way. If you have considered diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts, do not miss this opportunity to learn from others who have already started creating organizations rooted in values and committed actions to create diverse and inclusive communities that create paths of equity in our field.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts with at least 1-2 year of experience and who are in, or moving into, leadership positions within their organizations.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Understand the importance of including diversity, equity, and inclusion in their organization’s framework 2) Identify the importance of establishing organizational values that can drive committed actions towards increased diversity, inclusion, equity, and cultural responsiveness 3) Create a systematic plan for the introduction of diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts into their organization
Keyword(s): committed actions, equity, inclusion, values
 
 
Symposium #151
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission What’s the Word on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)? Discourse Analyses Outside and Within Our Discipline
Sunday, May 28, 2023
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom H
Area: PCH/CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Rosemary A. Condillac (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
CE Instructor: Rosemary A. Condillac, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In 2021, ABAI President Carol Pilgrim issued a call to action for Behaviour Analysts to examine discourse on ABA and DEI to assist us in finding solutions to current social issues. In this symposium, we are pleased to present three studies using different approaches to analyze discourse relating to ABA. The first study examined the sentiments expressed about ABA on Twitter related to the hashtags #ABA, #BehaviorAnalysis, and #appliedbehaviouranalysis. The second study examined the sentiments and themes expressed in TikTok videos related to the hashtags #ABA, #ABA Therapy, #AppliedbehaviorAnalysis and compared these across speaker groups including autistic adults, families, non-ABA professionals, and ABA Professionals. The third study analysed the abstracts of DEI related presentations at ABAI over a four-year period and reports on themes and trends over time. These studies offer opportunities to reflect on the content of the discourse surrounding ABA and to consider recommendations on ways behaviour analysts might influence that discourse within and outside of our field.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): DEI, Discourse Analysis, Qualitative Methods, Social Media
Target Audience:

Behaviour Analysts interested in learning more about the nature of discourse surrounding ABA on social media, how it has changed over time, and how our inside (ABAI) efforts with respect to diversity, equity, and inclusion have evolved, and must continue to evolve to change the narrative inside and outside our community. Researchers and graduate students interested in the use of different qualitative methods to examine discourse.

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will learn about prevailing sentiments and common themes in the discourse surrounding ABA on social media, how it has changed over time, and how our inside (ABAI) efforts concerning diversity, equity, and inclusion have evolved and must continue to evolve to change the narrative outside our community.   2. Participants will learn about different methods of analyzing discourse across three research exemplars and how these methods can be used in solving socially significant problems.   3. Participants will consider the impact of the language in our discourse and how it may strengthen or interfere with our diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts
 
Diversity submission #ExploratoryAnalysisOfSentimentTowardABAonTwitter
ALBERT MALKIN (Western University), Priscilla Burnham Riosa (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Laura E. Mullins (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Kristi Thompson (Western University), Allison Kretschmer (Western University), Chee Wan (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
Abstract: Naturalistic observation of verbal behaviour on social media is a novel method of gathering data on the acceptability of topics of social interest. In other words, online social opinion is a modern-day measure of social validity. We sought to gain an objective understanding of online discourse related to the field of applied behaviour analysis. We conducted an analysis of Twitter posts related to Applied Behavior Analysis (e.g., #ABA, #BehaviorAnalysis,#appliedbehaviouranalysis). Our initial sample consisted of 110,008 Tweets from the past ten years (2012 – 2022). We selected a random subset (n = 12,000) for further analysis using a stratified sampling procedure to ensure that Tweets across years were adequately represented.Two observers were trained to code Tweets for relevance and sentiment toward the field. We will discuss trends regarding the valence (i.e., positive, negative, neutral) of relevant ABA Tweets toward the field in the broad context of observed Tweets. We will suggest some potential paths forward.
 
Diversity submission Vibe check on TikTok #ABA: Voices, themes, and sentiments
ROSEMARY A. CONDILLAC (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Emily Bulten (Brock University, Applied Disability Studies), Kathryn Matthyssen (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
Abstract: The field of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) is gaining attention on social media, but the kinds of attention are quite variable. In this study we explored videos with #ABA and related hashtags (i.e., #aba, #abatherapy, #appliedbehavioranalysis) to objectively record the sentiments, the speakers, and the common themes being expressed about our science. Videos not specifically related to ABA were excluded from analysis. Using a 3-point scale to measure valence (Negative, Neutral, Positive), two coders analyzed a random sample of 1000 relevant videos, and grouped these data by speaker (ABA professional, Autistic person, Parent/family member of ABA recipient, and other professionals) to identify trends. The video content was reviewed and coded into emerging themes. To examine potential maintaining variables the number of comments for each post were recorded and a randomly selected, representative number of comments were coded for valence. Finally, the number of likes for each video were recorded. We will provide an overview of our results, an opportunity to reflect on the sentiments relating to ABA from different groups, and consider recommendations for behaviour analysts and allies to change the vibe on TikTok and make our own discourse, and practices more inclusive.
 
Diversity submission 

Talking About Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) at the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI): Is Our Focus Evolving?

Laura E. Mullins (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Rachel Sheppard (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), REXELLA DWOMOH (Brock University), Amanda Marie Bailey (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Sabrina Palmer (Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Courtney Denise Bishop (Durham College)
Abstract:

Discourse surrounding Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) have become part of an expanding and evermore present narrative about how to improve practices within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). As suggested by Dr. Carol Pilgrim, in her 47th ABAI Presidential address, “wouldn’t it seem good to know the nature of this discourse, and be able to follow its development”? This project aimed to describe the changing discourse and the development of DEI at the ABAI Annual Convention since the inception of the DEI subcommittee in 2019. A descriptive analysis provided an overview of the events labelled as DEI, by identifying the frequency of presentation types, domains, and program areas. A summative content analysis was conducted on abstracts labelled as DEI (N = 488) and explored the areas of diversity (e.g., age, gender, disability, religion, ethnicity, and sexuality) and dimensions of diversity (e.g., recognizing discrimination and diversity, and cultural humility), equity (e.g., systematically addressing barriers and individualized accommodations), and inclusion (e.g., cultural competence and creating space). This presentation will provide an overview of the current state of practices and gaps between ABA and the movement toward more inclusive, equitable, and diverse practices.

 
 
Symposium #158
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Clinical Applications of Behavior Analysis With Justice-Involved Youth
Sunday, May 28, 2023
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2B
Area: CSS; Domain: Translational
Chair: Anna Kate Edgemon (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: Anna Kate Edgemon, M.S.
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis has been demonstrated as effective for addressing a wide variety of socially significant issues across many populations and contexts. Yet many marginalized populations continue to be underserved and understudied. This symposium will cover a range of methods in which behavior analytic methodology may be used in the assessment and treatment of justice-involved youth. The first presentation will describe recent prevention and intervention strategies for juvenile sex trafficking (JST) within the child welfare system. The second presentation will describe a contingency management system used within a juvenile residential treatment facility to improve staff-implemented strategies for improving behavior within the facility. The final presentation uses conditional probabilities to evaluate periods of increased likelihood of challenging behavior displayed by adolescents within a juvenile residential treatment facility. Implications and future directions within juvenile justice will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): conditional probabilities, contingency management, juvenile justice, sex trafficking
Target Audience:

Participants should be licensed, certified, or are completing coursework to fulfill BCBA eligibility requirements.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Identify environmental conditions corresponding with JST victimization, and commonly used lures for abduction and victimization (e.g., coercion, grooming, threats); (2) Gain knowledge of the training components used to train juvenile justice facility staff and be able to identify the challenges of training in this environment; and (3) Identify contexts in which statistical analysis based on behavioral data supports data-based administrative decision-making within a juvenile justice facility.
 
Diversity submission Review of Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Juvenile Sex Trafficking, and Future Directions
(Applied Research)
ARTURO GARCIA (University of South Florida), Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Existing literature on human trafficking suggests the vulnerability to sexual exploitation changes by (a) the prevalence of certain risk factors (e.g., runaway, developmental disabilities); (b) the trafficker used lures; and (c) the environmental conditions present at the time of victimization. However, the extent to which vulnerability in the presence of cumulative risk factors could change the value of the lure has not been previously evaluated. Often found, youth involved in the child welfare system are at high risk for juvenile sex trafficking (JST) victimization associated with runaway instances. By assessing the commonly used lures that precede the runaway episode, a functional relationship between the lure and the environment may be established. A scoping analysis approach to screening and assessment, of both published and case studies, could be used to identify (a) prevalent indicators of victimization; (b) risk factors commonly present; and (c) traffickers used lures for the abduction and JST victimization of youth. The current paper will describe the recent prevention and intervention strategies for victims/survivors of JST. This paper will also discuss behavioral strategies that could be used to develop function-based interventions for runaway youth at high risk of victimization and vulnerability.
 
Diversity submission Contingency Management System: Juvenile Justice Facility
(Applied Research)
ASHLEY ANDERSON (Auburn University), Daniel John Sheridan (Auburn University), Anna Kate Edgemon (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University)
Abstract: Punitive and negative environments contradict evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for juvenile offenders. To facilitate an evidence-based and therapeutic environment, the authors developed a comprehensive model of program-wide behavior-analytic assessments and interventions, which include best practices, a large-scale token economy, and tiered supports for residents in a juvenile justice setting. All residents, regardless of tier, participated in the token economy where residents received pretend cash or fines in correspondence with their behavior recorded through a red, yellow, and green system. Tier 1 consisted of training staff through videos on how and when to give praise, give instructions, and respond to problem behavior (i.e., best practices) as well as how to score residents for the token economy. The authors evaluated implementation fidelity through direct observation with subsequent feedback and used the behavior data acquired through the color system, as well as direct observation of resident behavior, to make data-based decisions for remedial staff training, referral of the resident for additional behavior-analytic services through Tier 2 or 3 services, or both.
 
Diversity submission 

Descriptive Assessment and Analysis of Challenging Behavior Displayed by Adolescents Within a Juvenile Residential Treatment Facility

(Applied Research)
ANNA KATE EDGEMON (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Treatment of problematic behavior often begins with functional assessment. However, in many contexts, not all components of functional assessment are possible. That is, components of functional assessment (e.g., functional analysis) may not be feasible ethically or logistically in contexts where problematic behavior is infrequent, presents substantial risk to staff members, or both. In these contexts, behavior analysts may use indirect assessment alone to identify environmental conditions that give rise to problem behavior. Such assessments may inform treatment plans, even when the function of the behavior is unclear. The present study is a descriptive assessment of behavioral data collected by dormitory staff at a juvenile residential treatment facility. We used conditional probabilities and statistical analyses to identify setting events (e.g., days of week, time of day) that predict likelihood of problematic behavior. The findings allow clinicians and administrators within the facility allocate resources strategically to prevent and respond to problematic behavior effectively. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

 
 
Paper Session #164
Addressing the Complexity of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) in Organizational Settings
Sunday, May 28, 2023
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: OBM
Chair: Robert Scalise (TBD)
 

A Behavior Analysis of Organizational Justice: A Bridge

Domain: Theory
ROBERT SCALISE (Villiv Management Consulting; University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Kirk Silvernail (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
 
Abstract:

This paper will provide an initial framework for the behavior analysis of organizational justice as operant classes of behavior. Its purpose is to provide tools to expand current research and offer insight. The three universal goals of science are description, prediction, and control. Though it has been studied intently for 40 years, the research has provided a comprehensive description of Organizational Justice. Yet, the evidence for explaining the phenomena and mechanisms to control variables remain largely unidentified. This paper will deconstruct Organizational Justice from its current findings to its basic definition of fairness. We will then offer a conceptualization of the behavior processes involved, define target behaviors, and offer possible methods of analysis and critical areas of study to help further research into the topic.

 
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion as Metacontingencies: Commentary on a Higher Education Case Study
Domain: Theory
DOUGLAS ROBERTSON (Florida International University), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
 
Abstract: This case study examines diversity, equity, and inclusion issues (faculty appointment type and representation by intersectional gender and race/ethnicity categories) related to specific policy (rules) that focuses on rapidly improving performance and ranking metrics at one of the largest U.S. Hispanic serving public metropolitan research universities (Florida International University, located in Miami, Florida, Carnegie designated Highest Research Activity [R1] and Engaged, with 12 month unduplicated headcount of 74,678, 2020-2021, Integrated Postsecondary Educational Data System). The overarching issues include negative consequences regarding diversity, equity, and inclusion issues (interlocking behavioral contingencies and metacontingencies) of focusing on short-term metric-centric objectives at the expense of the university’s long-term mission and espoused values. This paper extends a 12-year line of research on intentional systemic change in large organizations, specifically, public metropolitan research universities (e.g., Robertson, under revision, 2019, 2020; Robertson & Pelaez, 2016, 2018; Robertson, Pelaez, & Santiago Perez, 2021, under revision; also relevant as context, Robertson, 1992).
 
 
 
Symposium #187
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Recent Advances in Data-Based Diversity Research
Sunday, May 28, 2023
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jonathan K Fernand (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
CE Instructor: Meghan Deshais, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Although behavior analysis has contributed substantially to the understanding and study of learning in humans, cultural influences and issues of inequity are understudied. With major organizations within our behavior analytic discipline turning focus to implementing practices which seek to improve diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI), the empirical study of interventions promoting inclusive practices becomes imperative. The current symposium contains research on empirically evaluating interventions to promote DEI. Several talks comprised of research on increasing knowledge and fluency of DEI terminology using a SAFMEDS procedure, understanding stereotype threat on performance, as well as interventions (e.g., self-monitoring, task clarification) for increasing inclusive practices for transgender and gender non-conforming populations will be covered. Although the research presented will discuss applications to specific marginalized populations, extensions will be made to applications beyond the participants included in the present research. Finally, discussion of current and future directions related to clinical ethics, inclusive of DEI practices, will occur.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): diversity, gender, intersectionality, LGBTQIA+
Target Audience:

all people

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss examples of potential prerequisite skills to be trained to mastery before training complex skills related to DEI, (2) discuss stereotype threat from a behavior analytic lens and understand the role it may play in the learning environment, and (3) state the role of preferred name and pronoun use in inclusivity practices.
 
Diversity submission 

Diversity Term Accuracy: A Comparison of Say All Fast, a Minute Every Day, Shuffled (SAFMEDS) and Computer-Based Instruction Training Models

CANDACE R FAY (Florida Institute of Technology), Douglas A. Johnson (Eastman Chemical Company), Rachael Tilka (Kalamazoo Valley Community College )
Abstract:

Promoting diversity and inclusion can impact a variety of different groups. Many organizations rely on various training methods to help ensure diversity in the workplace. However, little research has compared the effects of different training approaches on increasing recall of specific cultural terms. Thus, the present study employed an adapted alternating treatment design to explore the effectiveness of two different training approaches. A SAFMEDS training model was compared to a traditionally-applied computer-based instruction, to determine which is more efficient at promoting cultural fluency. The number of correct definitions for diversity terms across various demographic categories served as the dependent variable. Participants mastered a higher number of diversity terms when trained with SAFMEDS, compared to the computer-based instruction procedure. During maintenance sessions, participants exhibited sustained performance. SAFMEDS may be ideal for improving precision when training terms to be used in conversations about diversity, and culturally-related topics. These skills will aid in building more culturally-relevant social skills that include more complex responses.

 
Diversity submission A Behavior Analytic Account of Stereotype Threat
LAUREN DIANE BROWN (University of Nevada, Reno), Bethany P. Contreras Young (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Although behavior analysis has contributed substantially to the understanding and study of learning in humans, cultural influences are often either overlooked or not accounted for in how they impact individuals in their day-to-day lives. One example in which this has occurred is in accounting for stereotypes. The field of Social Psychology has contributed a significant body of research on stereotypes and the conditions under which individuals are likely to be impacted by stereotypes. One common finding, often referred to as stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995), refers to how stereotypes can negatively impact individual performances under certain testing conditions. While data on stereotype threat indicates a clear pattern of decrease in performance scores for the threated group, studies on stereotype threat have not examined whether stereotype threat will occur when arbitrary tasks are presented and how these statements impact individual performance. This study aimed to examine whether stereotype threat by group affiliation (i.e., gender) would occur on an arbitrary, computer-based memory test. Results indicated overall patterns consistent with the research base, suggesting that gendered statements regarding performance on an arbitrary task can influence individual performance.
 
Diversity submission 

Increasing Trans-Inclusive Practices via Behavioral Self-Monitoring

ABIGAIL KAYLYN PETRONELLI (Western Michigan University), Rachael Tilka (Kalamazoo Valley Community College)
Abstract:

Proper pronoun use towards Transgender and Gender Non-conforming (TGNC) populations have been associated with a significant reduction in suicide attempts, yet only about 20% reported having their pronouns respected by all or most people (The Trevor Project, 2020). The present study sought to increase proper pronoun usage in two graduate student participants in a simulated work task. The initial intervention was a general inclusionary statement (referred to as subtle cue) and was followed by usage of behavioral self-monitoring (BSM) of proper pronoun usage. Results show the general inclusionary statement to be ineffective in increasing usage of proper pronouns but found BSM to be effective in changing behavior immediately and for a sustained effect. The implications for the present study are the need to pinpoint specific inclusive behaviors to target for behavior-change, and how BSM may be one approach to increasing inclusive behaviors.

 
Diversity submission Task Clarification to Increase Trans-Inclusive Practices
KELCIE E MCCAFFERTY (Florida Institute of Technology), Abigail Kaylyn Petronelli (Western Michigan University), Rachael Tilka (Kalamazoo Valley Community College)
Abstract: Inclusive practices and advocacy are critical components of fostering diversity in behavior analysis. Use of preferred names and pronouns that align with an individual’s identity supports these efforts. However, few studies have evaluated methods of improving use of preferred names and pronouns. Petronelli and Ferguson (2021) applied behavioral self-monitoring (BSM) to increase pronoun use and found the intervention to be effective. The present study aimed to extend the findings of the previous study in a systematic replication. Task clarification was implemented to increase percentage of correct pronouns used in a simulated memory task. Results indicated that task clarification was effective in increasing and maintaining correct pronoun use.
 
 
Symposium #188
CE Offered: BACB
Community Interventions: A Pathway to More Nurturing Societies?
Sunday, May 28, 2023
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2B
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Andrew C Bonner (Northeastern University)
Discussant: Dennis D. Embry (PAXIS Institute)
CE Instructor: Andrew C Bonner, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium is intended to advance efforts by behavior analysts to increase the prevalence of communities that nurture the wellbeing of all their residents. The symposium will present four papers that are intended to illustrate the progress that is possible if we invest in community interventions, particularly in communities of greatest disadvantage. The first paper argues that community interventions can be the critical building block for evolving more nurturing societies. It outlines what a comprehensive approach to assisting communities in addressing their most pressing problems can look like. The second paper will focus on approaches to youth violence prevention and will discuss use of the socioecological model to inform community intervention across levels to affect not only violence prevention, but also structural determinants influencing violence including racism. The third paper describes that things that can be done to reduce tobacco use in communities. The fourth focuses on how communities can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Our discussant will consider how this work can contribute to evolving a more nurturing society.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Climate Change, Community Intervention, Tobacco Control, Youth Violence
Target Audience:

Basic

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe a framework for conducting comprehensive community interventions; (2) describe how the socioecological model can be used to inform community interventions; (3) describe a community-based approach to addressing youth violence prevention, tobacco control, and climate change.
 
Evolving More Nurturing Communities
ANTHONY BIGLAN (Oregon Research Institute), Andrew C Bonner (Northeastern University)
Abstract: This presentation will make the case that efforts to address the inequities that are undermining well-being of a significant portion of Americans needs to start with work at the community level. Black, Indigenous, Native American, Hispanic, LGBTQ+, Intellectually and developmentally delayed, and poor white communities are faced with numerous inequities in their daily life. This presentation will briefly summarize the inequities that undermine well-being and ultimately contribute to the large disparities in premature death that exist in the United States. It will then describe how communities can be assisted in coming together around a shared vision of the qualities they want in their community, how those qualities can be promoted, and how the community can pinpoint specific inequities and create action circles to reduce inequities. Among the inequities for which evidence-based programs and policies are available are disparities in reading proficiency, disparities in school suspensions, police stops, arrests, and incarceration. Members of disadvantaged communities also experience frequent aversive interactions, which contribute to cardiovascular disease and premature death. The presentation will sketch how a community intervention can mobilize efforts not only to address specific inequities, but to increase the degree to which people are kind, caring, respectful of one and other.
 
ThrYve: Promoting Wellbeing Using a Socioecological Approach to Prevent Youth Violence
JOMELLA WATSON-THOMPSON (University of Kansas), Valerie Thompson (University of Kansas), Malika N. Pritchett (University of Kansas), Joshua Harsin (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Youth violence adversely impacts the health and wellbeing of our youth and communities. Youth homicide is the second leading cause of death for all youth, and the leading cause for Black youth ages 15 to 24 (CDC, 2022). A socioecological approach can inform community interventions across levels to affect not only violence prevention, but also structural determinants influencing violence including racism. Together Helping Reduce Youth Violence for Equity (ThrYve) is a community-based participatory approach to address youth violence that is implemented by the Youth Violence Prevention Center- Kansas City. ThrYve supports a comprehensive process that is multilevel (i.e., implements strategies across socio-ecological levels) and multisectoral (e.g., engages law enforcement, youth serving organizations, schools) to facilitate change across the environment. Based on the socioecological approach, ThrYve examines social and structural determinants of health that serve as antecedents to youth violence particularly for racial and ethnic youth. ThrYve engages more than 40 community partners across 16 sectors, including youth, through a Systems Advisory Board (SAB). The ThrYve SAB supports the implementation of community and system changes (i.e., program, policy, and practice changes) across socioecological levels through cross-sector collaboration to address youth violence and related factors or determinants of health and wellbeing.
 
Achieving the Tobacco Endgame: A Multifaceted Approach to Strengthening Community-Based Interventions
CASSANDRA O'HARA (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: Reductions in smoking are perhaps the greatest public health success of all time. The observed reductions in smoking over the last 50 years have been produced by a range of preventive and reactive interventions. At the federal level, warnings from the surgeon general influenced public opinion and the people vs. Philip Morris made it illegal to market cigarettes to youth. At the community level, interventions such as reward and reminder (e.g., Biglan et al., 2000) have influenced youth not to smoke. At the individual level, consequence-based interventions such as contingency management have produced increased abstinence in people who smoke (e.g., Dallery et al., 2008). Despite the success of the tobacco control movement, continued interference by the tobacco industry, particularly in the advent of innovations targeting youth such as vaping, calls for continued action and research in this area. A multifaceted approach to achieving the tobacco endgame is needed (Willet et al., 2021). Modern technology may broaden the accessibility of interventions targeting smoking cessation (Dallery et al., 2019). How the tobacco control movement can serve as a model for large scale change and implications for future research are discussed.
 
A Community-Driven Approach to Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Importance of Scaling and Coalition Building
ANDREW C BONNER (Northeastern University), Anthony Biglan (Oregon Research Institute)
Abstract: One thing the COVID-19 pandemic taught us is that when the global community comes together around shared goals, large-scale effective action is possible. In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, global lockdowns in 2020 led to the largest reductions in emissions seen in decades. However, these reductions were produced by alterations in people’s lifestyles, most of which are not tenable solutions to climate change. Therefore, the challenge to global climate change community is to develop strategies to reduce emissions (of the type observed during the COVID-19 pandemic) without forcing citizens to stay at home in isolation. More than 50 years of behavior-analytic research shows that a large range of strategies are effective at influencing people’s carbon footprints, but less attention has been dedicated to scaling these solutions and building the coalitions needed to produce large-scale reductions in emissions. This talk will trace a pathway from interventions that are effective with small groups, to large-scale interventions, and finally to multisector community interventions. Implications for future research are discussed.
 
 
Invited Symposium #194
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Justice, Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion in Basic Research
Sunday, May 28, 2023
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 2/3
Area: SCI; Domain: Translational
Chair: Liz Kyonka (California State University - East Bay)
Discussant: Liz Kyonka (California State University - East Bay)
CE Instructor: Liz Kyonka, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Justice, equity, diversity, inclusion (JEDI) and related issues have started to receive more attention in behavior analysis circles, including publications in behavior analysis journals about diversity and representation, antiracism, and cultural competence. To date, behavior analysis publications have been focused in two areas: cataloging demographic information from author bylines or the parts of Method sections that describe participants, and JEDI-oriented guidelines, frameworks and recommendations for clinical practice. Basic behavior analysis research is not immune from discriminatory practices, and basic behavioral scientists are not exempt from doing the work needed to ensure that behavior analysis is open to anyone. On the contrary, this kind of justice is one of three basic principles outlined in the Belmont Report for the protection of human subjects of research and one of five general principles in the American Psychological Association’s Ethics Code. Presentations will explore how JEDI principles can be meaningfully implemented in research involving student researchers and with animal research subjects, interrogate broader obligations to prospective behavioral scientists, and consider intersections between JEDI principles and culture responsiveness.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Students, Researchers, BCBAs

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to 1. Identify barriers to increasing diversity in behavior analysis. 2. Describe actions researchers and training programs can take to embed cultural responsiveness in behavior analysis. 3. Critically evaluate the relevance of recommendations about ensuring justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion in research to behavior analysis research. 4. Apply a critical lens to ostensibly objective scientific practices.
 
Diversity submission What are the Barriers to Increasing Diversity of Researchers and Clinicians in Behavior Analysis?
PAUL SOTO (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Efforts have been made to increase diversity of researchers and clinicians in behavior analysis as well as other STEM fields. Lack of diversity in the behavior analysis community is sometimes attributed to a lack of qualified candidates at the post-graduate level for academic position and roles (e.g., journal reviewers, journal review boards). If the barrier is truly a lack of qualified candidates, then we, as a field, must identify the factors that reduce the number of qualified master’s and doctoral-level candidates for clinical and academic positions and roles so that we can intervene to increase the number of qualified candidates. In my laboratory, I have had no difficulty in attracting undergraduate students from diverse backgrounds to participate in research. However, none of these students have moved on to pursue graduate school in behavior analysis and only a couple have decided to pursue a graduate degree in a related field (e.g., neuroscience). Although I have considered pushing students harder toward graduate school in psychology, in general, and behavior analysis, specifically, reservations regarding job opportunities has dampened my enthusiasm to do so. Job opportunity limitations are not however the same in the applied area and perhaps that represents an avenue for pursuit.
Dr. Soto completed graduate training in psychology at Emory University and postdoctoral training in behavioral pharmacology at the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Prior to accepting a position at LSU in 2017, Dr. Soto held tenure-track appointments in the School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University and at Texas Tech University. Dr. Soto’s research interests are in (1) the use of laboratory animal models of psychiatric diseases and symptoms for the evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches, (2) the use of drugs and genetically engineered animals to identify the neurobiological contributors to basic and complex behavioral processes, and (3) the investigation of short- and long-term effects of exposure to psychiatric medications. Recently, Dr. Soto has begun advocating for the use of single-case experimental designs in areas outside of behavior analysis, such as behavioral neuroscience, because of the scientific and ethical benefits provided by these designs.
 
Diversity submission Intersection of Cultural Responsiveness and Ethics in Behavioral Research
CORINA JIMENEZ-GOMEZ (University of Florida)
Abstract: Much has been said and written lately about the need to embed cultural responsiveness in behavior analysis and the need to enhance diversity in the field. In fact, similar conversations are taking place in many areas of science. Despite the current buzz, many may be left wondering what they can do or whether it is incumbent on them to act. What can researchers and training programs do? Further, what are the ethical responsibilities and implications of their actions (or lack thereof)? This talk will review some observations related to this topic.
Dr. Corina Jimenez-Gomez (she/her/ella) is an Assistant Professor in the Behavior Analysis program at the University of Florida. She earned a Licensure in Psychology at the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello in Caracas, Venezuela, and a doctoral degree in Psychology with an emphasis in Behavior Analysis from Utah State University. She completed post-doctoral training at the University of Michigan and was a Research Fellow at The University of Auckland, New Zealand. She has held faculty positions at the Florida Institute of Technology and Auburn University. In addition, she served as clinical supervisor at The Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Tech and was the Director of the Center for Autism Research, Treatment, and Training (CARTT) at Auburn University. Dr. Jimenez-Gomez is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst at the doctoral level, whose professional interests include translational and applied behavioral research in the areas of choice and reinforcement processes, the use of technology in ABA settings, caregiver and staff coaching, and cultural responsiveness in Behavior Analysis. Dr. Jimenez-Gomez has served as a reviewer for various scientific journals and is currently on the editorial board of the Perspectives on Behavior Science and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is Associate Editor for Behavior Analysis in Practice. She is also the mom of two amazing humans and an elderly Labrador, and is married to a fellow behavioral scientist.
 
Diversity submission Scientific Objectivity and Social Justice in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
LIZ KYONKA (California State University - East Bay), Shrinidhi Subramaniam (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: Much of the practical advice about incorporating principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion (JEDI) into behavioral research focuses on consulting stakeholders, reevaluating inclusion and exclusion criteria, and using inclusive language to describe research participants. For behavioral scientists investigating fundamental behavioral processes, following this advice can be challenging. For example, in experiments with laboratory animal subjects, humane treatment and transparent procedures for ensuring subjects’ welfare may be more applicable than consultation and inclusive language. This presentation will summarize recommendations about incorporating JEDI principles into research that have been published recently, and explore some implications of those recommendations.
Dr. Elizabeth Kyonka (she/her/hers) is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at California State University, East Bay on the ethnohistoric territory of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area. Originally from Canada, she completed an Sc.B. in Cognitive Neuroscience at Brown University and a Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Canterbury, in Christchurch, New Zealand. She has held faculty positions at West Virginia University and the University of New England in Armidale, Australia. Dr. Kyonka’s research includes experimental analyses of strategic reasoning and of the interplay between temporal learning and choice, behavioral approaches to assessing and modifying technology use, and metacritical analysis of behavior analysis. Currently, she is a member of the ABAI Science Board, serves on the editorial boards of The Psychological Record, Perspectives on Behavior Science and Learning & Behavior, and is an Associate Editor for the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
 
Diversity submission Incorporating Principles of Justice, Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion in Behavioral Research
SHRINIDHI SUBRAMANIAM (California State University, Stanislaus), Liz Kyonka (California State University - East Bay)
Abstract: Foundational research skills that span the spectrum of behavior analysis include synthesizing the existing literature; developing an interesting, socially important research question; selecting appropriate measurement tools; designing an experiment that allows for valid inferences; applying best practices in data analysis; drawing conclusions based on the data; and disseminating the results to a broad audience. We argue that considering principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion (JEDI) in each of those activities will benefit the field of behavior analysis and the broader community. This presentation draws upon the scholarly literature and personal experience to detail action steps to incorporate JEDI principles from study conceptualization to knowledge translation. Examples include using participatory research methods and adopting a critical lens to so-called objective, scientific practices.

Dr. Shrinidhi Subramaniam is an Associate Professor in Psychology at California State University, Stanislaus and a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. Dr. Subramaniam received her PhD in Psychology from West Virginia University and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in behavioral pharmacology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. She teaches courses in applied behavior analysis, research methods, ethics, and addiction treatment, and mentors graduate students in their thesis research. Dr. Subramaniam’s research applies behavior analytic principles to solve problems like addiction, unemployment, and poverty in her community. Currently, she is the co-PI for Wellness WORKs!, a holistic health education program for CalWORKs participants in San Joaquin County. In addition to this work, she has published over 20 manuscripts and chapters across broad research interests. These publications include clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of behavioral interventions like incentives and education, and basic and translational studies exploring processes underlying human decision making such as choice and temporal learning. Dr. Subramaniam is an Associate Editor for The Psychological Record, is on the editorial board for the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and serves as the Board Secretary of the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior. She was the Association for Behavior Analysis, International’s 2022 recipient of the Federation of Associations in Behavioral and Brain Sciences Early Career Impact Award.

 
 
Symposium #203
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Behavior Analysis, Functional Relationships, and Criminal Justice
Sunday, May 28, 2023
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom H
Area: PCH/CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Jurnee Skylar Dunn (Salem State University)
CE Instructor: Darlene E. Crone-Todd, M.A.
Abstract: There are many ways that behavior analysis can be helpful in the study of criminal behavior or the criminal justice system. An understanding of both the individual contingencies that lead to criminal behavior such as homicide, and the more complex interlocking behavioral contingencies that shape individuals and the collective behavior of citizens, police officers/law enforcement, lawyers, and judges are important for both understanding and predicting behavior. In this symposium, the presentations will cover these contingency analyses, and one will provide an overview of how our science of behavior can allow behavior analysts to branch out to areas such as the prevention of domestic violence, organizational behavior management for police officers, and restoration programs for competency to stand trial. Thus, the symposium will cover how understanding behavioral contingencies and functional relationships are essential in all these levels of analysis and application.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice, Diversity, Expanding ABA, Functional Relationships
Target Audience: Basic knowledge of behavior analytical principles.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to apply behavior-analytic principles to the criminal justice system, recognize behavioral contingencies that are outside the realm of developmental disabilities and creatively think about the diversity in behavior analysis.
 
Diversity submission 

Interlocking Behavioral Contingencies in the Criminal Justice System

Brooke Mann (Salem State University), DARLENE E. CRONE-TODD (Salem State University)
Abstract:

Operant behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences that vary in terms of magnitude, quality, and variability. An individual’s history of reinforcement and punishment are therefore important in predicting behavior, and this includes choices people make in each moment of time. When people choose between immediate and long-term consequences, important factors include time constraints, training history, and magnitude and probability of threat versus avoidance of threat/aversive outcome. Within the criminal justice system, there are interlocking behavioral contingencies working at the meta level that involve the interplay between groups of people undergoing a variety of these factors. The factors shape the individual and collective behavior of citizens, police officers/law enforcement, lawyers, judges, etc. In this presentation, we will focus on a model of how the interlocking behavioral contingencies intersect, and why behavioral skills training is important.

 
Diversity submission Behavior Analysis Assists the Criminal Justice System
TIMOTHY TEMPLIN ( Endicott College)
Abstract: There are many uses of behavior analysis to further the study of criminology, or otherwise assist in criminal or civil legal proceedings, as well as juvenile or adult correctional programs. Areas of interest related to this field have been reviewed in the literature, and in current practice, for this presentation. Among areas where ABA can branch into criminal justice include prevention of domestic violence, organizational behavior management for police officers, and restoration programs for competency to stand trial. The dissemination of ABA within the criminal justice field is also important, and the different areas of focus are covered by the Forensic Applied Behavior Analysis (FABA) Special Interest Group (SIG) within the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI).
 
Diversity submission Behavioral Contingencies in Homicide
KODEY LAI (Arizona State University)
Abstract: Behavior analysis has the goal of being able to change behavior, specifically to describe, predict and control behavior. The assumption is that an individual’s learning history will affect their chosen actions and behaviors. Using this assumption, behavior analysis claims to predict and control behavior. There should be consistency in how homicide offenders act using this principle, in their past behavior, criminal history, and behaviors at the crime scene. Information from an individual’s learning history of previous years should therefore make it easier to predict homicide offenders. In this presentation, behavior analytic principles will be used to analyze behaviors and permanent products that are observable at the crime scene to show characteristics that should be present in everyday life, even with offenders of homicide.
 
 
Poster Session #206A
AUT Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 28, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
1. Functional Communication Training (FCT) for Tangible Maintained Aggression Evaluated in a Latency-Based Reversal Design
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACOB P. OLIVEIRA (Salve Regina University), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Adam Mulvey (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Shirley Sanchez (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT) is an effective function-based treatment that has been shown to reduce problem behavior and increase appropriate behavior in previous research. Most research with FCT has been evaluated within rate-based designs. Previous research has identified response latency as an index of response strength in comparison to rate-based measurements. This purpose of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of FCT within a latency-based reversal design. This project also includes data on how the terminal response was acquired through prompt fading. The study was conducted with a 13-year-old vocal verbal Caucasian male with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder that could speak with 1-4 word phrases within a special education school in New England. Treatment involved replacing aggressive behavior with an appropriate request for more time on the computer. The results of the study gave evidence that FCT being evaluated within a latency-based reversal design is an effective way to evaluate FCT. IOA data was collected by two independent observers for 100% of FCT prompt fading trials with a mean agreement of 100% and 75% of FCT treatment evaluation trials with a mean agreement of 100%. Treatment integrity data was collected for 95% of FCT prompt fading trials with global score of 85% and 100% of FCT treatment evaluation trials with a global score of 100%.
 
2. Evaluating the Impact of Pre-Requisite Skills on the Outcomes of Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRIA CAVINESS (Evergreen Center/Cambridge College), Rebecca Hotchkiss (Evergreen Center, Cambridge College, CABAS)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Auditory visual conditional discrimination (AVCD) is an early and important listener skill, typically involving the individual learning to select the correct comparison stimulus following a vocal direction or antecedent. Often individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) require direct teaching for acquisition and generalization of this repertoire. Despite this, there is limited research on the prerequisite skills required for learning AVCD, which may impact the efficacy of teaching methods requiring this skill. The primary purpose of this study was to extend the literature on prerequisite skills for AVCD tasks and to extend the assessment completed by Kodak et al. (2015) to a novel population. Additionally, the study evaluated if the outcomes on the skills assessment will be indicative of outcomes on varying AVCD tasks. Two adolescent male students with ASD who reside at a residential facility served as participants. Three conditions within this study were a preference assessment, skills assessment, and AVCD training. The AVCD training assessed teaching novel stimuli in a comparison-first or sample-first arrangement. The results suggest that deficits of the prerequisite skills assessed impacted outcomes on AVCD. There will be discussion of individual differences based upon participant characteristics and outcomes, as well as suggestions for future research.
 
Diversity submission 3. The Development and Use of a Generalized Assessment Questionnaire to Create Socially Valid Interventions for Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY JUAREZ (Butterfly Effects, LLC)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The CDC has reported an estimated 5,437,988 (2.21%) adults in the United States have ASD. This steadily growing number of adults being diagnosed with ASD has created a higher demand for services relevant to the adult and adolescent population. Gerhardt and Lainer (2011) state that there is a significant and growing necessity for greater attention to individual needs of adults with ASD to provide opportunities for an improved quality of life. Due to the majority of research and programmatic efforts have focused on young children, with relatively little focus placed on adolescents and adults with ASD (Gerhardt & Holmes, 2005); there is a need for change in the current systems of planning and intervention within the field of applied behavior analysis to transition into more functional and socially significant means for young adolescents and adults. With the transition from school-based interventions into integrated societal work life, there is a significant lack of identification and research to provide socially valid interventions to adults with ASD. Since most individuals with ASD do not have an intellectual disability, they are ineligible to participate in state and/or federally funded programs designed to assist individuals with other types of developmental disabilities (Gerhardt & Holmes, 2005). This has caused a significant gap in success for integration into society once transitioned into adulthood. This case study expands upon Gerhardt & Lainer (2011) by developing an assessment questionnaire tool to address socially valid intervention plans that improve the quality of life for an adult individual with ASD. An assessment questionnaire tool was developed based on the current common socially relevant barriers amongst adults with ASD. A single-case design was used. Individualized intervention goals were developed based on the assessment questionnaire tool to evaluate and examine the effectiveness of the tool by addressing socially significant scenarios that were particular to the studied adult.
 
Diversity submission 4. Evaluating the Use of Activity Schedules to Improve Play Activities for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CHAIDAMOYO GOODSON DZENGA (University of Montana Western)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit restrictive/repetitive or stereotypical behaviors that hinder engagement with other typically developing peers. They often exhibit inflexibility due to challenges in communication. Play activities for children with ASD often characterized by repeating actions over and over, and failing to play with others (Rudy, 2021, Wolfberg and Schuler, 2006). Deficits in communication are linked to poor academic, and social outcomes (Barton et al., 2018; Barton 2014). If carefully selected and appropriately applied, play activities have the potential to improve social communication, thus, enhancing their integration into the community. Using activity schedules provides a cue prompting children with autism to complete play activities. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of activity schedules to improve play activities for children with autism. This study reviewed 10 primary studies that utilized activity schedules to increase play activities for children with autism. Participants in the study were aged between 3 to 12 years. Visual analysis for all the studies indicated that activity schedules are effective in improving play skills for children with autism.
 
5. A Mega-Review of Functional Communication Training for Children With Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities in Educational Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FRANCIS CORR (University of Virginia), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Virginia)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Functional communication training is a widely used treatment for challenging behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As more students with ASD are being served in educational settings, it is essential to understand and evaluate the evidence base of FCT in educational contexts. Fortunately, the number of systematic reviews of FCT has increased in recent years. Research is now needed to synthesize these findings to inform future research and evaluate the evidence base for this practice as a whole. This evaluation should focus on how FCT has been applied in educational contexts, under what conditions, for whom and by whom, and with what outcomes. This mega-review synthesized five reviews of FCT for children with ASD in educational settings. Data on participant characteristics, educational setting variables, FCT components and implementation, and outcomes and conclusions from each review are synthesized and discussed. Methodological rigor of each review was evaluated using A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews Revised (AMSTAR 2). This is the first mega-review to evaluate FCT in educational settings for children with ASD. The state of evidence for FCT in educational settings will be presented with implications for research and practice will be presented.

 
7. Effectiveness of Teaching Abduction Prevention Skills Using Video Modeling and Role Play to Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CASSANDRA KRUPSKI (EPIC School), Angela Rodriguez (EPIC School), Natalie M. Driscoll (Seven Hills Foundation & Endicott College)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Abduction prevention is an incredibly important skill for young adults, especially those with reduced social skills such as young adults on the autism spectrum. As an addition to the available literature, abduction prevention using behavioral skills training, priming, and community members was explored using video modeling and in situ demonstration of skills in the community. In this multiple baseline design across three participants, the participants first completed a baseline worksheet of the abduction prevention skills available in the existing literature such as saying no, walking away, and telling a trusted adult. The participants then completed an in-situ probe to assess for generalization of skills. As assumed based on previous studies, the skills did not generalize from the worksheet to the community and were then taught specifically by using video modeling and tested in the community with a trained community helper.
 
8. Trauma-Informed Care: A Comparison Between Behavior Analysts and Social Workers
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
E ZHANG (University of Kansas Medical Center ), Dariyn Olas (Children With Opportunity), Ezra Kaiser (University of Kansas Medical Center), Hanna Traphagan (University of Kansas Medical Center), Linda S. Heitzman-Powell (The University of Kansas Medical Center)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Individuals with developmental disabilities, including autism, are more likely to experience traumatic events than neurotypical peers. There is a lack of investigation on how Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) interventions incorporate trauma-informed care. Trauma-informed care involves professionals interacting with clients through a trauma-informed lens by realizing the impact of trauma, recognizing the signs and symptoms of trauma, integrating knowledge about trauma into policies, procedures, and practices, and seeking to avoid re-traumatization. The study examined the differences in training, education, and implementation of trauma-informed care between social workers and behavior analysts. We surveyed 41 behavior analysts and 49 social workers. Most behavior analyst respondents (82.9%) reported a lack of training concerning trauma-informed care as a barrier, and this number was only 28.6% for social worker respondents. Behavior analyst respondents were significantly less familiar with TIC and significantly less satisfied with their trauma-informed care practice quality than social worker respondents. The findings of this study indicate a lack of current training and protocol concerning trauma-informed care incorporation into ABA interventions compared to social workers’ training and protocols. There is a need for restructuring ABA education programs, continuing education requirements, and interventions to incorporate trauma-informed care.
 
10. An Examination of a Pica Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNA TAYLOR (Marcus Autism Center), Jennifer M. Hodnett (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often involves the presence of challenging behaviors. One common topography of challenging behavior is pica. Pica is characterized by the continuous consumption of materials which provide no nutritional value. This particular form of maladaptive behavior is considered to be very dangerous as it can lead to gastrointestinal and other medical complications. Pica is often automatically maintained and requires intensive behavioral interventions to reduce the behavior. The present study outlines the clinical assessment and treatment of pica in a 14-year old male, diagnosed with ASD. His initial treatment plan included differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA) and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedures however, these components were not effective in maintaining a sustained suppression in pica. Considering the lack of long-term effectiveness, a novel treatment package was developed involving the addition of noncontingent access to edible foods that mimicked the consistency and coloration of preferred nonfood pica items (i.e. drywall). Referred to as “safe pica” items. The combined use of the first treatment plan’s procedures and additional procedures including safe pica items was effective in reducing the challenging behavior by 99.8% in the clinic and 100% once generalized to the home.
 
11. Assessing the Feasibility of a Remotely Delivered Yoga Program for Adolescents With Autism: Time On Task and Off Task Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL NICOLE SOBOL FOSTER (University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine), Brian Helsel (University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Neurology ), Lauren Ptomey (University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) spend less time engaged in physical activity compared to neurotypical peers. Yoga is empirically validated to improve aspects of physical fitness such as strength, balance, and flexibility. Research on the benefits of yoga is well-established for neurotypical people, however, there is little to no research on the impact of yoga on individuals with ASD. Studies suggest remote-based exercise interventions circumvent barriers related to time, transportation, and cost for families of youth with ASD. The current study is the first published intervention to evaluate the feasibility of a remotely delivered yoga program for adolescents with ASD (N = 18). Researchers quantified participants’ levels of engagement in class through a comprehensive analysis of objectively measured on-task behaviors and specific off-task behaviors during all (N = 143) 30-minute yoga classes. Whole interval recording was used to measure percentage of time on task, and partial interval recording was used to measure percentage of time off task. Results indicate teaching remotely delivered yoga for youth with ASD is feasible, with participants attending 83% of classes and remaining on-task 86% of the time. Future research may examine levels of engagement in of other remotely delivered exercise interventions for this population.
 
12. Generalizing Session Pairing Procedures Across Participants With Comorbid Diagnoses Outside of Early Childhood
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINE JOHNSON (Butterfly Effects), Tara Jane Rochefort (Butterfly Effects), Jarrett Ring (Butterfly Effects)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Rapport building is a key component of effective and compassionate Applied Behavior Analytic (ABA) services for children and teenagers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, Rajaraman et al., 2022). Recent literature demonstrated that building rapport can decrease maladaptive behaviors while increasing the quality-of-service delivery (McLaughlin & Carr, 2005; Shillingsburg et al.,2018). This is the first step towards more compassionate and responsive ABA (Leaf et al., 2016). Presession pairing develops a positive environment that allows a relationship between the staff and the client to develop prior to the implementation of skill acquisition programs. The present study replicates and extends the work of Lugo et al. (2017) by generalizing their pre-session pairing procedures to an applied setting, across clients with comorbid diagnoses to ASD, and beyond ages other than early childhood. The frequency of praise delivered to clients was measured across therapist sessions pre and post behavior skills training (BST). The study’s results show that pairing throughout session is effective for participants other than those with a single diagnosis of ASD and that are outside of the early childhood age.
 
13. Exploration of Family Perspective and Experience Related to Applied Behavior Analysis in Kentucky
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY SCHAUDER (University of Louisville / Norton Children’s Hospital), Katelyn Rosso (University of Louisville Department of Pediatrics; Norton Children's Hospital Development Clinic), Stephanie Battistini (University of Louisville Department of Pediatrics; Norton Children's Hospital Development Clinic), Maria Mendoza (University of Louisville Department of Pediatrics; Norton Children's Hospital Development Clinic)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Although Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is recognized as an effective therapy for individuals with autism, ABA remains controversial among stakeholders. Data is scarce regarding the landscape of ABA in various communities. This study explores how families in Kentucky decide whether to pursue ABA services. Practical reasons (e.g., cost, location) and information sources (e.g., doctor, independent research) were considered as possible influential factors. Two hundred and thirteen caregivers of children with autism in Kentucky responded to a survey. More than half (60%) of respondents endorsed pursuing ABA therapy. Analysis of factors that impacted whether to pursue ABA indicated that independent research by the caregiver was the most influential factor. Interestingly, those who ultimately pursued ABA endorsed being more impacted by the factors, as a set, compared to those who did not pursue ABA (p<.001). Of those that ultimately received ABA, 71% of these caregivers rated ABA to be “very” or “extremely” helpful. these results begin to highlight our community’s perspectives about ABA, and the differences that may characterize those that do and do not pursue ABA, which will guide providers in counseling family on intervention options. Qualitative analysis of free response comments is ongoing and promise to provide more insight into the variety of perspectives about ABA that exist in our community.
 
14. Analysis of Fixed-Lean Schedule Thinning Following Interventions Aimed at Decreasing Severe Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIATU FORNAH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Emily Ann Chesbrough (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Brianna Laureano (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Behavioral interventions to decrease problem behavior typically utilize dense schedules of reinforcement for appropriate behavior. Following reductions in problem behavior, schedule thinning is implemented to ensure the intervention is more feasible to implement in the natural environment. Hagopian et al. (2004) compared two schedule thinning approaches: a dense-to-lean (DTL) and fixed-lean (FL) approach. DTL schedule thinning involves initially implementing a dense reinforcement schedule and then gradually thinning the schedule of reinforcement to the terminal schedule. FL schedule thinning involves implementing and maintaining a lean schedule of reinforcement from the outset—one that is equivalent to the terminal schedule of the DTL condition. This study aimed to replicate Hagopian et al. (2004) to examine a FL schedule thinning approach following functional communication training with two individuals admitted to an inpatient unit for severe problem behavior. Our results suggest that the FL schedule thinning approach is an effective and efficient method for decreasing the schedule of reinforcement in behavior reduction treatments. The clinical application and considerations for implementing FL schedule thinning are discussed.
 
15. The Effects of Problem Behavior Frequency on Data Collection Accuracy
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chloe A Calkins (Salve Regina University), MEGAN ELLSWORTH (Salve Regina University ), Nicole Marie Nenninger (Salve Regina University), Sarah Sudhoff (Salve Regina University), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The accuracy of reported behavioral data is crucial when using it in applied settings to inform clinical decisions. However, there are many challenges to obtaining accurate behavior data in clinical settings. Recent research by Morris et al. (2022) has outlined some risk factors that might negatively impact data collection integrity/accuracy in clinical settings. Still, more research is needed to better understand recognized risk factors and identify new risk factors related to data collection accuracy and integrity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the frequency of problem behavior on data collection accuracy. This study involved 31 participants who watched a 30-minute video of a client engaging in varying levels of problem behavior throughout the recording. A statistical analysis found a significant negative correlation between the frequency of problem behavior and the accuracy of data collection. The intercoder reliability of entering participant responses into the database was 99% across the entire data set.
 
16. The Effects of Observation Length on Data Collection Accuracy
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Sarah Sudhoff (Salve Regina University), NICOLE MARIE NENNINGER (Salve Regina University), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University ), Chloe A Calkins (Salve Regina University), Megan Ellsworth (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Behavior analysts often rely on others to collect behavioral data that is used to inform their clinical decisions (Morris et al., 2022). While outsourcing data collection is a practical necessity, it can lead to issues with the trustworthiness of the data. Thus, behavior analysts must be careful to recommend best-practice data collection procedures to those who collect and report behavioral data. Tiger et al. (2013) and Morris & Peterson (2020) both suggested that multiple short-duration observations might produce better data collection accuracy than continuous longer-duration observations. However, research has not yet evaluated the effect of observation length on data collection accuracy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate observation length on data collection accuracy using 35 undergraduate student data collectors. The participants of the study watched a 30-minute video of a client engaging in varying levels of problem behavior in 30-minute or multiple 5-minute sessions. The intercoder reliability of entering participant responses into the database was 99% across the entire data set. The results of the study show very little difference in the data collection accuracy of the two different groups. Small differences in the data and possible reasons for the differences or lack thereof will be discussed.
 
17. Increasing Social Engagement Through Systematic Pairing and Approach Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GABRIELLE PIGNATELLI (Rutgers University, GSAPP), Daniel Park (Rutgers University; Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Debra Paone (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The objective of pairing is to establish rapport between the therapist and participant through the delivery of preferred reinforcers in the absence of demands (Lugo et al., 2019; Sundberg & Partington, 1998). Pre-session pairing refers to an antecedent-based procedure where the therapist and the participant engage with preferred items prior to an instructional session (Kelly et al., 2015). When pre-session pairing occurs, increased academic responding and reductions in challenging behavior are often observed (Kelly et al., 2015). Pairing the therapist with reinforcement may reduce avoidant behaviors and increase social engagement in the instructional setting (Shillingsburg et al., 2014; Lugo et al., 2019). The present study used assessment procedures described by Morris and Vollmer (2021) to measure both social engagement with a novel therapist and duration within close proximity to the therapist. Following this assessment, the novel therapist engaged in a pairing procedure with the participant, using procedures described by McLaughlin & Carr (2005). When criteria were met for the pairing and approach procedures, a post-assessment was conducted to evaluate the extent to which the procedures resulted in an increase in engagement and the duration within close proximity to the therapist. Increases in both variables were observed across both participants.
 
18. An Assessment of Stimulus Prompts to Teach Conditional Discriminations to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HAVEN SIERRA NILAND (University of North Texas), Katherine Flores (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center; University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Samantha Bergmann (University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Julia Wang (Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science), Isaiah Salazar (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center; University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Karen Rader (University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Elizabeth M. Sansing (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center; University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis), Setareh Moslemi (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center; University of North Texas Department of Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Assessment-based instruction can be used to identify effective and efficient skill-acquisition procedures that support individualized behavioral programming for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prompts are a common teaching strategy to promote skill acquisition. The purpose of this applied study was to use assessment-based instruction to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of within- and extra-stimulus prompts to teach conditional discriminations to two children with ASD. Stimulus prompts involved motion (within-stimulus) and pointing (extra-stimulus) to evoke correct responding in the presence of a discriminative stimulus. We used an adapted alternating treatments design with a no-treatment control condition to evaluate the effects of both prompt types across multiple sets of stimuli. Neither prompt type led to acquisition without additional procedural modifications. The study is ongoing and data for one participant suggest that the extra-stimulus prompt is more likely to transfer control. Assessment results will be used to inform clinical programming to teach conditional discriminations and contribute to research on designing and implementing assessment-based instruction.
 
Diversity submission 19. Where Does Expertise Lie? Building Effective Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Treatment Through Exploring Diverse Families Strengths and Values
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
STEFAN ANDREW HORBANCZUK (University of Washington)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: As applied behavior analysis (ABA) becomes the dominant method of treating Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), how Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) conduct interventions amongst a growing diverse population is a point of emphasis for future practical application. This study utilized theoretical frameworks from within the field of education: Family-Centered Practice (FCP), which is a recommended practice of Early Intervention (EI) services and Cultural Community Wealth (CCW), which aims to critically center knowledge and experiences of historically marginalized communities in educational settings. Two dyads consisting of a BCBA and a respective diverse family with whom the BCBA currently provided services were interviewed, using a current Treatment Plan as a means of elicitation. Questions during the interview centered on family strengths, knowledge and values and how the BCBA identified and incorporated those items into the current Treatment Plan. The results demonstrated that BCBAs were able to utilize diverse families values, knowledge and strengths when implementing behavior-change goals to meet their needs. However, there remained instances in which intervention was built around normative, societal values that were not congruent with the families’ values. This poster serves as a building block to understanding how BCBAs can build intervention upon family strengths, rather than deficits.
 
20. A Sibling Mediated Intervention Using Token Economies During Telehealth Social Skills Groups
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRIANNA WATERBURY (Claremont Graduate University ), Katharine Chase Emery (Claremont Graduate University ), Catherine Lugar (Claremont Graduate University)
Discussant: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Abstract: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) fail to demonstrate functional communication and social skills (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). While most interventions with children with autism are performed by trained behavior interventionists, there is some incentive for treatments to be delivered by more familiar individuals, such as parents, peers, and siblings (Schreibman & Anderson, 2001). The fidelity and implementation of a token-economy procedure with their autistic sibling during social skills group via telehealth was examined using a multiple-baseline procedure across three sibling dyads. After behavior-skills trainings, each sibling was able to implement a token-economy procedure with fidelity with their autistic siblings during social skills groups via telehealth. In addition, all autistic siblings demonstrated increases in appropriate social skills during telehealth groups, specifically in appropriate responding to their peers.
 
21. Online Safety Skills and Digital Education for Individuals With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
ARLENE KELY ALVES DE AMORIM (Grupo Conduzir), Raissa Silva (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Renata Michel (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Carlos Henrique Santos da Silva (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: The internet has transformed all contexts of society. We create technologies that quickly shape our behavior. In addition to the impact of our vast access to information, new forms of relationships, different ways of working, and new risks – such as illegal sharing of personal data, hacking, fake news, cyber bullying, sexual abuse, among others – have begun to threaten our daily lives and require new forms of protection. Data protection laws around the world aim to guarantee the security of citizens' data. However, laws alone are not enough to guarantee effective online security. In a hyperconnected world, children, adolescents, and especially autistic individuals need strategies that promote safety and digital education. Such an approach must be addressed through interventions that teach repertoires such as knowing how to identify behaviors that present potential harm, to avoid oversharing personal data, and to recognize suspicious messages, fake news, among others. Preliminary data from a literature review in Applied Behavior Analysis indicate little or no research on teaching those skills, highlighting the relevance and urgency of promoting studies that assess the impact of this problem and develop strategies for teaching online safety repertoires and digital education to autistic individuals.
 
22. The Transition to Adulthood for Individuals With Autism in Brazil
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
ARLENE KELY ALVES DE AMORIM (Grupo Conduzir), Raissa Silva (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Renata Michel (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Carlos Henrique Santos da Silva (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Individuals with autism face greater challenges when transitioning to adulthood when compared to the general population. Such challenges are found in areas such as vocational and academic education, the job market, interpersonal relationships, self-knowledge, and autonomy. That is why it is important to develop individualized resources aimed at long-term independence and reducing the level of support. According to the literature, developing individualized resources and involving the person’s interests and preferences during the process are among the various factors that contribute to the efficiency of an intervention. However, there is scarcely any literature about the services offered to this population in the context of Brazil. Therefore, future research should assess the parameters and characteristics of ABA services in Brazil aimed at young people and adults with autism, such as assessment protocols and evidence-based practices used in developing a transition plan that contemplates the following skills: social, community, independent life, communication, security, sexuality, among others.
 
23. Client Preference for Communication Response Across Functions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA BRYAN (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Cynthia P. Livingston (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Melody Lynn Culbertson (UNMC), Jessica Pham Tran (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Lauren Layman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Jordan DeBrine (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mary Rose Gomez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute )
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Functional communication training is a commonly prescribed function-based intervention to replace problem behavior (Tiger et al., 2008). Research has suggested that specific mand modalities (e.g., picture exchange system, sign language, vocal responses) implemented during functional communication training can affect treatment outcomes (Kunnavatana et al., 2018). Thus, practitioners have begun to teach multiple functional communication responses (Bloom & Lambert, 2015). Interventionalists commonly select functional communication responses according to factors such as choice allocation (Winborn-Kemmerer et al., 2009). However, few studies have investigated preference for responses across functions to replace problem behavior maintained by social reinforcement. The purpose of our study was to determine if preference for communication modalities differed across functions for problem behavior. For example, did preference for the modality of the attention functional communication response differ from the preference for the tangible functional communication response? Two children diagnosed with autism participated in the study. The results of the mand topography assessments showed preference was the same for each communication response; however, patterns of responding differed between positively and negatively reinforced functional communication responses.
 
24. Individualized Standards-Based Curricula to Teach Math and Science Concepts to Two Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Priya P Patil (Caldwell University), Catherine Collins (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Brianna DiPasquale (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Cassandra McGuirl (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Amber Trinidad (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), EMILY E. GALLANT (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Standards-based curricula were individualized to rapidly teach science and age-appropriate math concepts to two learners with autism spectrum disorder and strong prerequisite skills. At the beginning of science concepts intervention, Jamie was 9 years old and Susie, 10; for math concepts, Jamie was 10 and Susie, 11. Concepts in both subject areas were selected from New Jersey Student Learning Standards for the learners’ respective grade levels, based on clinical consensus regarding priority. Curricula were created by students’ instructors and individualized as needed based on students’ unique patterns of and challenges in skill acquisition. Instructors taught Jamie and Susie to respond to multiple-choice, short-answer, and other grade-level-appropriate questions by teaching note-taking skills during dyadic instruction, and via worksheets containing common stimuli and designed to mediate generalization. Jamie has acquired 30 science concepts and Susie, 21 science concepts to date over 18 months of instruction. Both learners have been similarly successful in acquiring mathematical concepts: over 12 months of instruction, Jamie has mastered 15 geometry and fraction concepts and Susie, 11 geometry concepts. We expect additional data from ongoing instruction in both skill domains (for inclusion in final presentation) to remain consistent with outcomes described to date.
 
25. Teaching an Adolescent With Autism to Request Help Using an Interrupted Chain Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELE RIZZI (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Romina Tarquinio (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Annalisa Galeone (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Mathilde Bourdil (Private Practice), Mirko Massa (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Vittorio Visco (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy))
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Asking for help is a missing skill for many people with autism. Receiving assistance in situations in which one is unable to proceed independently could reduce the likelihood of emitting problem behaviors, improve social interaction and communicate their needs in a functional way. This paper, a replication of the study "Teaching children with autism to request help with difficult tasks" (Rodriguez et al. 2017), was conducted in order to teach the request for help to a 15-year-old boy with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder through the use of interrupted behavioral chains, in a semi-residential center for adolescents and young adults with autism. The intervention was conducted out on 9 chains grouped into 3 sets, each of which consisted of 6 trials: 3 in which the participant was able to complete the chain (EO absent) and 3 in which the materials were manipulated to make necessary the request for help (EO present). The teaching procedure, consisting of prompting and fading via prompt delay, was evaluated through a concurrent multiple baseline design between sets. The realization of this intervention allowed the participant to learn to ask for help in all 3 sets. Furthermore, the maintenance (set 1) and the generalization of the request in 2 naturalistic probes was evaluated, demonstrating the applied importance of the intervention results.
 
26. Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Mand for Answers to Questions via Telehealth: A Caregiver Implementation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REMINGTON MICHAEL SWENSSON (Baylor University), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Renming Liu (Baylor University), Monserrat Austin (Baylor University)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have a delay in the development of spoken language and even after acquiring language, may still have impairments in conversation skills (APA, 2013). These impairments could potentially impact an individual’s ability to engage in social interactions to effectively navigate their environment. One strategy to increase an individual’s vocal language while also increasing opportunities for social interactions is to teach individuals with ASD to mand for information. In the current study, we systematically replicated and extended the findings of Ingvarsson and Hollobough (2010) by having caregivers implement the intervention, while receiving coaching provided via telehealth, to teach three children diagnosed with ASD to mand for information. The effects of this intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. The intervention resulted in the acquisition of the mand for information, “I don’t know, please tell me” (IDKPTM) and intraverbal responses (i.e., correct responses to previously unknown questions) for all participants. Generalization was evaluated across a second set of unknown questions, and all participants independently engaged in the “IDKPTM” response during these probes. Social validity was also provided by the caregiver after the completion of the study.
 
27. Sleep Interventions for Children With Sleep Problems and Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ISABEL ROMBULT (Endicott College), Jessica Piazza (Endicott College), Roxanne Gayle (Trumpet Behavioral Health, Endicott College, Pepperdine University), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: In children with autism spectrum disorder, there is a higher prevalence of sleep problems compared to typically developing children. These sleep problems include but are not limited to sleep onset delay, night waking’s, and co-sleeping. Oftentimes these sleep problems can negatively impact the child as well as their family. To treat these sleep problems caregivers/clients have many treatment options to choose from including behavioral, pharmacological, and alternative interventions. When sleep problems are addressed, children with autism may benefit in several ways including increased sleep duration and decreased problem behaviors.
 
28. Emotional Regulation and Autism Without Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review and Call to Action
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIE ASHKENAZI (Endicott College), Jessica Piazza (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Though a variety of definitions exist in the research literature, emotional regulation (ER) is generally defined as evaluating and altering emotional reactions to facilitate adaptive behavior (Cai et al., 2018, Goldsmith & Kelley, 2018; Jahromi et al., 2012; Mazefsky et al., 2013). Accordingly, when individuals attempt to regulate their emotions, they seek to manage their interaction with and subsequent response to an emotional stimulus (Samson et al., 2015b). ER skills allow individuals to cope with novel or unexpected stimuli and, consequently, help ensure appropriate responding during social interactions (Jahromi et al., 2012; Samson et al., 2015b). Given their potential impact on interpersonal relationships, academic performance, and vocational opportunities, an individual with inadequate ER skills could be limited in myriad ways. As such, adaptive ER skills, including seeking social support, problem-solving, and acceptance (Cai et al., 2020), are essential for favorable long-term outcomes and enhanced quality of life (Conner et al., 2022). Moreover, they have been shown to improve interpersonal functioning, wellbeing, and financial health (Santomauro et al., 2017). On the contrary, maladaptive ER skills, such as suppression, denial, avoidance, and negative rumination (Cai et al., 2018), have been linked to depression and anxiety (Cai et al., 2018; Mazefsky & White, 2014; Santomauro et al., 2017), and might also contribute to emergent or exacerbated psychiatric conditions (Conner et al., 2019). Thus, the primary goal of this paper is to evaluate ER interventions designed to support autistic individuals without intellectual disability to ensure treatment leads to meaningful improvement in ER skills and, thereby, facilitates the best possible outcomes.
 
29. Examining the Effects of a Differential Observing Response Procedure on the Receptive Identification Skills of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA TITCOMB (Endicott College; ABA Services of Colorado), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College), Stephanie Bendush (Endicott College), Sophie Bonilla (ABA Services of Colorado), Chelsea Holley (ABA Services of Colorado), Alexis Olivas (ABA Services of Colorado)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: The current study extended the research on match to sample differential observing responses by examining the efficacy of a touch to match response to teach receptive identification to two children with atypical speech development and ASD. The procedure used a progressive time delay and measured the maintenance and generalization of the listener responding skill. The results indicated there was no difference in the rate of acquisition of a receptive identification task for Participant 2 and the DOR was less effective for Participant 1. Maintenance probes indicated the receptive identification skills maintained across both conditions 1-month post mastery. Generalization probes indicated five of the six target stimuli generalized to larger stimulus arrays and across exemplars for both participants.
 
30. The Effects of Multiple-Exemplar Training on Generalization of Social Skills With Adolescents and Young Adults With Autism: A Systematic Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
MOLLY KATE OSHINSKI (University of Texas at Austin), Patricio Erhard (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Austin Ross Sekula (The University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have persistent difficulty developing and generalizing social communication and interaction skills. Emerging research has demonstrated that people with ASD have benefited from strategies that embed multiple-exemplar training (MET) to increase generalization of social skills. However, to date, no systematic review has examined the effects of MET on stimulus or response generalization of social skills. As such, the purpose of the current study was to analyze the effects of MET on generalization of social skills with people aged 13-30 diagnosed with ASD. We reviewed 11 studies; results suggested that MET was effective for producing stimulus generalization of social skills.
 
31. Reinforcer Testing for Minimally Verbal Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Rachel Yosick (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Jennifer M. Hodnett (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), KRISTINA GERENCSER (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: A core challenge for minimally verbal children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder is restricted interests, which can include reduced interest in tangible items that can be utilized as reinforcers in skill acquisition programs. This common clinical challenge leads to a need for practical, clinically valid procedures for assessing a stimulus’s reinforcing value to evaluate effects of conditioning procedures designed to increase reinforcers. Three minimally verbal autistic participants underwent standard reinforcer testing procedures to evaluate reinforcing properties of leisure items. Standard reinforcer testing procedures were not found to produce valid results for any of the three participants. Thus, modifications were made to standard procedures including the addition of teaching the contingency via prompt and prompt fading, as well as evaluation of arbitrary responses utilized. Following modifications, valid reinforcer testing results were produced with all three participants. Results indicate that careful modifications to reinforcer testing procedures may be needed to produce valid results in the minimally verbal autistic population.
 
32. Using Relational Training Procedure During Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Among Autistic Children and Teenagers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZHIHUI YI (Univeristy of Illinois Chicago), Meredith T. Matthews (University of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois Chicago)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The current study investigated the impact of relational training procedures during Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) among autistic children and teenagers. Four participants aged between 6 to 17 participated in the study. Participants were first taught to match sight words (A) for each of the processes in the psychological flexibility model to their textural definitions (B; A-B Train) and to match those sight words (A) to their corresponding metaphorical animated characters (C; A-C Train). Participants were then probed on whether they could derive the relationship between animated characters (C) and their textural definitions (B; B-C Test). Results showed that all three participants exposed to the relational training successfully derived the relationship between each process’s definition and their animated characters. No changes were observed in the fourth participant who remained on the baseline condition. Two of the three participants exposed to the relation training also demonstrated transformation of stimulus function when provided with novel vignettes (Y) and asked which animated characters and their corresponding ACT-based strategy (Z; Y-Z Test) could help in that situation. Implications for incorporating relational training procedures during ACT for autistic individuals were discussed.
 
33. The Effects of an Equivalence-Based Intervention on the Intraverbal Skills of a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SREEJA ATHERKODE (University of North Texas), Lee Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: The expansiveness of the intraverbal repertoire is typically so vast that it precludes the explicit reinforcement of every potential response. The concept of stimulus equivalence may help in identifying the relations formed among verbal stimuli. Specifically, an equivalence framework accounts for the emergence of novel responses to un-trained stimulus-stimulus relations that have not been previously reinforced. However, stimulus overselectivity may prevent individuals with autism from forming intraverbal equivalence relations. Reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity are the three stimulus relations that represent the continuum from explicit to derived stimulus control. Once these three relations have been mastered, an equivalence formation is said to exist. Using a six-year-old boy with autism as a case study, we demonstrate the use of an intraverbal assessment of explicit and derived stimulus relations as a pre-treatment assessment tool, describe how the results can be used to develop an individualized treatment plan, and show the results of a follow-up after 12 weeks of intervention. This type of intraverbal equivalence intervention may lead to faster language acquisition and fewer training trials.
 
34. Increasing On-Task Behavior With a Self-Management System in a Mainstream Classroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KELSI WALKER (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley University), Lauren Mather (Utah Valley University), Devin Guinn (ABC)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Self-management involves the personal application of behavior change procedures which produces a corresponding change in desired behaviors. Self-management procedures may offer expectational utility for those with autism given the degree of independence afforded by these interventions, especially in educational settings such as schools. Research has shown the effectiveness of self-management in increasing on task behavior as well as the effectiveness of peer praise in increasing on task behavior in the mainstream classroom. Although research has evaluated the effect of self-management on on-task behavior, further replications are needed to ensure the effectiveness of these procedures. The current study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management in increasing on-task behavior in the mainstream classroom. A self-management system with visual prompts and peer mediation was created for the client while staff took data on his on-task behavior for 2-minute intervals. Additionally, a reversal design was utilized to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Overall, the findings suggest the intervention was effective in improving on task behavior and subsequent modifications to the intervention resulted in improved performance compared to that of baseline. The implications and limitations of the intervention will be discussed.
 
35. Using PEAK Relational Training to Teach Perspective Taking: A Clinical Evaluation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA N. CHASTAIN (University of Illinois, Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago), Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Meredith T. Matthews (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Differences in social interactions and communication are two of the defining characteristics of autism. Scholars have suggested that deictic framing is at the core of complex social skills such as empathy, inferencing, understanding what others’ may be thinking or feeling. Previous studies have found relational training to be an effective means of teaching deictic framing repertoires. Further demonstrations of these outcomes in the clinical setting would strengthen these findings. The current study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of relational training on the establishment of three deictic framing repertoires (I-You, Now-Then, and Here-There) in a multiple baseline across programs design. The participant was an eight year-old autistic male with noted differences in deictic framing on the Peak Comprehensive Assessment (PCA). Relational Training was used to establish I-You (single reversal), Here-There (single reversal), and Now-Then (past) relations, with tests for mutual entailment and transformation of stimulus function. Relational training was effective in establishing all three repertoires. Results of the current study strengthen previous findings, indicating that relational training is an effective methodology for teaching perspective taking repertoires.
 
36. Using Lag Schedules to Increase Intraverbal Responding in Play
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN MATHER (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley University), Kelsi Walker (Utah Valley University), Devin Guinn (ABC)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Intraverbal responding is a necessary skill in play scenarios. Oftentimes, open-ended questions are asked during play scenarios that require the learner to answer with a novel response from an array of options. A common concern regarding intraverbals, however, is that responses can become rote when individuals emit limited variability of appropriate responses. Research has shown that lag schedules have been effective in increasing response variability to intraverbal questions. Although research has evaluated the efficacy of lag schedules in teaching intraverbal skills, further replications are needed in order to ensure the effectiveness of this procedure in other settings, specifically in play scenarios. This study utilized an AB design with an individual with autism to evaluate the effectiveness of lag schedules in increasing intraverbal skills during play as well as increasing response variability to novel intraverbal questions. The current study employed natural environment teaching (NET) in conjunction with a lag schedule and pictures as visual prompts for intraverbal responses. Picture prompts were then faded once mastery criteria were met, and the lag schedule was continued. Overall, the data show an increase in intraverbal responding in play scenarios, as well as in novel responses emitted independently.
 
37. Reinforcement Based Intervention for Increasing the Duration of Toothbrushing
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
YAMILETH BELTRAN MEDRANO (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Kelsi Walker (Utah Valley University), Lauren Mather (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Children with autism often have deficits in a variety of skills, with a common deficit area being functional living skills. Individuals with autism often lack relevant functional living skills such as grooming, dressing, personal hygiene, and eating. Previous research has shown the use of interventions embedded with changing criterions to be an effective strategy for increasing the duration in which individuals engage in appropriate responding. As such, this may have particular utility in increasing the duration of functional living skills in individuals with autism. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a reinforcement-based intervention in increasing the duration of toothbrushing in a child with autism. The current study utilized changing criterion design, whereby reinforcement was delivered contingent on the client engaging in the functional living skill for a specified amount of time. The time requirement for reinforcement was systematically increased throughout the duration of the study. The results showed that the intervention was effective in increasing the duration of time spent engaging in toothbrushing. Limitation and other implications will be discussed.
 
38. Peer-Mediated Social Skills Interventions for Adolescents With Autism: A Literature Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERENA ROSE GARZA (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Monserrat Austin (Baylor University), Lindsey Swafford (Baylor University), Aisling Costello (Baylor University)
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Peer-mediated intervention is a resourceful approach to teaching a variety of skills. Peer-mediated interventions to promote social skills involve typically developing peers modeling and prompting their peers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this review is to summarize the characteristics of the methods and the social skills targeted among studies in which peer-mediated interventions were implemented with adolescents with ASD for the purpose of promoting social skills. Additionally, we evaluated the quality of literature by applying the What Works Clearinghouse single-case design standards. The inclusion criteria included: (a) participants between the ages of 10 and 19 years, (b) participants with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder, (c) a peer interventionist implements at least one component of an intervention, and (d) social skill targeted with an intervention and measured as a dependent variable. An initial search identified. A systematic search yielded 2,344 of studies for review. After screening the titles and abstracts of those identified studies, we identified 268 studies for a full-text review. We will summarize the results of this review and discuss recommendations for practice based on this body of literature.
 
39. Comparing Specific Mands and General Mands for Accessing Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY LAUREN SMITH (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University ), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Mands are requests for an individual's wants and needs. Mands are controlled by a motivating operation, which is reinforced by a specific stimulus or event related to that MO. Failing to satisfy mands may lead to problem behavior with some clients. Little research has compared the use of a specific mand and a general mand for accessing reinforcement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of problem behavior following a specific mand request which only accessed specific videos on YouTube, and a general mand which accessed YouTube. A 17-year-old male diagnosed with ASD participated in this study. The effects were evaluated in a combined alternating treatment design with an embedded reversal. The results of the assessment indicate that the specific mands had a higher frequency of problem behavior, while the general mand had a lower frequency of problem behavior. Interobserver Agreement was collected for 90% of the trials with a mean interval-by-interval agreement of 100%. Treatment Integrity was collected for 50% of the trials with a mean trial-by-trial agreement of 96%.
 
40. Preparing Adolescents in a Residential Facility for Adult Services Through a Dedicated Transition Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AMANDA NIEDFELD (Glenwood Inc. ), Carolyn Syzonenko (Glenwood Inc. ), Emily Brook Longino (Glenwood Inc. )
Discussant: Ariadna Martinez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) face many challenges developing independence, participating in the community, and regulating their behaviors as they transition to adulthood. Individuals that require placement in residential settings due to severe behavioral challenges and significant skill deficits often experience changes in the levels of supports provided through their agency. Early intervention programs and school settings often provide intensive services (i.e., ABA therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy) and dense staff to student ratios. Adult day programs and residential placements have lower staffing ratios and often replace structured teaching programs with leisure activities. With an increasing number of individuals transitioning from school-aged programs to Adult Services (Page et al., 2007), there is a need to disseminate service delivery in this area. The current project describes the structure of a transition program and reports participant outcomes. The program includes opportunities to increase leisure skills, build independence with functional living skills, make choices, and participate in community outings. Archival data demonstrates participants in the transition program experienced significant reductions in challenging behaviors and required less frequent administrations of PRN medications to manage intense behavioral episodes. In addition, 90% of enrolled individuals successfully transitioned to Adult Services within the agency.
 
41. Studying Fundamental Learning Processes in a Mouse Model of Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
ALONDRA DIAZ (University of Nevada, Reno), Nicholas L Vitale (University of Nevada, Reno), Caitlyn Peal (University of Nevada, Reno), Matthew Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Mouse models offer great potential to understand the environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors that contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in humans. Nevertheless, the value of mouse models of ASD depends on their validity or the extent to which they model the learning processes relevant to the condition in humans. Because of this, special care must be taken in a) the analysis of the learning processes assumed to be involved and b) the selection of procedures that effectively assess these. Our laboratory is investigating an intergenerational mouse model of ASD in which a first generation of young male mice (F0) are exposed to anesthetic agents commonly used in pediatric surgery, and unexposed male and female offspring in the subsequent generation (F1) are tested for ASD-like characteristics. From the behavioral literature on learning processes affected in ASD, a battery of procedures was developed to assess nonassociative and associative learning processes relevant to ASD: habituation, respondent and operant learning, and social reinforcement. This poster describes the rationale for the development of the model, the selection of learning assessments, and the results obtained from the first two experimental groups. KEYWORDS: autism spectrum disorder, animal models, epigenetics, mice
 
42. The Practicality of Skill-Based Approaches Implemented by Caregivers of a 6-Year-Old to Promote Behavioral Readiness
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON MARIE PEART (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Javid Rahaman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Christine Ann Felty (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: Communication and self-control skills could be considered behavioral indices for readiness when children encounter challenging situations. Skill-based approaches teach children these skills using a combination of procedures that involve synthesized reinforcement, probabilistic reinforcement, and contingency-based delays. Many experimental investigations have confirmed the efficacy and generality of skill-based approaches in teaching children in various settings with different behavior-change agents (e.g., clinicians, caregivers, teachers). Despite the generality of these findings, there is limited evidence demonstrating practical arrangements for teaching children when multiple caregivers are involved. For instance, caregivers may alternate their attendance during training due to time and scheduling constraints. Therefore, we evaluated a skill-based approach implemented by two caregivers (Mom and Dad) that taught communication and self-control skills to a 6-year-old autistic boy who presented with emerging problem behavior. We used a multiple-probe design to teach skills across primary challenging situations involving interruption of play, presentation of demands, and removal of current tangible and attention. Mom and Dad successfully taught skills across all primary challenging situations with an average of 98% integrity. Moreover, teaching effects transferred to secondary challenging situations (extension probes) for both caregivers. The outcomes suggest that children can successfully learn skills when taught simultaneously by multiple caregivers.
 
43. A Comprehensive Quality Index Measures of Excellence for Autism, a First-of-Its-Kind System to Improve Timely Access and Client Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY DRAG (Comprehensive Educational Services (ACES)), Stephanie Scheer (ACES)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Client and Family Centered Outcomes for ABA Treatment: Measurement of outcomes that matter most The field of ABA must formalize uniform practice standards related to quality and outcomes in the treatment of ASD. This lecture will identify a person and family centered clinical care model, with a framework for outcome management at critical mass: The ACES Center of Excellence Index. By creating a standardized bundle of outcomes based on the clients’ priorities and needs with validated instruments and time points for measurement, we can ensure the client and their family remain at the center of their care. For a valid comparison of our heterogenous population, we must also have a risk stratification to control for the many variables. Through the implementation of the standardized bundle, we can begin to measure, analyze, and improve outcomes achieved in the care delivery model. a. Participants will be able to describe two efforts of a behavior analytic professional in establishing clinical outcome measurements b. Participants will describe two socially valid measures of behavior analytic treatment of ASD c. Participants will be able to identify two key stakeholders involved in establishing best practices for quality
 
44. Performance-based IISCA: Assessment and treatment of problem behaviors in children with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HENRIQUE COSTA VAL (PUC-SP/GRUPO METODO), Paula Suzano Gioia (PUC-SP)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: Interview-Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA) was developed in response to barriers associated with implementing the traditional functional analysis of problem behaviors (Hanley et al. 2014). Recently, Metras and Jessel (2021) describe an adaptation of IISCA, the Performance-based IISCA. This format has still been evaluated empirically in few studies (Iovino et al., 2021). In the current study, this was used to determine the function of problem behaviors in four children diagnosed with ASD, in addition to discussing the effectiveness of the treatment implemented with one of them. Overall, IISCAs had an average duration of 8 minutes and few occurrences of severe behavior occurred. The results validated the information gathered in the interviews and observations concerning the synthesized evocative and reinforcing events that influenced the problem behaviors. As the treatment was implemented, there was a significant improvement in communication skills and tolerance as well as a reduction in problem behaviors. It is concluded that the performance-based IISCA may be an efficient and safe format for clinicians to consider in their practices.
 
45. Assessment of Blocking as a Response to Dangerous Problem Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Mengyang Zhang (The University of Florida), CATHERINE KISHEL (The University of Florida), Savannah Tate (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Some children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit problem behavior. These behaviors can be dangerous and thus result in adults blocking those responses for safety purposes in community and clinical settings. Clinicians often assume that blocking will function to reduce behavior, but the functional effects of this consequence are not always known (Smith, Russo, & Le, 1999). It is important to investigate how blocking affects behavior for three reasons. First, if blocking reduces the behavior, it may be used by therapists as a potential treatment. Second, if blocking has no effect, it may remain in place as a safety measure. Third, if blocking acts as a reinforcer, it should be modified and another consequence or safety measure must be considered. The present study evaluated the effects of blocking using an arbitrary response task (e.g., Fiske et al., 2020) and then validated those findings via a pairwise functional analysis of problem behavior. Data from two participants with ASD and dangerous behaviors are presented; blocking resulted in no functional effect on problem behavior for these children.
 
46. Effectiveness of Behavioral Intervention Package for an Adult With Autism and Severe Behavioral Problems
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Yi-Chen Hsu (Behavioral therapy and consultation research center), CHIA-HUA CHANG (National Changhua University of Education), Hua Feng (National ChangHua University of Education)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of behavioral intervention package of an adult with autism and severe behavioral problems. The subject of this study was an autistic adult with low verbal ability, and displayed a high rate of self-injury (i.e., slapping his face, scratching neck, bumping head), hitting others and destroying objects during his high school period. After being referred to the behavioral training center of university in central Taiwan, the functional behavioral assessment was conducted and the behavioral intervention strategies were developed based on the underlying function, including the adjustment of antecedent stimulus, teaching functional equivalence behaviors to replace problem behaviors, combining with mand training for establish his communication ability. A variety of activities were trained to help the adult to regulate his high arousal emotion. The activities included folding paper, throwing ball, throwing sandbags, poking fun, pinching a ball, drumming, etc. The results showed improvement in reduction of problem behaviors and positive increases of adaptive behaviors. The findings of the study support the need of functional behavioral assessment (including functional analysis) prior to intervention, and the behavioral intervention package did show positive improvement and highly beneficial to the subjects. The social validity data also displayed favor outcome for this research.

 
47. Assent Withdrawal as Reinforcer Choice Using Functional Communication Training (FCT) in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN LEIGH TINDELL (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Jennifer Quigley (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Danielle Rae Walters (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: In research it is required to gain participant informed consent and to identify behaviors participants might engage in that indicate assent withdrawal. It is considered ethical research practice to halt procedures when a participant withdraws assent. This is rarely considered once treatment begins. Existing research supports that lower rates of problem behavior occur when choices are given. It would stand to reason that providing assent withdrawal as a choice would reduce problem behavior while allowing clinical practices to proceed in a more ethical manner, thereby increasing treatment acceptability. This study sought to evaluate the effects on skill acquisition and problem behavior by providing choices of reinforcers within sessions, including assent withdrawal. A second phase assessed preferences for conditions with and without choice and opportunity to withdraw assent. Results showed little differentiation in skill acquisition across conditions but differentiation in conditions when it came to problem behavior. The study did not definitively demonstrate the connection between assent withdrawal despite occurrence of only low severity level behaviors according to response class. Social validity measures showed a preference for choice conditions across participants as well as therapists and parents.
 
48. A Preliminary Exploratory Analysis of Discussion Topics About Autism Across Subreddit Communities
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
KENDALL JO MILLS (Eastern Michigan University), Adam M. Briggs (Eastern Michigan University), Skylar DeWitt (Eastern Michigan University)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract:

Reddit, the sixth most used internet site in the world, is a public anonymous user-generated social media discussion platform. The present data exploration sought to use machine learning methodology to define and identify converging and diverging patterns and insights into autism-related discussions on Reddit across three different categories of subreddits: individuals who self-identify as being on the autism spectrum, parents of individuals on the autism spectrum, and behavior therapists. Using the R package RedditExtractoR (Rivera, 2022), we extracted comments from these communities. We trimmed our data set to only consider the past five years (i.e., 2017-2022). Next, basic preprocessing (i.e., removing stopwords, numbers, html tags, and bot account comments) and advanced preprocessing (i.e., lemmatization), were initialized. Our extraction resulted in 57 subreddits and 46,914 comments from autism spectrum subreddit members, 46 subreddits and 27,838 comments from parent subreddit members, and six subreddits with 3,163 comments from behavior therapist subreddit members. Analyses revealed some overlap, but mostly differences, between these three subreddit community categories. Further analysis of these discussions has the ability to highlight areas of overlap and dissonance, with regard to both content and sentiment, across these communities on the topic of autism, which may identify avenues for future exploration of targeted research questions.

 
Sustainability submission 49. Evaluating the Effects of Sleep Disturbances on Classroom Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELISSA SPINKS (Behaviors Analysis Association of Mississippi)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Sleep, especially with young children, is essential for the development of memory retention, behavior regulation, and mood stability. Disruptive sleep behaviors include waking up during inappropriate times over night, having night terrors, or a combination of both. Previous research for sleep disturbances includes the use of medications, scheduled awakenings, and restricted sleep. Results for these interventions have shown success for increasing regulated sleep for neurotypical and neurodivergent individuals. Parent and teacher reports for a 4-year-old girl diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggested that her dysregulated sleep was hindering her abilities to engage appropriately in her home and classroom settings. Data were collected using a sleep diary completed by her caregivers. Data from baseline to the final treatment resulted in regulated sleep and decreased disruptive classroom behaviors. Additional anecdotal reports from caregivers and teachers indicated additional success for mood stability and participation in scheduled classroom activities. Due to the importance of sleep regulation for meeting developmental milestones and family functioning, future research should include social validity measures and long-term effects following dysregulated and regulated sleep for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
 
50. Generalization Training and Extensions of Skill-Based Treatment in a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CASEY BARRON (Autism and Behavioral Intervention ), Kelsi Walker (Autism and Behavioral Intervention; Utah Valley University ), Adalee Buchanan (Autism and Behavioral Intervention )
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: Strategies to decrease maladaptive behavior are prevalent in applied behavior analysis literature. The skill-based treatment program is accruing more research. Research has shown that skill-based treatment has successfully decreased both dangerous and precursor behavior in individuals displaying a wide variety of challenging behavior. The purpose of this study was to teach a seven-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder toleration, communication, and delay skills outside of the initial teaching context. The skills were initially taught in a controlled environment with one facilitator. The goal was to generalize learned skills to new individuals, situations and introduce post-treatment extensions. Extensions include, requesting specific items and being denied access to preferred items and activities in the synthesized reinforcement context, and selecting other items to engage with once access has been denied. The participant was able to successfully generalize initial steps of skill based treatment to three different implenters. This participant completed three extensions with the original implenter and two extensions with a secondary implementor. The results demonstrate that he progressed through each phase of treatment from the first generalization phase to the current phase without increasing rates of dangerous or precursor behavior. Results also show decreases in dangerous behavior outside of skill-based treatment sessions.
 
51. An Evaluation of the Influence of Effort and Function of the Efficacy of High-Probability Request Sequencing at Increasing Compliance in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RANDI MATSAS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Susan D. Flynn (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that affects social and communication skills in 1:68 children in the USA. Children with ASD often tend to engage in problem behaviors when presented with less preferred tasks to complete. One method used to increase the probability of compliance is high-probability sequencing, which involves presenting a child with ASD a series of “high-probability” compliance tasks, followed by “low-probability” compliance tasks. The theory is based on behavioral momentum, suggesting that completing high-probability tasks will increase the likelihood that the client will complete the low-probability task. Research conducted demonstrates that compliance to low-probability tasks does increase following the high- probability tasks. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not problem behavior is due to effort sensitivity. An instruction assessment, preference assessment, effort assessment, compliance assessment, and social validity assessment was conducted for each participant. Results varied between participants, but the high-probability task was effective for increasing compliance in all participants.
 
52. The Effectiveness of Behavior Intervention on Self-injury Behaviors of a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HSIN-CHUAN TSAI (National Changhua University of Education), Yi-Chen Hsu (Behavioral Therapy Consultation Research Center), Hua Feng (National ChangHua University of Education)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of behavior intervention on self-injury behaviors of a child with ASD. The subject is a six-year-old male child with ASD. The problem behaviors are crying along with SIB that is hitting his head by hands and fists. In this study, functional behavioral assessments were conducted for the subject, and the intervention based on the function which focused on reducing the duration of crying and SIB. During baseline, the number of head bumps within 30 minutes was 168 times. Due to the extremely high frequency, and the safety of the child, the research started the intervention immediately right after the assessment. Intervention including of token system, shaping, response blocking, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and augmentative and alternative communication(AAC). The results showed rapid improvement of the SIB from high frequency to zero. And the positive behavior including pointing and nodding also be stable.
 
53. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Without Extinction for Treatment of Challenging Behavior Maintained by Positive Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ESTHER PARK (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta- Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine), Alexis Constantin Pavlov (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is a procedure in which reinforcers are withheld following challenging behavior and given following an alternative appropriate behavior. Though this procedure is effective in reducing challenging behavior and promoting appropriate behavior, the extinction component is not always possible to implement for all individuals. To mediate this, the DRA procedure can be arranged as a concurrent schedule where the magnitude and quality of reinforcement can be varied. Current research on DRA without extinction focuses mainly on challenging behavior maintained by social negative reinforcement, or escape. This study outlines the use of DRA without extinction for challenging behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement, or access to tangible items. The current study will present a single-subject analysis of a DRA without extinction treatment with a schedule thinning component for challenging behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement. Data show an increase in latency to challenging behavior, overall decrease in rate of challenging behavior, and consistent rate of functional communication responses. Results of this study will discuss the application and implications of non-extinction-based treatments for positive reinforcement and the use of schedule thinning for generalization.
 
55. Extended Exposure – An Alternative Approach to Schedule Thinning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIAH HUGGINS (Marcus Autism Center), Jennifer M. Hodnett (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Nadrat Nuhu (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University)
Discussant: Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg)
Abstract: Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often display high levels of challenging behavior which may require intervention as it can impair daily functioning and skill acquisition (Kanne & Mazurek, 2013; Steward, McGillivray, Forbes, & Austin, 2017). Function-based interventions are the gold standard for addressing challenging behavior exhibited by this population (Carr & Durand 1985). However, these interventions often require dense schedules of reinforcement to produce treatment effects and require schedules of reinforcement to be thinned prior to generalizing treatment to naturalistic environments (Greer et al., 2016; Pizarro et al., 2021). The current study evaluated a novel schedule thinning procedure for individuals for whom a typical multiple schedule thinning arrangement was ineffective. Three participants were exposed to an extended exposure procedure, incorporating extended periods of restriction of the functional reinforce (i.e., s-delta) across a modified multiple schedule treatment. The extend exposure procedure was effective at maintaining low levels of challenging behavior and decreasing rates of manding for all three participants. The clinical implications of this study will be discussed.
 
56. Escape Interventions With Open/Closed Economies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA LEE HINES (Marcus Autism Center), Darko Cabo (Georgia State University ), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Courtney Mauzy (University of Georgia), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine)
Discussant: Yuting Yang
Abstract: Common treatments for escape maintained challenging behavior include non-contingent escape (Vollmer et al., 1995), differential negative reinforcement (DR) (Lalli et al., 1995), and escape extinction (Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger, 1994). Even though escape extinction is a common and effective component of treatment (Fisher et al., 1993), it may not be a feasible option (Slocum & Vollmer, 2015). More recently, research has focused on DR without extinction (Slocum & Vollmer, 2015). This involves delivering positive reinforcers contingent on compliance to decrease challenging behavior and increase compliance, however, DR with breaks or edibles may be impacted by their availability outside of treatment (i.e., open economy) (Slocum & Vollmer, 2015). In open economies, the value of the reinforcer may decrease sometimes resulting in a decrease in responses that contingently produce reinforcement also may decrease. Additionally, decreasing or increasing work requirements for that reinforcer can further alter its value (Tustin, 1994). Thus, access to reinforcers outside of treatment sessions can decrease effectiveness. This study aimed to compare levels of compliance and rates of challenging behavior during DR interventions under open and closed economy paradigms. Preliminary results support the use of non-functional reinforcers to reduce escape-maintained challenging behavior and increase compliance. The results also indicate that escape extinction is not required to achieve substantial treatment effects for escape-maintained behavior.
 
162. Barriers Impacting Caregiver Adherence to Behavioral Interventions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA EMILY STANFORD (Marcus Autism Center), Nadrat Nuhu (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk of demonstrating behavioral challenges (Wong et al., 2013). There is considerable evidence that behavior analytic interventions are effective at addressing challenging behavior for this population; however, most research has focused on the implementation of these interventions in highly controlled settings (Allen & Warzak, 2000) and has not addressed the treatment maintenance in naturalistic settings. For example, there is research to suggest treatment effects do not maintain when implemented by caregivers in less controlled settings (e.g., home, school, community; St. Peter et al., 2016). The purpose of this study was to evaluate barriers influencing caregiver adherence to behavioral interventions following discharge from a day treatment clinic. Data suggest the emergence of four variables impacting caregiver adherence to behavioral interventions: 1) financial burden, 2) lack of services available to children exhibiting challenging behavior, 3) poor treatment adherence with non-primary caregiver, and 4) caregiver reports of isolation and exhaustion. Outcomes provide information that will inform future studies assessing variables that affect the long-term treatment outcomes of behavior interventions with the aim to decrease the likelihood of re-admission to clinics providing behavioral services.
 
164. Social Media Publications: Ethical Violations of Stand-Alone Applied Behavior Analysis Autism Clinics Put Children's Safety at Risk
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXANDRA MARIE INGEBRITSON (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Updates to the 2022 Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB) Ethics Code specified which social media content is permitted for publication by behavior analysts. Section 5.10 of the ethics code requires that for each publication that includes images of their clients' faces, informed consent is obtained before publishing, and these publications include a disclaimer stating informed consent was obtained (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2020). The present study aimed to review professional social media channels for stand-alone applied behavior analysis (ABA) clinics that treat children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who share images of their clients. We evaluated whether these clinics are compliant with the ethics code. Using a convenience sampling for social media content analysis method (Kim et al., 2018), a preliminary search of publically-available professional social media channels of seventy-five ABA autism clinics was done. This analysis showed 16.2% of behavior analysts who post images of their clients on social media comply with code 5.10. We recommend behavior analysts review their social media pages and notify their employers of ethical violations.
 
 
 
Poster Session #206C
CBM Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 28, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Gladis Lee Pereira Xavier (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
Diversity submission 61. Cultural Responsiveness and Contingency Management for Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
HAILEY EVELYN DONOHUE (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Discussant: Gladis Lee Pereira
Abstract: It is important to consider cultural factors in the delivery of behavior analytic services. In fact, practicing cultural responsiveness is now required by the Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts. We sought to understand the extent to which cultural considerations have been discussed in the context of contingency management (CM) interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders. We conducted a literature search of APA PsycInfo and PubMed databases. Key search terms included “cultural,” “contingency management,” “race,” “ethnicity” and “minority.” Literature was included in the review which discussed considerations for contingency management programs with respect to cultural responsiveness, with or without directly implementing contingency management. A subsequent citation search was conducted to capture potential missed sources. Results suggest that CM may be equally effective across sociodemographic categories, and racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities. Only a few studies have explicitly tailored CM based on cultural factors. Culturally responsive CM interventions may improve uptake and acceptability, but more research is needed.
 
62. Improving Chopstick Use by Non-dominant Hand in Mealtime for Elderly Persons: Home-Based Intervention With Self-Recording
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JUN'ICHI YAMAMOTO (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design), Satoru Sekine (The University of Tokyo), Yuji Morio (Shonan University of Medical Sciences), Mikayo Omori (St. Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital), Yoshitsugu Omori (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Marisela Alicia Aguilar (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Study Objective: The present study examined whether the everyday chopstick use of non-dominant hand with self -recording would improve the general hand movement skills. This research would contribute to the basic data for behavioral rehabilitation in the elderly persons and was approved by IRB. Participants: Three elderly persons, 72, 84 and 85 years old, with no motor deficits participated in this study. Research Design: We applied quasi single subject research design, pre- and post- assessments including daily evaluation. Independent Variables: Participants were required to take a meal with chopstick using non-dominant hand at home for 2 or 4 weeks. As the self-recording method, they were required to check Likert Scale Score (1-10) concerning “difficulty” and “expectation of good performance at next day” after taking a meal every day. Dependent Measures: Numbers of plastic chips which the participants moved from left (right) to right (left) bowl in one minute using non-dominant hand were measured. Everyday Likert scores were also measured. Results: The “difficulty” score decreased and ”positive expectation” increased, gradually. Numbers of chips moved increased for 2 out of 3 participants. Conclusion: Daily practice with self-recording improved accuracy and fluency of newly acquired fine motor skills.
 
63. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Digital Social Incentive System in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
LINDSEY ANNE IVES (University of Florida), Matthew Serel (You Are Accountable), AJ Diaz (You Are Accountable), Linda A. LeBlanc (LeBlanc Behavioral Consulting LLC), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Discussant: Gladis Lee Pereira
Abstract: The majority of individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD) will relapse after residential treatment. Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated considerable success in the treatment of SUDs and has been cited as the most efficacious psychosocial intervention for promoting drug abstinence. Traditional implementation of CM involves the provision of monetary incentives contingent on biochemically verified abstinence. One limitation to the widespread adoption of CM is the cost associated with monetary incentives. Social incentives may present a viable alternative to monetary incentives. We developed a social incentive system within a digital recovery platform that arranges the provision of social incentives from friends, family, and clinicians for verified abstinence and recovery-related goal completion. This study identified that the social incentive system is both feasible (toxicology and goal reports can be shared through the platform and social incentives from care team delivered immediately) and acceptable (high ratings obtained from the system usability scale and treatment acceptability questionnaire). These results suggest that a digital CM program using social incentives holds promise as a way to prevent relapse following residential treatment for SUDs.
 
65. Personalized Contingency Management for Vaping Cessation
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRA KNERR (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Discussant: Gladis Lee Pereira
Abstract: E-cigarette use has rapidly increased over the last decade, especially among young adults. Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention that has been effective in promoting abstinence from e-cigarettes, tobacco products, and a variety of other drugs of abuse. Contingency management is effective for diverse populations, when delivered either in person or remotely, and with a variety of different incentives. Tailoring the treatment components of contingency management has been suggested to increase both the effectiveness and acceptability of the intervention. However, there is a lack empirical evidence exploring the effects of tailored contingency management methods, as well as a lack of guidelines on how to best tailor a contingency management intervention for an individual client. This study evaluated tailored contingency management to promote abstinence from nicotine-containing e-cigarettes (i.e., vaping abstinence) among young adults. Tailored components included the quit date, incentive, incentive delivery system, meeting frequency, meeting format, and additional supports. Participants also provided and managed their own incentive. Preliminary results have been promising: one participant successfully quit vaping through eight weeks with a personal intervention plan using TikTok as the incentive, and rated the intervention highly. These tailoring methods may be useful when developing contingency management interventions.
 
66. Evaluating Outcome Measure Data From a Hybrid Intensive Interdisciplinary Pediatric Feeding Disorder Program
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY ANDERSEN (Clinic 4 Kidz), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz & Stanford University School of Medicine ), Aida Miles (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Discussant: Marisela Alicia Aguilar (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Treatment for pediatric feeding disorders often takes place in a clinic, either day-treatment or inpatient; however, recent research has shown that treatment can successfully be carried out via telehealth or in patients’ homes. In this poster, we describe a novel hybrid, telehealth and home-based program to treat feeding problems which captures the benefits of both models. We will describe this program and compare preliminary outcomes from the hybrid model to outcomes from the home-based only model. We will evaluate oral intake, tube feeding elimination, and weight for a patient who was dependent on tube feedings. In addition, we will analyze weight data for a patient who was failure to thrive. Last, we will present the number of foods consumed for a patient who was food selective. Preliminary data from the hybrid model suggest that patients achieved similar outcomes of tube elimination, growth, and increase in variety in a similar amount of time when compared to the home-based only model. Results will be discussed in relation to family preference, rate of progress, outcomes, staff preference, and feasibility.
 
67. Effects of Actual Eating Practice Using Chopsticks With a Non-dominant Hand in Daily Life on Fine Motor Skills in Older People
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
YOSHITSUGU OMORI (Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shonan University of Medical Sciences/ Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yuji Morio (Shonan University of Medical Sciences), Satoru Sekine (The University of Tokyo), Mikayo Omori (St. Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design)
Discussant: Gladis Lee Pereira
Abstract: Study Objective: This study examined the effects of actual eating practice using chopsticks with the non-dominant hand in daily life on generalized chopsticks manipulation in older persons. Participants: Six (54-79 years old) and seven (80-88 years old) persons participated in this study. They were right-handed, with no motor deficits. Research Design: Pre-post comparative design was implemented. Independent Variables: The intervention consisted of actual eating at least one meal each day for 2 or 4 weeks using chopsticks with the left (non-dominant) hand at home. Dependent Measures: The number of plastic chips that the participants moved between 2 bowls in one minute using chopsticks with the left hand was measured at pre- and post-assessment. Likert Scale Scores (1-10) concerning “difficulty” and “fatigue” in actual eating with left hand were also evaluated. Results: As for fine motor chopstick skills, 83% of “< 80 years old” persons and 43% of “80? years old” persons moved chips more in post- than pre-assessment. As for “difficulty” and “fatigue” scales in actual eating, decrease was clear in “< 80 years old” and was little in “80? years old” persons. Conclusions: New fine motor learning and behavioral fluency can be achieved in older people.
 
68. Virtual Realty System of Real-Time Visual Prompt Fading for Rehabilitation
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
NAOKI ISO (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University), Takuhiro Okabe (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University), Kilchoon Cho (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University), Kazuo Saito (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University), Takako Suzuki (School of Health Sciences, Saitama Prefectural University), Yusuke Maeda (School of Health Sciences at Odawara, International University of Health and Welfare), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design), Makoto Suzuki (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University; Faculty of Systems Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Marisela Alicia Aguilar (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Objective: Despite widespread use of visual prompt fading at rehabilitation, it is still difficult to fade out/in the prompt appropriately during behavior practice. Therefore, this study aimed to develop new virtual reality system (Vractice) for real-time visual prompt fading for target behavior such as reaching, and determine the validity of Vractice. Methods: In Vractice, trackers were attached to the wrist and elbow of the participant, and three-dimensional body coordinates were recorded by optical sensor. The difference in the coordinates between the target avatar and the participant’s avatar was calculated. The transparency of the target avatar was changed (i.e., visual prompt fading) by the difference in the coordinates (x, y, z). Participant is a healthy university student. We compared the participant’s coordinates without fading among Vractice and standard motion capture system (VICON) for validity assessment. Results: Bland-Altman-plots among Vractice and VICON showed the 92–94% difference values were within two standard deviations of the mean. Additionally, the difference in coordinates between Vractice and VICON was within 7 mm. Conclusion: The Vractice, which includes real-time visual prompt fading, showed validity. The Vractice may serve as a meaningful tool for shaping behaviors of patients with motor disorder.
 
69. Adjustment of Physical Guidance Trajectory in Response to Behavioral Disturbance in Upper Limb Rehabilitation
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
AMI KUWABARA (Graduate School Humanities and Life Sciences,Tokyo Kasei University), Makoto Suzuki (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University; Faculty of Systems Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yusuke Maeda (School of Health Sciences at Odawara, International University of Health and Welfare), Kazuo Saito (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University), Takuhiro Okabe (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University), Kilchoon Cho (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University), Naoki Iso (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design)
Discussant: Gladis Lee Pereira
Abstract: Objective: Despite widespread use of physical guidance at rehabilitation, it remains unclear how professional therapists guide the patient’s body. Therefore, we aimed to quantitatively identify changes in behavioral trajectories of professional therapist in response to behavioral disturbance of the target person during physical guidance. Methods: One healthy young adult (guided person) and one professional therapist (guiding person) participated in our study. We instructed the guided and guiding participants to keep their right arms relaxed throughout the guidance, and to perform right elbow flexions and extensions as accurately as possible so that the index fingertip was near and far the light-emitting diode lamp. We delivered the 200 µs-electric stimulation for the right biceps brachii muscle at 0.5 s after the near-lamp blink for behavioral disturbance, and recorded guided parson’s motion trajectory measured by motion capture system as dependent variable. The stimulation was within safety range confirmed by previous studies Results: The difference of identity and actual behavior trajectories decreased over time for lateral and longitudinal directions. Additionally, time-course changes in physical guidance trajectories were associated with the state-change model; the order of the model were 100–370 ms. Conclusion: We quantitatively measured the effect of physical guidance of the professional therapist adjusting the 100–370-ms time lag after disturbance.
 
70. Implementing Behavioral Procedures in a Closed Psychiatric Inpatient Ward – The Sheba Medical Center Model
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
EITAN ELDAR (Psychiatry Department, Sheba Health Center, Israel), Doron Gothelf (Tel Aviv University)
Discussant: Marisela Alicia Aguilar (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The Children Psychiatry Department at the Sheba Health Center offers a pioneering model of collaboration between Psychiatry and Applied Behavior Analysis. Patients are six to twelve years old children experiencing complex behavioral challenges requiring intensive and professional care. Among the challenges are self-injury, social and school difficulties, psychotic and medical issues. Children reside at the department for a few weeks up to three months. Staff include Psychiatrists, Nurses, Psychologists, Social Workers, Teachers, Speech Therapists, Behavior Analysts and Dieticians. The department hosts a school supervised by the Ministry of Education and supports an Applied Behavior Analysis training program enabling students to experience practicum, beneficiary to both. The Behavioral program includes a “growth ladder” for each child, based on a Token Economy system supporting target behaviors defined by the Psychiatrists. It also includes individual interventions such as functional communication training, differential reinforcement, gradual exposure to frustrating triggers and practicing self-control. The Behavioral model will be presented, followed by progress data indicated by tokens accumulation percentage for three children. Key challenges related to the model’s implementation will be highlighted.
 
161. Examining the Presence of Applied Behaviour Analysis Within Behavioural Gerontology: Education, Advocacy and Dissemination
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTIN GRANT (Brock University), Jisan Phillips (George Brown College)
Discussant: Gladis Lee Pereira (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
Abstract:

Applied Behaviour Analysis is most recognized in its application to children with autism. However, ABA provides behavioural supports to several other populations. Behaviour Analysts are tasked with building capacity, providing education, and championing advocacy efforts with populations who would benefit accessing much needed behavioural interventions. With the number of Board-Certified Behaviour Analysts seeing a 7,317% increase from 2001-2021, the duty lies within the growing profession to ensure that the application of the science of behaviour analysis is effectively disseminated, particularly amongst gerontological populations. A literature review was conducted to determine the current presence, gaps, and needs when considering the practice of behaviour analysis within gerontological supports, specifically amongst seniors with dementia. Behaviour analysis is scarcely present within this realm of support, with much literature and research indicating that gaps can continue to be filled with the growing practice of the science. Behaviour analysts can contribute to the holistic, person-centred approach to care when supporting seniors with a diagnosis of dementia. Through this literature review, current applications were examined, along with considerations around the presence of other allied clinicians within gerontological supports to determine how behaviour analysts can continue to be recognized as crucial members of this network of support.

 
 
 
Poster Session #206E
DDA Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 28, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
77. Evaluation of Interactions Between Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders and First Responders
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
KELLYN JESSICA DORSEY (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine ), Alexis Constantin Pavlov (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine ), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Summer Bottini (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine ), Nadrat Nuhu (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine )
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders (ASD/NDD) are prone to challenging behavior that can escalate into behavioral crises potentially requiring the involvement of first responders to deescalate the situation. Research indicates that 20% of individuals with ASD/DD have an encounter with police officers by their late 20s as compared to 10.8% of similarly aged neurotypical individuals. Families of individuals with ASD/DD who engage in challenging behavior already experience numerous burdens, consequently these families need to be able to rely on emergency services when needed. In study 1, we examined whether caregivers reported differential use of first responder services based on their child’s demographic characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, etc.). In study 2, we conducted a thematic analysis of outputs from focus groups conducted with caregivers who sought assistance with managing their child’s behaviors during a crisis and also conducted interviews with first responders whom had a history of responding to a family with a child with ASD/DD. We will present study findings, discuss clinical implications, and present areas of future research.

 
78. The Effects of Compound Stimuli on Stimulus Control During Match to Sample Procedures
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH CHRISTINE GREY (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University), Jacob P. Oliveira (Salve Regina University; Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Jesse Perrin (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center; Salve Regina University), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Using compound stimuli in match-to-sample training arrangements might help establish equivalence classes (Groskreutz et al., 2010). However, utilizing compound stimuli in training arrangements comes with the risk that a client’s responding might come under the restrictive control of one of the individual components of the compound stimulus (Braaten & Arntzen, 2020). As a result, training with a compound stimulus may not produce the desired equivalent responding. There is limited research on the effect of training targets as compound stimuli on the resulting stimulus control exerted by the individual components in applied settings. The purpose of this study was to expand the research in this area by examining the effect of training compound stimuli targets during a match-to-sample procedure in a school setting. The participants were between the ages of 10 and 16 years old enrolled in a special education day program. This study implemented an overlayed multiple baseline across six participant's design. The results demonstrated that training on compound stimuli was not effective at establishing equivalent responding to the individual components of the stimuli for these participants. Interobserver Agreement (IOA) was collected for 46.87% of trials with a mean trial-by-trial agreement of 100%.
 
79. Teaching Co-Regulation Skills to Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE MIHM (Melmark Pennsylvania), Michael Roesch (Melmark)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Children with intellectual disabilities can display deficits in intellectual functioning (e.g., academics, problem solving), adaptive functioning (e.g., social skills, communication), and emotional regulation (Ting & Weiss, 2017). Although displayed differently across children, those with intellectual disabilities may communicate by engaging in challenging behavior or may display behaviors more indicative of a mental health diagnosis (e.g., anxiety, depression) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). These deficits can significantly affect both the child and family’s quality of life and overall well-being (Gadow, DeVincent, & Scheider, 2008). To support the child and their family, developing co-regulation skills is imperative. The purpose of this case study was to compare the use of extinction with differential reinforcement to the teaching strategy known as “Cool Versus Not Cool” to see its effects on the frequency of aggression. The results of this study showed aggression decreased in intensity and remained decreased across increased number of days with the addition of the “Cool Versus Not Cool” procedure compared to the use of extinction with differential reinforcement. This study demonstrated the need to take an interdisciplinary approach when developing or implementing behavior support plans.

 
80. Treatment Effects Informed by Competing Stimulus Assessment for Automatically Maintained Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH FREIBURGER (University of Iowa ), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Alex Pauls (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract: As many as one quarter of cases of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in the research literature are identified as being maintained by automatic reinforcement (Hagopian et al., 2015). Behavior analysts commonly prescribe a treatment package consisting of competing stimuli, based on the results of a competing stimulus assessment (CSA), and response blocking (RB). In this case study, we evaluated a treatment of automatically maintained handwringing and hand mouthing, resulting in dermatitis with fissures for a young girl with Koolen-de Vreis syndrome. The treatment functional communication training (FCT) was developed based on the outcomes of a CSA with procedures developed by Jennett and Hagopian (2011). Treatment using FCT alone with ineffective in suppressing SIB to acceptable levels. Using a reversal design, we then compared the effects of FCT with FCT plus RB and response cost (FCT+RB+RC) and observed substantial reductions in rates of SIB when the FCT+RB+RC was implemented. We discuss the clinical applications for using CSAs for the development of treatments for automatically maintained SIB and areas for future research.
 
81. Evaluating Behaviour Support Plans: Measuring Quality and Providing a Multielement Framework to Benefit Consumers
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
GEOFF POTTER (The Centre for Positive Behaviour Support), Rebecca Beights (The Centre for Positive Behaviour Support)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Behaviour support plans (BSPs) provide intervention details within an objective structure. The rationale for a BSP may be well understood; however, quality evaluation is less established and limited in terms of standardized or validated measures. The Behaviour Intervention Plan Quality Evaluation, Version II (BIP-QEII; Browning et al., 2013) is one measure used within the Australian context. The BIP-QEII offers a broad determination of BSP quality according to requirements of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) but omits some features of a nonlinear, multielement framework. The current study presents an evaluation of BSPs (n = 265) using the BIP-QEII from a NDIS-registered positive behaviour support organisation. As an organisational practice, BSPs are submitted for scoring; then feedback is provided for required edits. Results show an average score of 17/24, with a majority of BSPs meeting criertia for “good” or “superior” plans (n = 145). Additionally, results suggest improvements in measure domains that better support multielement, progressive and contextual behavioural intervention. Results of the BIP-QEII evaluation and proposed edits for a BSP measure will be discussed. Enhanced evaluation of BSPs using a multielement framework could improve service delivery of behaviour support across settings and contexts with universal, best practice consumer considerations.

 
82. A Competing Stimuli and Clean-Up Response Treatment With Schedule Thinning in a Mouthing Treatment Evaluation
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
YEFRY D QUINONES (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Margaret Cavanaugh (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Julia Gilloran (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

Children with developmental disabilities often mouth nonedible items; this is problematic as it can increase risk for illness or ingestion. Function-based assessments and intervention are considered to be the gold standard method to treat this type of problem behavior (Dunlap & Fox, 2011); this includes the implementation of a functional analysis to identify the maintaining consequences of problem behavior and then developing an effective intervention based on those results (Ledford et al., 2018). Differential reinforcement of discarding nonedible items has proven effective in decreasing pica (Schmidt et al., 2017); however, it is unknown whether this intervention would be similarly effective for decreasing mouthing. Therefore, the current study sought to extend research on discarding of unsafe items with a child with a history of severe mouthing that had resulted in ingestion of cloth material. A functional analysis was conducted to identify the variables maintaining mouthing, results of which suggested it was maintained by automatic reinforcement. He was then taught a clean-up response to appropriately put away unsafe mouthing items when he was alone, and competing stimuli were available to compete with mouthing. Results showed these procedures to be an effective intervention in reducing mouthing.

 
83. A Systematic Review of Clinical Applications of Punishment
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SOFIA `ELIZABETH ABUIN (Salve Regina University), Stephanie Hope Jones (Salve Regina University)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Punishment, the contingent addition or removal of a stimulus which decelerates a target behavior(s), is pervasive within society. Although punishment is pervasive, limited research has been conducted on how it is used within clinical applications of behavior analysis. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic literature review of punishment. We searched ERIC and PSYCINFO using the search terms “punisher” and “punishment”. We then narrowed down the sample to articles that were published in behavior-analytic friendly journals. For our final analysis, we included articles which demonstrated applications of punishment with human participants targeting socially significant behaviors. We analyzed data on multiple variables such as participant demographics, specific punishment procedures, the information surrounding their usage, and their findings. Additionally, we collected data focused on ethical and best practice considerations related to punishment, such as concurrent implementation of extinction and reinforcement interventions. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

 
85. Behavioral Interventions for Children Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ALICIA ROCA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Rebeca Garrido (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of motor impairment in children. Problem behaviors, including disruption, aggression and stereotypy are commonly observed in children diagnosed with CP. Applied research aimed to reduce or eliminate problem behaviors in this population is scarce. This study describes the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors for three children with CP. For one participant, the targeted behaviors were scratching and biting, which were maintained by access to tangibles and escape from physical contact. A functional communication training (FCT) procedure was effective to eliminate problem behaviors and to establish an alternate response. For the second participant, a FCT procedure was effective to eliminate spitting, which was maintained by peer and teacher attention. For the third participant, the targeted behavior was hand mouthing, which was maintained by automatic reinforcement. A response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedure resulted in low levels of hand mouthing when compared to baseline. Results show the generality of the FCT and RIRD procedures to decrease problem behaviors in children with CP. The results will be discussed in terms of the positive impact that behavioral interventions had for the children, their families and care providers.

 
86. The Use of Virtual Reality to Increase Engagement in Yoga
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
JEFF SCHRAM (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

For adults with diagnoses that require attendance in a day program (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, brain injury), participation in physical activity can have several benefits including increasing social skills, on-task behavior, and reducing maladaptive behaviors (e.g., Elliot et al., 1994; Kunzi, 2015). There are several studies evaluating procedures for increasing engagement in physical activities for children; however, few studies have assessed these procedures with adults (Eun-Young et al., 2021). Strategies for increasing engagement in physical activity for this population are warranted. The purpose of this study was to compare engagement during video-based yoga, a physical activity involving several body movements, across two different presentation modalities (i.e., virtual reality (VR) and television screen). Participants included four adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder or brain injury. Utilizing an alternating treatment design, we measured engagement in yoga across both presentation modalities. Results indicate that all participants consistently engaged in the yoga activity during more intervals when yoga was presented using VR compared to a television screen.

 
87. When Saying “Nice job!” Doesn’t Do the Job: Using a Concurrent Operant Arrangement to Assess Forms of Attention
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MELODY LYNN CULBERTSON (UNMC), Sarah Elizabeth Martinez Rowe (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Caitlin Fulton (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cynthia P. Livingston (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Javid Rahaman (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessie Kaye Weber (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Samantha Bryan (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

Preference assessments are often used by clinicians to identify potential reinforcers for behavioral interventions. However, some stimuli may be particularly difficult to assess due to their unique properties. For example, clinicians may find it difficult to assess forms of attention as they cannot be easily arranged into common preference assessment modalities, such as paired stimulus or multiple stimulus assessments. We used a concurrent operant arrangement to evaluate various forms of attention that could function as a reinforcer for an autistic child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who exhibited severe aggression. Eight forms of attention were assessed based on anecdotal reports and direct observations. The forms of attention assessed were reprimands, praise, ignore, item removal, immediate physical guidance, two-step prompting, physical attention, and play. The session room was divided into three sections. Theses sections included a neutral zone where no attention was delivered and two zones where different forms of attention were assessed. Through the concurrent operant arrangement, we found the most preferred forms of attention were item removal, play, and immediate physical guidance. We observed the lowest levels of aggression with item removal, play, and praise. Our findings support the use of concurrent operant arrangements to assess preferred forms of attention.

 
Diversity submission 88. Evaluating the Impact of Challenging Behavior Based on Racial and Ethnic Demographics
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
MATEO GOMEZ (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta; Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Fabiola Vargas Londono (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta; Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Brittany Naugle (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta; Marcus Autism Center ), Angelia Walker (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta; Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Challenging behavior negatively impacts patients and their families. Given the importance of professionals accounting for cultural diversity in practice, potential differences in the impact of challenging behavior are important to assess across different racial or ethnic groups. Unfortunately, there is little research identifying tools for assessing the severity, and subsequent impact, of challenging behavior and a dearth of studies evaluating this variable across different groups. We assessed the severity of challenging behavior based on the impact the behavior has on the individual, family, and environment for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities referred to a clinic for the treatment of severe challenging behavior (n=254, mean age = 7.99 years). Assessment included a structured interview with caregivers and a subsequent rating system. We compared outcomes across racial and ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that white, non-Hispanic participants report more physical harm and more reactive measures such as calling crisis lines, or first responders compared to other groups. Other categorizations like property damage, structural modifications, and situational avoidance of challenge behavior show no significant difference between racial and ethnic groups. These observations highlight the importance of considering differences in the impact of challenging behavior across different races and ethnicities.
 
89. Staff Training and Support for Kindergarten Teachers Using Telehealth: Behavioral Consultation for Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TAKUYA ENOMOTO (Tokushima University)
Discussant: Ciara Ousley (The University of Nebraska - Lincoln)
Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a effect of behavioral consultation aimed at staff training and behavioral support was conducted with kindergarten teachers at six private kindergartens. Eleven teachers were included in the study (aged 27-53 years, mean length of service 11.2 years). A total of 24 children with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND-Child) were in the teachers' charge. Consultations were provided via telehealth technology. The frequency was once every three months for four hours. The independent variable, consultation, consisted of three parts: 1) analysis of the ND-Child's behavior, 2) evaluation of the teachers' support skills, and 3) advice on how to behavioral support to the ND-Child. The dependent variables were A) the content of the functional analysis in the interviews about child-teacher contingency, II) Kindergarten teacher stress index and III) the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition(Vineland-II) scores of each ND-Child. Results showed that the teachers' functional analysis improved after three consultations using tele-health. In addition, the scores of Kindergarten Teacher Stress Index improved. Furthermore, each ND-Child's score on the Vineland-II (Communication domain and Socialization domain) improved significantly. These results suggest that tele-health consultations may improve teachers' support skills.

 
 
 
Poster Session #206H
EDC Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 28, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
119. Evaluation of a Hypothetical Texting Demand Task in the Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DEVON BIGELOW (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Justin T Van Heukelom (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Megan Redmile (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Wendy Donlin Washington (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: The behavioral economic framework can be used to examine problematic behaviors. Specifically, suboptimal cell phone use in classrooms can be examined using a hypothetical texting demand task (HTDT), a subtype of a hypothetical purchase task (HPT). College students completed an HTDT, in which a vignette describes they just received a text message in class and asks how likely they are to respond now versus waiting until the end of class if there is a high likelihood of getting caught by the professor. Within subject manipulations were made with time until the end of class (5 min and 30 min), and points deducted by the professor (spanning 0.1-60) from the current grade of 100. The HTDT provided demand indices including demand intensity (Q0) indicating likelihood to text at the lowest point loss value, Pmax representing the point loss value where demand becomes elastic, and breakpoint representing the highest point loss tolerated. A texting questionnaire further characterized cell phone use. The overall purpose of this study was to examine how sensitive students are to losing points from their grade in order to gain access to their cell phones after various delays of no access. This is useful such that it can inform classroom policies and characterize suboptimal cellphone use.
 
120. Look Who Gets to Write... Everyone!
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
THAI RAY WILLIAMS (University of North Carolina- Charlotte), Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte), Pamela Mims (East Tennessee State University)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Writing is used to express one's knowledge and opinions, organize and plan, and engage in social exchanges. For many individuals, representative of diverse intersecting identities, it is means of expression and in some cases advocacy. Students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have often been excluded from writing instruction due to low expectations and a lack of knowledge of how to teach writing to students with extensive support needs. This lack of writing instruction has resulted in a population that, in a digital age, has been denied access to what for many are primary modes of communication and social engagement because they are missing the foundational skills needed for such engagement. In this engaging poster presentation, the researcher will discuss a recent study conducted in a rural community on the effectiveness of time delay and sentence frames to teach students with IDD to generate sentences in response to text. Data indicated the intervention package was effective in teaching sentence construction of two sentence types with a large effect size per Tau-U. Additionally, the presenter will describe how this study extends the current literature and its implications for designing more effective literacy packages and increasing meaningful access to inclusive educational communities.
 
121. Overcoming the Picture Interference Effect
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TAYLOR KENNEDY (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Alexandria Brown (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Paige Ellington (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: The presentation of a compound stimulus that includes picture and textual elements characteristically results in exclusive control by the picture, known as the picture interference effect. Previous research has manipulated the text size or faded the brightness of the picture to produce control by the textual element; nevertheless, presenting the word alone has consistently resulted in more rapid acquisition. To date, no previous research on the picture interference effect has required that the learner differentially respond to the textual stimulus in the compound. In the current study, elementary-aged children at risk for reading failure and attending a high-poverty school were presented with sight words and compound stimulus prompts that included unknown textual and known picture elements. On prompted trials, the participant needed to match the identical textual stimulus from the compound, which allowed for the picture to be used to prompt the target response. Performance increased rapidly following training, generalized to handwritten and tablet-based stimulus modalities, and maintained during one-week probes. The current findings suggest that arrangements that require differential responding to the textual element may mitigate interference by the picture in compound stimulus arrangements.
 
122. Functional Analysis of Peer Aggression
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Danielle E Butler (May Institute), Emily Sullivan (Western New England University), TAYLOR LACHANCE (May Institute), Yannick Andrew Schenk (May Institute)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Students with autism may engage in a variety of challenging behaviors. Perhaps one of the most concerning is aggression towards peers within the school setting. Not only is this topography of problem behavior dangerous for students within the classroom, but since the functional reinforcer for this behavior may be mediated by peer, it may be difficult to capture in an assessment and subsequently control during treatment. Therefore, a confederate peer may be used within the analysis context to ensure safety and establish control, without subjecting other students to peer aggression (Kuhn et al. 2009). The present project implemented a pairwise functional analysis of peer aggression using a confederate peer, with a peer tantrum as the functional reinforcer, for one student with autism. Information from the analysis was used to inform additional assessments and intervention procedures.
 
123. Effects of a Coaching Package on Teacher Delivery of Supported Opportunities to Respond
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA TAPP (Catawba College; University of North Carolina- Charlotte), Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte), Andrea Bowen Masud (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: During this poster session, we will share our research on the effects of a coaching package on the rate of teacher implemented supported OTRs (i.e., opportunity to respond, communication support, response prompt) to increase student engagement across three teachers and three students with extensive support needs during small group reading instruction.
 
Diversity submission 124. Always Consider Culture: Incorporating Cultural Responsiveness Into Functional Communication Training
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
GUOFENG SHEN (University of Northern Colorado; Seven Dimensions Behavioral Health), Tracy Gershwin (University of Northern Colorado)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) involves introducing reinforcements for appropriate or desired communicative responses in lieu of existing challenging behavior(s). Identified as an evidence-based practice, FCT can be applied across multiple populations of students (e.g., autism, intellectual disabilities). Despite the laudable successes and extensive research support, FCT can be impractical or ineffective in schools, clinics or home settings if utilized with students who are from culturally, linguistically, or economically diverse backgrounds, and these cultural considerations are not included through all intervention stages. There is an identified need to develop an awareness and provide culturally responsive practices across the field of education. Participants will learn the impact of culture on behaviors in the home, school, and clinical settings, including implications for the BACB Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts. We present ethical obligations for culturally responsive practices, as well as framework, strategies and four detailed steps for implementing culturally responsive functional communication training when addressing challenging behaviors.

 
125. Self-Monitoring to Increase On-Task Study Time at the University Level
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLA CEFALO (Data Driven ABA)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract:

Students often complain about the amount of time it takes to do all the assigned tasks in different academic areas, both in high school and college. Increasing the amount of time spent studying, what is usually called "concentration," could help students make studying more efficient and effective. Self-management has been shown to be a useful approach to improving on-task behavior and, consequently, academic engagement of students with disabilities. This procedure involves teaching the individual various behaviors, such as self-assessment, self-correction, goal-setting, self-registration, and self-monitoring. There is a gap in the literature investigating the usefulness of self-monitoring for adolescents and adults in the typical population. In this study, a self-management procedure is applied to help a college student increase on-task behavior while studying. A changing criteria design was used to assess internal validity. The total study time increased from an average of 10 minutes to 190 minutes.

 
127. The Effects of Matrix Training on the Reading Comprehension of 2nd Grade Students With and Without Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ILIANA TREVINO CONTLA (Teachers College Columbia University), Hannah Walker (Teachers College, Columbia University), Xiaoyuan Liu (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: The current study aims to analyze the effects of matrix training production or selection topography responses for fiction reading comprehension on the generalization to nonfiction reading comprehension production and selection responses. Three dyads were selected as participants in a 2nd-grade public school classroom following the CABAS AIL model because of their high reading level placement but low reading comprehension. The researchers probed the participant's selection and production responses to nonfiction reading comprehension. The researchers selected one participant in each dyad for the selection topography response training group and the other participant in the dyad for the production topography response training group on fiction reading comprehension. After training on either reading comprehension response in fiction genre texts, the participants improved both types of reading comprehension responses in nonfiction texts. This demonstrates the generalizable effects of matrix training. However, most participants did not meet the performance criteria in the post-intervention probes. Therefore, the researchers followed training them on the other type of reading comprehension response to meet the performance criteria.
 
128. Using Self-Instruction via Video Activity Schedules to Decrease Reliance on Adult Prompts for Students With an Intellectual Disability
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Kai O'Neill (University of Kentucky), Kennedy Neltner (University of Kentucky), AMY SPRIGGS (University of Kentucky), Sally Bereznak Shepley (The University of Kentucky)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the differential effects of mobile assistive technology (AT) loaded with visual activity schedules (VAS; pictures alone) compared to video activity schedules (VidAS; pictures linked to video models) to promote vocational independence and decreased reliance on adult supports for adolescents and adults with intellectual disability, with and without autism. Seven single-case multitreatment designs were used to assess differential effects between the two interventions when participants completed various vocational tasks. All participants were able to perform some of the task steps independently with both VAS and VidAS but demonstrated a greater increase in independence with self-instruction using VidAS than when only given VAS. Results suggest that incorporating VidAS into mobile AT can increase independence while decreasing reliance on additional adult support, suggesting that this could be a reasonable accommodation in school, work, and community settings.

 
129. Feasibility of Teacher Implementation of an Intensive Behavior Protocol in a Public School Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CAMILLA YONETTE WOODARD (Emory University; Marcus Autism Center ), Keller Oliver Street (Marcus Autism Center), Deva Carrion-McGee (School Consultation Program at Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: Conceptual understanding and active implementation of a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) through Behavior Skills Training (BST) in a special education school setting is an understudied area in the literature. The purpose of this current case study is to evaluate the feasibility for teachers and paraprofessionals in implementing a BIP with multiple components with a student engaging in severe problem behavior. The BIP was designed through collaboration between the school team and a School Consultation team comprised of Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs). This study is aimed at addressing the following research question: What are the effects of using Behavior Skills Training on Teacher Fidelity Ratings in implementing an intensive behavior protocol as part of a Behavior Intervention Plan? The participants included 1 special education teacher and 3 paraprofessionals without a history of training in applied behavior analysis. Results from this study will show the feasibility of teachers learning and implementing an intensive behavior protocol within a BIP and the effects on student outcomes.
 
130. Embedding Quiz Questions in Asynchronous Lectures: A Comparison of Multiple-Choice vs. Fill-in-the-Blank Items on Exam Performance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Megan R. Heinicke (California State University, Sacramento), Amanda N Jones (California State University, Sacramento), EMILY STELLHORN (CSU Sacramento)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that response cards (i.e., a "low-tech" active student response technique) improve student participation and exam scores for in-person college classes. Heinicke et al. (2019) also demonstrated that exam scores were significantly higher when students were presented with fill-in-the-blank questions on response cards compared with multiple-choice items. Given the rapid increase of online course offerings in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic, we extended Heinicke et al. by embedding multiple-choice vs. fill-in-the-blank quiz questions in asynchronous lectures in an upper-division psychology course using an alternating treatments design blocked by exam schedule. We also measured students’ self-report of preference for embedded quiz questions using a satisfaction survey. We found higher exam scores, learning gains and retention scores for modules with embedded fill-in-the-blank over multiple-choice questions. However, students did not watch a greater percentage of lecture videos across conditions. Overall, our results support that embedded fill-in-the-blank quiz questions may be a preferred strategy to improve students’ exam performance in asynchronous lecture-based courses.
 
131. A Behavioral Intervention to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in Elementary School Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RAMON MARIN (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Brazil), Letícia Pereira (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil ), Ana Tarifa (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Bárbara Gouveia (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Giulia Mengatto (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

This poster presents the result of a behavioral intervention aimed at improving reading and writing skills in students at a public school in Brazil. Thirty elementary school students (3rd to 5th grade) were exposed to the teaching procedures. The intervention used two of the four programmed units of a computerized teaching program previously developed by de Souza et al. (2009). These two units taught 27 of the 51 stimulus-stimulus relations from the complete program. The main tasks were conditional discrimination trials aimed to establish conditional relations between dictated words, pictures, and printed words. Furthermore, some trials were designed to establish conditional relations between written and dictated syllables. Two tasks, not directly taught, were used to assess the students’ repertoire, using a pre-test x post-test format: a) textual behavior and b) writing under dictation (Constructed Response Matching-to-Sample). The tests presented the words used in training plus a sample of novel words (to assess recombinative generalization). The comparison of the average percentage of correct responses in pre and post-test for each grade indicates an improvement in the reading and writing skills. Applications on a larger scale are recommended.

 
133. Functional Communication Training in Inclusive School Settings for Students With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Literature Review
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ANDREA MASUD (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Alexandra Reilly (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is a well-established, evidence-based practice used to address challenging behavior among individuals across settings, ages, and disability categories. However, the research is limited on the implementation of FCT in inclusive school settings for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this review was to summarize FCT intervention studies implemented in inclusive K-12 school settings for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. We synthesized studies to summarize study characteristics, quality, and intervention effectiveness. Our findings suggest that FCT was most often implemented as part of a multi-component intervention package and delivered by educational team members. Further, the quality of most studies was either acceptable or strong. The overall effect size estimate for primary dependent measures as measured by Tau-U ranged from moderate to strong. We present implications for practice specific to educational teams that support the behavioral needs of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities in inclusive settings and offer avenues for future research.

 
134. Video Gamification of Behavioral Interventions an Emerging Paradigm
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
EDWARD JUSTIN PAGE (StepOne Neurodiversity Services)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Gamification of education continues to experience a growth in applications and use. In the field of Behavior Analysis, gamification, specifically video gamification, of behavior analytic interventions remains an understudied but auspicious area of growth. Morford et al. (2014) outlined the intersection between behavior analysis and game design, noting the use of behavior analytic principles that appear in game design and operationally defining characteristics of game-playing. In addition, they provided a call to action wherein behavior analysts should study and pursue avenues of integrating behavior analysis into game design. The purpose of this poster is to demonstrate early stages of introducing simple behavioral interventions to change behavior into video games. Creation of games has come from a partnership of a service providing agency, StepOne Neurodiversity Services, and an established transformational game production company, Simcoach Games. This poster describes the efforts of the behavior analyst to disseminate applied behavior analysis to the Simcoach Games team and working with game design experts to produce prototype video games to be deployed as tools in a clinic and special education setting. In addition, future research on these video games in vivo settings is described.

 
135. Differential Effects of Criteria for Increasing Delay Intervals in Progressive Time Delay
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KAI O'NEILL (University of Kentucky)
Discussant: Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract: The criteria used to determine when to increase to the next delay interval in the progressive time delay (PTD) instructional procedure is not consistently implemented by researchers and practitioners. This study used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the differential effects of response-independent criteria (RIC; increasing the delay interval after a set number of sessions) and response-dependent criteria (RDC; increasing the delay interval after participants achieve a certain accuracy criterion) when teaching expressive word identification to elementary-aged children with moderate/severe disabilities (e.g., autism, Down syndrome, intellectual disability), language impairments, and reading deficits in order to determine whether one PTD variation required fewer sessions to reach mastery, produced fewer errors, or required less instructional time. Efficiency data were mixed; for participants who required minimal or extensive prompting, there were not noteworthy differences in error rates between variations. However, for participants who required rates of prompting typically associated with students with moderate/severe disabilities, the RIC variation resulted in considerably higher error rates (1.7-16.5 times greater). These results suggest that the RDC variation is likely to be either equally efficient or more efficient than the RIC variation, which can help facilitate educators’ decisions to choose which of these effective variations to implement.
 
136. Generalized Outcome of Self-Questioning Instruction: A Systematic Review
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
TOLULOPE OLAYEMI SULAIMON (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Grace Elizabeth Bartle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Generalization outcome of any intervention determines the measure of the effectiveness or strength of any intervention. Likewise, the main goal of any intervention is for the students to generalize and maintain what was learned beyond the intervention setting or situations. The current review aimed to investigate the generalization outcomes and measures of self-questioning strategies and the instructional strategies that induce generalization of self-questioning instruction. A total of 14 self-questioning experimental studies that measured one form of generalization were reviewed. Findings reviewed generalization probes of self-questioning instruction successful. Also, findings reviewed those instructional strategies that induced generalization of self-questioning included the following components: sequential steps, description of the strategy, modeling, guided practice with feedback, student practice, self-regulation, and prompt fading.
 
 
 
Special Event #207
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Award for Distinguished Contributions to DEI: Cultural Responsiveness in ABA: Conceptualization to Actionable Steps
Sunday, May 28, 2023
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 1
Area: DEI
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University), Jovonnie L. Esquierdo-Leal (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: R. Wayne Fuqua, Ph.D.
 
Diversity submission Cultural Responsiveness in ABA: Conceptualization to Actionable Steps
Abstract: Culture has a substantial impact on a wide range of behaviors related to behavioral research and services. Although we and others have written about the topic of cultural responsiveness in behavior analysis, it can be challenging to link literature outside of our field to our conceptual systems and incorporate existing literature into practice. In this talk, we highlight the necessity of considering culture for improved service delivery. In addition to conceptualizing many diversity terms behaviorally, we describe actionable steps behavior analysts can implement in their research and practice. Our primary focus will be on the importance of self-assessment, disrupting biases, and social validity.
 
LAUREN BEAULIEU (Newton Public Schools), CORINA JIMENEZ-GOMEZ (University of Florida)
 

Dr. Beaulieu earned her BS in Psychology from Florida State, her MS in Applied Behavior Analysis from Florida Institute of Technology, and her PhD in Behavior Analysis from Western New England University. She received training as a Clinical Specialist at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine's Kennedy Krieger Institute. Dr. Beaulieu is currently a District Behavior Analyst for Newton Public Schools in Massachusetts. She was previously an Associate Professor at Florida Institute of Technology (FIT). Prior to her appointment at FIT, she founded and directed the Master's in Applied Behavior Analysis program at Regis College in Weston, MA where she earned tenure in 2017. She also held a faculty appointment at the University of Massachusetts Lowell's MS in Autism Spectrum Disorders program from 2011-2013. Dr. Beaulieu has been a practitioner and researcher in behavior analysis for 20 years across a variety of settings including public schools, clients' homes, residential psychiatric hospitals, and group homes with individuals diagnosed with and without disabilities. She has also consulted internationally with BCBAs on conducting functional analyses, improving cooperation with young children, and improving sleep.  Her research has been recognized by the Berkshire Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy, and in 2021 she received the Applied Behavior Analysis Award for Scholarly Contributions to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion from the Association for Behavior Analysis International, and. She currently serves on the editorial board for the journal Behavioral Interventions and has previously served on the editorial board for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

 

Dr. Corina Jimenez-Gomez (she/her/ella) is an Assistant Professor in the Behavior Analysis program at the University of Florida. She earned a Licensure in Psychology at the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello in Caracas, Venezuela, and a doctoral degree in Psychology with an emphasis in Behavior Analysis from Utah State University. She completed post-doctoral training at the University of Michigan and was a Research Fellow at The University of Auckland, New Zealand. She has held faculty positions at the Florida Institute of Technology and Auburn University. In addition, she served as clinical supervisor at The Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Tech and was the Director of the Center for Autism Research, Treatment, and Training (CARTT) at Auburn University. Dr. Jimenez-Gomez is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst at the doctoral level, whose professional interests include translational and applied behavioral research in the areas of choice and reinforcement processes, the use of technology in ABA settings, caregiver and staff coaching, and cultural responsiveness in Behavior Analysis. Dr. Jimenez-Gomez has served as a reviewer for various scientific journals and is currently on the editorial board of the Perspectives on Behavior Science and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is Associate Editor for Behavior Analysis in Practice. She is also the mom of two amazing humans and an elderly Labrador, and is married to a fellow behavioral scientist.

 
Target Audience:

BCBAs (researchers and practitioners)

Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will identify the necessity of considering culture for improved service delivery and a more complete understanding of human behavior. 2. Attendees will learn how to self-identify their biases in action and methods to reduce the impact of their biases on their service delivery. 3. Attendees will learn methods to assess whether their service delivery is culturally responsive.
 
 
 
Symposium #225
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission All Appetitives All The Time: The Case for Centering Freedom In Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 28, 2023
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom H
Area: PCH/CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Hannah Kaplan-Reimer (Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group, reSOURCE)
Discussant: Teresa Camille Kolu (Cusp Emergence)
CE Instructor: Emily Kennison Sandoz, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The field of behavior analysis has rightfully received troubling criticism since its application, particularly around the use of aversives for exerting stimulus control, instructional and otherwise. The practices in question emerge from analyzing the functions of discrete units of behavior, that do not capture the various context-behavior relations at any given moment that may be salient to an individual’s repertoire. However, some behavior analytic perspectives converge to focus on complex, nonlinear, and dynamic functional relations that can be characterized as aversive or appetitive to some degree. The present symposium will demonstrate the analysis of some socially significant practices necessary in the field of behavior analysis to mitigate harm. The first paper will introduce appetitive functional relations and their implementation in behavior analytic practice. The second paper will demonstrate the application of appetitive learning via an implementation of the enhanced choice model (Rajaraman, 2020). The third paper will provide an analysis of masking behaviors utilizing Goldiamond’s nonlinear contingency analysis (Layng et al., 2021). The final paper will discuss the development of a repertoire of cultural humility (Tervalon & Murray-Garcia, 1998) that embodies appetitive learning.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Appetitives, Assent, Cultural Humility, Freedom
Target Audience:

The audience must be familiar with basic behavior analytic concepts and principles. The audience must be able to understand behavior analytic terminology utilized in the talks.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Define and discriminate between appetitive and aversive control 2. Define the critical features of an appetitives-based choice model, assent and assent withdrawal response classes, and a repertoire of cultural humility 3. Identify the implications of an appetitive learning paradigm.
 
Diversity submission Convolving Breadth and Flexibility: Exploring Appetitive Functional Relations
EMILY KENNISON SANDOZ (University of Louisiana Lafayette), Karen Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi), Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group LCSRG (University of Louisiana, Lafayette)
Abstract: Functional relationships among context and behavior have been conceptualized in a number of ways across different behavioral perspectives. One way to evaluate these conceptualizations, and the terms associated with them is functionally - that is, in terms of (1) sociocultural contexts that evoke their use, and (2) their impact in particular contexts of interest. A recent approach to conceptualizing functional relations involves their characterization in terms of breadth, flexibility, and direction: that is, as appetitive or aversive to a particular degree. This approach may be most useful as part of an extension of the interbehavioral field construct, where appetitive describes the breadth, flexibility, and direction of the convolving field. This approach to characterizing functional relationships has been applied to events of such sociocultural significance such as privilege (LCSRG, 2022) and affirmative sexual consent (LCSRG, 2021), and such clinical significance as the psychotherapy process (Sandoz et al., 2022). In fact, it may be particularly well suited to addressing some of the social and clinical challenges that face behavior analysis today. This paper will explore the concept of appetitive functional relations, and how commitment to interventions that limit programmed consequences to those that function appetitively (i.e., all-appetitive, all-the-time; AAAT) might serve this time and place in our field.
 
Diversity submission Programming For Autonomy With The Enhanced Choice Model: Two Case Studies
MELISA SANTACROCE (Balance Speech and Behavior; PFA and SBT Community; Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group), Jayven J. Encarnacion (Touchstone ABA), Janani Vaidya (National Louis University; Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group; Assent Lab), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana Lafayette; Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group (LCSRG))
Abstract: Physical management procedures such as restraint or seclusion come with both psychological and physical risks to both the client and treatment team. The Enhanced Choice Model (ECM) as described by Rajaraman et al. (2020) attempts to mitigate the need for such invasive strategies. In the following case studies, ECM was utilized with an adolescent and an adult client in the home and community settings over the course of one year. Dangerous escalation and physical management procedures were eliminated while increasing skill development and quality of life. Participating individuals were given three ongoing choices: (a) “practice” by participating in treatment tasks (b) “hangout” with noncontingent access to reinforcement or (c) “leave” by ending the session. For both individuals, safety was maintained within the treatment sessions over the course of one year while time spent in “practice” increased leading to improvements in community access and participation. Standardized and criterion-referenced assessment tools demonstrated gains in all areas across both clients over the course of treatment. Therapy sessions expanded to include community-based activities with peers, vocational tasks, and an increase in activities of daily living both inside and outside of the home. Both individuals participated to a greater extent in educational activities than they did at baseline without direct support from the ABA team. Implications for using the enhanced choice model to emphasize shared-governance, appetitive functional relations (Sandoz et al., 2022), rapport, and assent while maximizing safety for both adolescent and adult clients are discussed.
 
Diversity submission Creating Space to Receive Authenticity: Assent, Appetitives, and the Absence of Coercion
WORNER LELAND (Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Abstract: Skinner conceptualized tacting of private events as an operant behavior acquired through the cultural contingencies of one’s verbal community. One form of hypothesized learning was that of response reduction, meaning that verbal behavior initially acquired as an overt operant may contact punishment such that responding is reduced to an undetectable magnitude, one which we may colloquially label as covert (Skinner, 1945) or subtle (Hayes & Fryling, 2009). With this, we see the possibility for a divergence between simultaneously occurring overt behavior and covert behavior. This phenomenon may be conceptualized as a component of “masking” (Pearson & Rose, 2021; Miller, Rees, & Pearson, 2021). This talk will consider a conceptual analysis of masking, and will utilize Goldiamond’s non-linear contingency analysis approach (Layng et al., 2021) to describe how response reduction may be differentially and contextually shaped across time. This talk will also present putative critical components for environments that foster authenticity and learning environments that foster authentic assent.
 
Diversity submission Field of (Appetitive) Dreams: Rooting Cultural Humility in Appetitive Learning
JANANI VAIDYA (National Louis University; Lousiana Contextual Science Research Group (LCSRG); Assent Lab), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana Lafayette; Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group), Michael C May (Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group; Compassionate Behavioral Healthcare, LLC)
Abstract: Contemporary behavior analysis touts the importance of training cultural awareness skills (BACB, 2020) and developing cultural competence for researchers and practitioners (Fong, 2013). However, the field has recently begun evolving towards encouraging cultural humility (Foronda, 2020; Wright, 2019), an ongoing process of self-reflection and lifelong commitment to learning clinical and research practices that are mutually beneficial with diverse communities and populations (Tervalon & Murray-Garcia, 1998). This evolution, may, however, be maintained more by the avoidance of criticism than the benefits of a culturally humble science. The present paper will conceptualize cultural humility from a contextual behavioral perspective in terms of learning patterns that foster growth and expansion of one’s repertoire specifically via repeated exposure to diverse contexts. This conceptualization will discuss the shift from developing cultural humility that is rule-governed and aversively controlled to a repertoire built as a function of an individual’s valuing behaviors. Finally, the paper will utilize this conceptualization to discuss implications for behavior analysts to develop a culturally humble repertoire while operating in a variety of domains.
 
 
Symposium #183
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Diversity submission Applied Behavior Analysis Across the Globe: An Overview of Research, Education, and Service Delivery in Different Countries
Sunday, May 28, 2023
4:00 PM–5:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4E/F
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri-St. Louis)
Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Andresa De Souza, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The applications of applied behavior analysis for the intervention of people with developmental disabilities have received recognition across the United States of America and Canada. Nonetheless, many other countries across the globe still have limited availability in terms of country-specific research, the presence of advanced education, and access to specialized services. This situation is even more prevalent in developing countries where financial barriers and public health policies might impede the dissemination of behavior analysis as a science and evidence-based intervention. This symposium will provide an overview of behavior analytic research, education, and service delivery in developing countries worldwide. First, Carlos Santos will present a literature review of applied studies conducted with participants with autism in Brazil. Next, Meral Koldas will provide an overview of the dissemination efforts in education and service delivery in Turkiye. In the third presentation, Dr. Zhichun Zhou Ostlund will describe the service delivery model in China and discuss the cultural barriers commonly encountered by practitioners. Finally, Dr. Daniella Pizzella will review the applications of behavior interventions in South Africa and Sub-Saharan schools. Dr. Caio Miguel will serve as the discussant for this symposium.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): diversity, international, research, service-delivery
Target Audience:

The audience should understand research methods, credentialing requirements, and behavior interventions in different contexts.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the status of applied research, training, and service delivery across different countries. (2) List dissemination efforts carried over in at least one of the countries included in this symposium. (3) Discuss the importance of considering cultural variables in research, training, and service delivery.
 
Diversity submission 

A Literature Review of Applied Behavior Analytic Interventions for People With Autism in Brazil

ANDRESA DE SOUZA (University of Missouri-St. Louis), Carlos Henrique Santos da Silva (Brock University), Renata Michel (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir)
Abstract:

The vast majority of research providing empirical support for the effectiveness of interventions based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) for people with autism has been conducted in the United States and Canada. The lack of diverse representation in ABA-based research can compromise the external validity of outcomes and the extent to which these intervention procedures are culturally sensitive to and equally effective for communities of diverse cultural backgrounds. Brazil is a country with a long tradition in the study of behavior analysis and basic research and currently has a large demand countrywide for behavior analytic interventions for children with autism. This literature review aimed to identify and analyze ABA-based research for people with autism in Brazil. We conducted a search in international and national databases using English and Portuguese keywords. We conducted reference and citation checks to identify additional articles that might not have appeared in the original search. Studies identified and included in the review were published in Brazilian and foreign peer-reviewed journals. We will present the findings in terms of journal language, participants' demographics, target behaviors and procedures, outcomes, and study quality. The implications for service delivery and policy change will be discussed.

 
Diversity submission 

Dissemination Efforts of Applied Behavior Analysis Education and Intervention in Türkiye

MERAL KOLDAS (Queen's University of Belfast), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University), Demet Tavukcu (Maltepe University)
Abstract:

The Republic of Turkiye has a unique geographic position as a transcontinental country in Asia and Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. About 6.9% of the total population in Turkiye, ages 3 years and older, have some type of disability, including autism (TUIK, 2021). Policies related to the intervention for individuals with disabilities typically involve meeting that population’s free health care in state hospitals and basic educational needs, such as 2-hour one-to-one therapeutic intervention weekly at rehabilitation centers. Evidence-based interventions based on applied behaviour analysis (ABA; Leaf et al., 2021) for children with disabilities are an emerging field in Turkiye. Currently, there are both institutional and clinical efforts to disseminate ABA-based technologies in agencies and schools across the country. However, considering the total number of individuals with developmental disabilities, including autism, the dissemination of ABA-based interventions nationwide is far behind the ideal level. This presentation will discuss the historical development of behavior analysis in Turkiye from an educational and service-delivery perspective.

 
Diversity submission 

The Development of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Training, Credentialing, and Services in China: Local Solutions in a Global Field

ZHICHUN ZHOU OSTLUND (Webster University ), Tian Jiang (University of Rochester)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has been recognized as an evidence-based practice for people with autism and related developmental disabilities nationally and internationally. As a result, behavior analytic services and credentials have rapidly increased in the USA, and behavior analytic techniques have been translated from English to at least twelve languages, including Chinese. This presentation will delve into the practice of ABA in China, one of the non-English speaking countries. We will provide an overview of (a) the current number of ABA training programs and agencies offering ABA services in the country; and (b) the cost and duration of obtaining a Chinese version of behavior analyst credentials (undergraduate and graduate level). We then will look into the quality of ABA services and the ethical implications of ABA practice in China in general. We will end the presentation with a question: While we can translate the techniques and strategies of ABA to the Chinese language, can we truly implement the practice of ABA in the current social and cultural context in China?

 
Diversity submission Research and Application of Behavior Interventions for Classroom Management in South Africa and Sub-Saharan Countries
Robin Katzen (University of the Western Cape), DANI PIZZELLA (University of Missouri-St. Louis), Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri-St. Louis), Nicolette Roman (University of the Western Cape)
Abstract: Globally, educators are challenged with barriers in facilitating sustained behavior management interventions in classrooms. In South African and Sub-Saharan African contexts, educators are inhibited due to being structurally disadvantaged (Theron & van Rensburg, 2018). Common barriers include educators' difficulties in employing evidence-based classroom management strategies, as well as a shortage of training, implementation materials, and funding (Gagnon et al., 2021). One approach to assist educators in a sustainable transition to effective classroom management is continuous research and facilitation of evidence-based classroom management (Hartnack, 2017). Contextual understanding and awareness of educators’ daily challenges and pressures (resource constraints and funding) can impact strategies to facilitate the implementation of strategies for classroom behavior management (Feldman, 2021). Furthermore, behavior intervention plans (BIP) focused on functional behavior assessments (FBA) adopted by trained educators can make significant improvements in overall classroom management (Ibigbami et al., 2021). This presentation gives a brief account of South African and Sub-Saharan research and applications of behavior interventions with a particular emphasis on educators working in mainstream and special needs schools.
 
 
Symposium #239
Applications of Behavioral Economics to Understand Wellness, Health, and Safety Decision Making
Sunday, May 28, 2023
4:00 PM–5:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2B
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Oliver Wirth (CDC/NIOSH)
Discussant: Mikhail Koffarnus (University of Kentucky College of Medicine)
Abstract:

Understanding factors that influence safety-related decisions can help us assess needs, identify barriers, specify targets, and improve measurements for interventions. Research methods from behavioral economics have been used to better understand a range of socially significant, health-related decisions associated with substance use, sex, medical treatment, suicide, and more. Recently, behavioral economic methods have been extended to additional domains, such as safety-related decisions of drivers and workers. A fundamental behavioral economic principle known as discounting describes a decrease in the subjective value of some outcome (e.g., health or money) as a function of an increase of some other parameter (e.g., time or probability). This symposium presents four applications of discounting to decisions concerning (1) seeking mental health services, (2) securing personal information, (3) texting while driving, and (4) implementing a safety solution in the workplace. Each of these studies contributes to our better understanding of behavioral economic principles that underly decision making with the goal of informing interventions that promote healthier and safer choices.

Instruction Level: Basic
 
Discounting as a Tool to Understand the Desirability of Mental Health Services
JONATHAN E. FRIEDEL (Georgia Southern University), Sofia Perez (Georgia Southern University), KATILYN MARIE ASHLEY TREEM (Georgia Southern University), Shakeia Salem (Georgia Southern University), Maya Poole (Georgia Southern University), Bekah Estevez (Georgia Southern University), Brooke Smith (University of Nevada Reno Counseling Services)
Abstract: Minoritized people are less likely to obtain mental health services than non-minoritized people. One reason minoritized people are less likely to obtain mental health services is because of a perception that therapists will not “be like them” and will be unable to understand their lived experience. There are increasing calls and demands for mental health providers to be trained in cultural competence. Cultural competence refers to mental health providers learning about other cultures, so they are informed and respectful of other beliefs, values, and traditions in that culture. This presentation will cover several discounting studies that have been completed as an ersatz needs assessment for minoritized people in relation to their desires culturally competent therapy. The findings overwhelmingly support the notion that minoritized people desire culturally competent therapy. If forced to choose, participants would rather have less effective culturally competent therapy than more effective non-competent therapy. Ethical review was obtained.
 

Relationship Between Social Discounting and Paying to Protect Personal Information

PAUL ROMANOWICH (Gonzaga University), Jacob Battaglia (Gonzaga University)
Abstract:

Recent social discounting studies have shown that individuals share less personal information as social distances between a person and the individual they can share with increases. However, personal information is not a tangible commodity like money that can be easily divided between individuals. That is, you still have possession of all of your personal information, even if you share it with another person. Thus, the economic utility (i.e., value) is questionable for personal information as a sharable commodity. One way to validate personal information as a sharable commodity is to ask how much an individual would pay to protect different types of personal information, and determine whether the amount they were willing to pay was inversely related to how willing they were to share that type of personal information. The current study tested this by asking participants to complete a social discounting for personal information task and an economic demand task asking about how much they would be willing to pay to protect different types of personal information. The results showed that there was an inverse relationship between sharing during the social discounting task and the economic demand task. That is, participants’ willingness to pay to protect their financial information (Figure 1) and willingness to share a certain type of personal information were inversely related (i.e., pay less to protect health information, but share more). These results help to validate personal information as a sharable commodity with value for individuals.

 
Role of Response Inhibition and Delay Discounting in the Discrepancy Between Perceived Risk and Frequency of Texting While Driving: A Cluster Analysis
YUSUKE HAYASHI (Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton), Jonathan E. Friedel (Georgia Southern University), Anne Foreman (CDC/NIOSH), Oliver Wirth (CDC/NIOSH)
Abstract: The goal of the present study was to investigate the potential mechanism underlying the discrepancy between perceived risk and frequency of texting while driving (TWD) in young drivers. A sample of 170 college students participated in this study. Using a hierarchical cluster analysis, an analytic technique to categorize cases based on their similarities across selected variables, we first identified the following three distinct subgroups: (a) drivers who perceive TWD as risky but frequently engage in TWD, (b) drivers who perceive TWD as risky and infrequently engage in TWD, and (c) drivers who perceive TWD as not so risky and frequently engage in TWD. For each gender, the subgroups were then compared on the extent to which they differed in response inhibition (as measured by a self-report scale) and delay discounting of hypothetical monetary reinforcers. The results showed that the subgroup of male, but not female, drivers who perceive TWD as risky but frequently engage in TWD showed significantly higher levels of response inhibition, but not delay discounting, than the other two subgroups. Implications for developing effective and efficient intervention strategies for reducing TWD are discussed.
 
The Effects of Perceived Risk and Cost on Manager Decisions to Implement a Safety Solution
JONATHAN MARK HOCHMUTH (CDC/NIOSH), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Understanding how managers of industrial workplaces make decisions to allocate resources is critical to improving occupational safety. Discounting methods have been applied to the health and safety decisions of workers but not to leadership. This study presented hypothetical scenarios to investigate the effects of perceived injury probability, injury severity, and cost of a safety solution on the likelihood of manager decisions to implement a safety solution in a manufacturing setting. Two experimental surveys were conducted on Amazon Mechanical Turk, each consisting of 75 participants with the “management” qualification. The first experiment varied percentage of safe behaviors/conditions (injury probability) and cost. The second experiment varied percent safe and cost under three different injury severities (i.e., amputation, strain/sprain, and laceration/puncture). Managers’ likelihood of implementing a safety solution decreased as percent safe and cost increased. Perceived severity of injury had a smaller effect. The results suggest that managers discount occupational safety risks when risks are low, and costs are high. This study provides the first attempt to apply behavioral economic methods to study manager workplace safety decisions. Further extending and refining this application to other workplace safety concerns could better inform interventions with the goal of improving occupational safety.
 
 
Invited Symposium #240A
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Scholarly Contributions to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Paper Competition Winners
Sunday, May 28, 2023
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 1
Area: DEI; Domain: Translational
Chair: Daniel Kwak (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
CE Instructor: Daniel Kwak, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This competition is designed to encourage, promote, and reward behavior analytic scholarship on topics and issues in DEI, both in the field of behavior analysis and more broadly. Students (graduate or undergraduate) and post-graduate professionals who have completed empirical or conceptual papers relevant to DEI that are informed, at least in part, by a behavior-analytic perspective were invited to submit.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the cultural and linguistic diversity, and related training and experiences, of applied behavior analysis service providers and service recipients; (2) describe areas for growth with respect to training and education in cultural responsiveness for behavior analysts and trainees; (3) Evaluate areas for optimization with traditionally-applied computer-based instruction for staff training; (4) Identify examples of potential prerequisite skills to be trained before training complex skills related to DEI; (5) Recognize the current barriers that may impede culturally and linguistically diverse individuals with autism from learning a second language; (6) Use the generalization tactics from this study to promote the development of tacts across multiple languages with other individuals with autism or other developmental disabilities.
 
Diversity submission Cultural Responsiveness in Behavior Analysis: Provider and Recipient Perceptions in Ontario
(Service Delivery)
PAIGE O'NEILL (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Cultural responsiveness is critical in behavior analytic services, particularly when providers and recipients have different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to systematically replicate and extend Beaulieu et al. (2019) by investigating the diversity among applied behavior analysis (ABA) service providers and service recipients in Ontario, service providers’ training and experiences in working with diverse families, and service providers’ and recipients’ perceptions of behavior analysts’ cultural responsiveness in practice. Results from 428 participants suggest that service providers and recipients in Ontario differ in demographic characteristics; service providers report having little training in how to serve diverse families; and although service recipients rate providers’ skills relatively positive, there is room for improvement. Results suggest a path forward for behavior analysis that includes education and training in cultural responsiveness as well as encouraging and fostering a bidirectional relationship between behavior analysts and the families they serve.
Paige O’Neill is a doctoral student at the University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute (MMI) studying under the advisement of Dr. Catalina Rey. She obtained her master’s degree in applied disability studies with a specialization in applied behavior analysis from Brock University in Ontario, Canada under the mentorship of Dr. Julie Koudys. Paige is a BCBA in the Early Intervention program at MMI where she works with early learners and supervises trainees. Her research interests include topics related to mediator training and treatment integrity; teaching procedures to promote skill acquisition for early learners; and diversity, equity, and inclusion in the field of behavior analysis.
 
Diversity submission Diversity Term Accuracy: A comparison of SAFMEDS and Computer-Based Instruction Training Models
(Service Delivery)
CANDACE R FAY (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Promoting diversity and inclusion can impact a variety of different groups. Many organizations rely on various training methods to help ensure diversity in the workplace. However, little research has compared the effects of different training approaches on increasing recall of specific cultural terms. Thus, the present study employed an adapted alternating treatment design to explore the effectiveness of two different training approaches. A SAFMEDS training model was compared to a traditionally-applied. Computer-Based Instruction, to determine which is more efficient at promoting cultural fluency. The number of correct definitions for diversity terms across various demographic categories, served as the dependent variable. Participants mastered a higher number of diversity terms when trained with SAFMEDS, compared to the computer- based instruction procedures. During maintenance sessions, participants exhibited sustained performance. SAFMEDS may be ideal for improving precision when training terms to be used in conversations about diversity, and culturally-related topics. These skills will aid in building more culturally-relevant social skills that include more complex response requirements.
Candace Fay is a BCBA and a Ph.D. student at the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT). Her core values include authenticity, balance, competence, and growth. Throughout her education, research, and practice, she has worked in areas such as ABA service delivery, training and development, performance management, behavioral systems analysis, instructional design, DEI, and intimacy and sexual behaviors. Candace currently practices within the scope of behavior-analytic instruction, research, operations consulting, and program management for ABA service delivery.
 
Diversity submission Evaluation of Instructive Feedback and Multiple-Exemplar Training as Strategies for Generalizing Tacts Across English and Spanish Responses
(Service Delivery)
PATRICIO ERHARD (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Research has indicated that bilingual learners with autism have difficulty accessing culturally responsive interventions. Emerging research has shown that people with ASD have benefited from the use of instructive feedback and serial multiple-exemplar training for promoting the generalization of tacts. However, to date no study has examined the effects these combined strategies have on the emergence and generalization of tacts across multiple languages. We used a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants to teach children from heritage language homes tacts in English and Spanish. The results demonstrated that instructive feedback and serial multiple-exemplar training were effective at producing generalization across novel stimuli exemplars in primary and secondary languages for two of the four participants. Additional training components (i.e., rehearsals and no-no prompts) were effective in producing the same generalization outcomes with the remaining two participants.
Patricio Erhard is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA), PhD candidate, and assistant instructor in the autism and developmental disabilities program at the University of Texas at Austin. Prior to UT Austin, Patricio attended the autism/ABA program at Texas State University where he earned his Master's in Education. His current research interests include multiple exemplar training, instructive feedback, dual language development, verbal behavior, social skills training, and equivalence-based instruction. Patricio is also currently teaching Trastorno del Espectro Autista at UT Austin, a Spanish course about autism.
 
 
Panel #243
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Embracing Virtual Opportunities: Bringing Multidisciplinary School-Based Consultation to Life
Sunday, May 28, 2023
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Convention Center 403/404
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Heather Volchko, M.Ed.
Chair: Manuel Huecias Rodriguez (Threshold Learning Consultancy)
HEATHER VOLCHKO (Threshold Learning Consultancy)
MARLA WATTS (Threshold Learning Consultancy; Positive Behavior Supports Corporation)
ALLISON L HALE (Illinois School District U-46)
Abstract:

The world saw a spike in available technology during the global pandemic of 2020 and schools led the charge to provide continued access to education from beyond the classroom walls. Teachers learned new ways of fostering engagement and students learned all kinds of new skills. Professionals found new ways of working together as colleagues who used to be down the hall - and found new colleagues across the country and the globe while battling unfathomable personal and societal adversity. The mantra of lifelong learning was on full display in education! Leveraging this increased openness and comfort with collaborating in virtual spaces, this diverse panel of colleagues and friends continues to work together remotely to serve communities with a wide range of social and ethnic backgrounds. These school-based BCBAs will share their experiences consulting with schools as they answer your questions. Join them to explore how they have met organizational and individual needs by expanding their use of virtual school-based consulting.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

This session is appropriate for professionals who interface directly with the highly applied school setting. Basic understandings of behavior analysis and varied applications of principles will be assumed as part of this conversation.

Learning Objectives: (1) Participants will learn about different forms of education consultation positioned in diverse (e.g., socioeconomic, linguistic, racial) contexts; (2) Participants will learn how behavior analysis is applied individually, class-wide, and at the systems level of school settings based on presented and identified needs; (3) Participants will learn how one group of BCBAs leverage virtual methods to extend and scale their consultation capacity.
Keyword(s): consulting, multidisciplinary, school-based, virtual
 
 
Paper Session #246
Behavior Analysis of Compassion and Compassionate Care
Sunday, May 28, 2023
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom H
Area: PCH
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Donna West (University of Nevada, Reno)
 

The Role of Language Processes in Lack of Compassion for Others: Insights From Relational Frame Theory

Domain: Theory
GREGORY S. SMITH (University of Dayton; University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine)
 
Abstract:

A core concept within Relational Frame Theory (RFT) is arbitrarily applicable relational responding (AARR), which describes the ability of verbally sophisticated humans to learn and respond in terms of relations among stimuli based on arbitrary cues applied to those stimuli, as opposed to being based on their formal, physical properties. Through conceptual analysis, this paper will argue the human capacity for AARR underlies many instances of how individuals justify the mistreatment of and lack of compassion toward a variety of living beings, both human and non-human. This phenomenon will first be demonstrated for the audience by incorporating their participation in absurd examples meant to clearly highlight the verbal processes of interest. From there, more subtle and nuanced examples drawn from contemporary culture will be considered, in order to draw attention to the seemingly “true” or “real” nature of our justifications for violence and lack of compassion toward others, while exposing them for the linguistic illusions they actually are. The implications for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) efforts as well as potential remedies pointed up by the analysis will be discussed.

 
Conceptual Congruence of Compassionate Care, Cultural Humility, and Psychological Flexibility: Implications for Applied Behavior Analysis
Domain: Theory
DONNA WEST (University of Nevada, Reno), Kian Assemi (University of Nevada, Reno), Swathi Ragulan (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
 
Abstract: Taylor and colleagues (2019) recommended that applied behavior analysts develop more collaborative relationships with their clients' caregivers by researching, training, and providing compassionate care in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). A behavior analytic interpretation of compassionate care could support the development of such training and support collaborative relationships with not only caregivers, but all participants in ABA services (e.g., clients, stakeholders, providers, supervisors, and other professionals). The present paper will provide a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) perspective of compassionate care and discuss the possibility of expanding the concept of compassionate care by reviewing its conceptual congruence with cultural humility and psychological flexibility. This process includes an overview of ways that Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) may provide ABA with a viable and comprehensive means for training and practicing compassionate care among members of human service organizations. Finally, implications of this approach to practitioners, clients, and ABA as a whole will be discussed in conjunction with recommendations for future research and how ABA leadership can support the development and sustainability of compassionate care in ABA organizations.
 
 
 
Panel #247
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Ethical and Cultural Considerations When Providing Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Services to Latinx Families in Mexico and the United States
Sunday, May 28, 2023
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Convention Center 406/407
Area: TBA/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Berenice de la Cruz, Ph.D.
Chair: Berenice de la Cruz (Texas A&M University-San Antonio)
MARIANA DE LOS SANTOS (Bloom Children's Center)
FABIOLA VARGAS LONDONO (Independent Researcher)
Abstract:

This panel will discuss ethical and cultural considerations when providing Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services to Latinx families in Mexico and the United States. The United States is diversifying at a fast rate. According to the 2021 Census data, 18.9% of the United States population are Hispanic, and Mexican account for over 60% of the Hispanic subgroup. Mexico is the third-largest country in Latin America and has the second-largest economy. In Mexico, a lack of medical and educational services is common, especially for families of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Panelists will share about the creation of a professional organization to disseminate the science of behavior analysis across Mexico and about the first behavior analytic organization in the United States formed to specifically address diversity of behavior analysts in the field of ABA. Results from a study that examined early intervention needs in the Mexican population and compared these needs to those in the Latinx Spanish-speaking population in the United States will also be discussed. Panelists will discuss their experiences, challenges, and lessons learned when providing ABA services to Latinx families. Attendees are encouraged to ask questions and share their own experiences during this interactive panel session.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Audience members should minimally have the competencies and pre-requisite skills for a Board Certified Behavior Analyst as defined by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board 5th Edition Tasklist.

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will describe ethical and cultural considerations when providing ABA services to Latino families in Mexico. 2. Participants will describe ethical and cultural considerations when providing ABA services to Latino families in Mexico. 3. Participants will compare the early education needs of Latinx Spanish-speaking children and children living in Mexico.
Keyword(s): cultural considerations, dissemination, ethical considerations, Latinx
 
 
Symposium #383
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Developing Professional Qualifications and Training for European Behavior Analysts
Sunday, May 28, 2023
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Convention Center 401/402
Area: TBA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Grant Gautreaux (Nicholls State University)
CE Instructor: Grant Gautreaux, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Ensuring quality of behavior analytic services internationally is crucial for the maintenance and development of the professional field, and thus for the wellbeing of all individuals served. This symposium will highlight various aspects of the current situation in Europe, where there is a lack of professional recognition of behavior analysts, and practice is often unregulated. A collaborative project between universities in six European countries will be presented, followed by specific examples from the Czech Republic and Italy. Challenges and efforts to support behavior analysts within the European context will be described.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): e-learning, Europe, higher education, qualifications
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students or any other individuals who are interested in an international, European perspective of the development of qualifications, training and credentials for behavior analysts.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the main contents of the EuroBA (European Behaviour Analyst) project. (2) Describe the development of professional qualifications and training for behavior analysts in the Czech Republic. (3) Describe the benefits of international qualification standards that could be adapted to national credentialing systems.
 
Diversity submission Supporting European Behavior Analysts by Developing Professional Qualifications and Training: An Overview
DAG STRÖMBERG (Stockholm University)
Abstract: Following the Behavior Analyst Certification Board's decision to change its requirements for certification, a three-year (2020-2023) Erasmus+ project was initiated, involving researchers from universities in six European countries: Czech Republic, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden and the UK (Northern Ireland). The objectives of the current project are to ensure transparency and recognition of skills and qualifications for behavior analysts in Europe, to improve future support of persons with special needs, as well as mobility and employability of professionals. In practice, this includes developing professional standards and competency profiles for entry-level and masters-level European behavior analysts, referenced to the European Qualifications Framework, and developing a mulitingual entry-level online course; an updated version of Simple Steps Autism. Furthermore, a professional advisory group consisting of behavior analysts from another sixteen European countries has been created. This presentation will provide an overview of the contents and the current status of this collaborative international project.
 
Diversity submission 

Developing Professional Qualifications and Training in Behavior Analysis: The Case of Czech Republic

SHERI KINGSDORF (Masaryk University )
Abstract:

Prior to 2016 applied behavior analysis (ABA) was relatively unknown in the Czech Republic. However, the region’s ABA community has grown exponentially over the last six years. This growth may be attributed to the work of families and professionals linked to the region’s autistic community. Unfortunately, this progress has not been without challenges. Along the way, there have been numerous vocal opponents in the fields of medicine, psychology, and other health professions that serve those with autism. Despite pushback from professionals fearful of losing their stake in the world of autism services, the headstrong ABA community has managed to: establish ABA professional organizations, hold ABA conferences, train various professionals in ABA, and pass laws surrounding the profession and its practice. This presentation shares the efforts of the region in developing professional qualifications and training, hoping that the experiences and actionable points here can help similar nations.

 
Diversity submission 

Professional Skills and Their Development: Differences in Profiles, Education, and Legal Context

PAOLO MODERATO (IULM & IESCUM), Nanni Presti (Kore University)
Abstract:

While the certification and credentialing system has a perfectly reasonable legal profile in US and Canada, it has not in other countries, Italy and other European countries among them. Educational pathways and accreditation to each state professional system can vary and take different form according to each National Qualification Framework . For example, in Italy practicing ABA intervention is within the scope of the profession of licensed psychologist or other healthcare personnel (speech therapist, neurodevelopmental technicians, etc.) when practiced within the Italian National Health Service or in centers subsidized by it. ABA interventions, if practiced in this scheme by other professionals, violate the law. In other terms, a credentialing system founded on rules and context of one country cannot be implemented in others. Based on the assumptions that behavioral principles are general, but professional and educational practices are context based, we will discuss the benefit of an international effort to offer a cross-country common platform based on: a. As broad as possible definition of BA professional competencies b. Acknowledge each country to act within the context of their university and professional systems. c. Assist those countries who, because of contingent needs, are not able to implement b.

 
 
Panel #241
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Applications of Diversity and Inclusion Strategies to Decrease the Disparities in Access to Autism Services
Sunday, May 28, 2023
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4C/D
Area: AUT/CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Alyssa Kavner (she/they), M.A.
Chair: Paula Pompa-Craven (Easterseals Southern California)
NAA GARRIDO (Galena Autism and Behavioral Services)
FATOU NJIE-JALLOW (New England Center for Children)
ALYSSA KAVNER (SHE/THEY) (Easterseals Southern California)
Abstract:

Autism is prevalent in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups, with 1 in 44 children aged 8 years or older receiving an autism diagnosis, per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC)’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network. However, minority groups are less likely than their white counterparts to be diagnosed with autism or as having speech delays. There are also disparities in the age that some minority children are diagnosed with autism, as well as the reported quality of care received. Studies found inequalities specific to autism diagnosis and treatment due to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status that limit accessibility of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) interventions for Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) and low-income families (Lauer, 2013; Magaña, et al. 2012; Smith et al., 2020). The panel discussion will start with an overview of disparities in access to healthcare, funding, and access to services and three organizations will discuss initiatives aimed at reducing disparities in service access. The panelists will then answer questions discussing organizational resources for building a DEI (Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion) department, staff and client resources aimed at increasing service access, and recruitment strategies aimed at increasing the diversity of service providers.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience:

BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, and Professional Psychologists should have experience in implementing programs in their own organizations, engaging with their communities, and using measurement tools to indicate organizational outcomes.

Learning Objectives: 1. Describe the disparities in accessing treatment for autism services in BIPOC and low-income families and discover specific resources aimed at reducing those inequalities; 2. Identify strategies and resources needed to implement a Diversity and Inclusion program within their own organization; 3. Identify goals related to training, recruitment, outreach and partnerships aimed at reducing the inequalities for accessing and increasing the quality of treatment.
Keyword(s): Access, Autism, Diversity, Inclusion
 
 
Paper Session #257
CE Offered: BACB
Disability-Affirming Supervision: Future Directions in Applied Behavior Analytic Supervision
Sunday, May 28, 2023
6:00 PM–6:25 PM
Convention Center 406/407
Area: TBA
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Grace Ecko Jojo (Simmons University)
CE Instructor: Grace Ecko Jojo, M.S.
 

Disability-Affirming Supervision: Future Directions in Applied Behavior Analytic Supervision

Domain: Service Delivery
GRACE ECKO JOJO (Simmons University)
 
Abstract:

The field of Applied Behavior Analysis has been undergoing a shift towards increasing diversity, multiculturalism, and cultural humility in the past few years. A collective call to action was sent in 2019 in a special issue of Behavior Analysis in Practice, calling for increased diversity and representation within the field, from the institutional level down to practitioners and researchers. Articles, discussions, and reports have been published on increased attention to cultural humility towards clients and stakeholders, as well as practitioners. Little attention has been provided, however, to the diversity of Behavior Analysis Certification Board supervisees. Disability of supervisees has not yet been addressed in the field, and as practitioners and supervisors, it is critical to have the necessary knowledge and skills to be able to train and shape the behavior of supervisees with disabilities. The present paper reviews the literature, research, and best practices from the field of psychology; recommendations and examples of tools are provided to create a disability-affirming environment in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis.

 
 

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