Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

Program by : Saturday, May 27, 2023


 

Paper Session #2
Mental Health Outcomes of Workplace Behavior: A Multi-Approach Study to Understanding the Effects of Racism Across Business Industries
Saturday, May 27, 2023
10:00 AM–10:25 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall A-C
Area: OBM
Chair: Lamar Gregory Richards (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Adams Institute for the Arts and Humanities; Kenan Flagler Business School )
 
Mental Health Outcomes of Workplace Behavior: A Multi-Approach Study to Understanding the Effects of Racism Across Business Industries
Domain: Applied Research
LAMAR GREGORY RICHARDS (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Adams Institute for the Arts and Humanities; Kenan Flagler Business School)
 
Abstract: Adverse experiences in the workplace can do much more than lower productivity and decrease efficiency, as proven by Nielsen et al. (2015), negative workplace experiences can mean life or death. Their study found that people who are currently, or have previously, experienced workplace bullying are at greater risk of suicidal ideation. This study will assess the mental health outcomes of race-based discrimination in the workplace by evaluating reporting practices of corporate employees across multiple racial groups. The study will also build upon prior work in this field, including the work of Pascoe and Richman (2009), which found that perceived discrimination produces significantly heightened stress responses and is linked to nonparticipation in healthy behaviors, and Jones et al. (2021) which argued that discrimination may be associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol use among Black young male adults. This study measures the mental health outcomes associated with race-based discrimination in the workplace via survey research methodology to evaluate three self-reported data points: workplace environment and previous interactions in the workplace, existence of a depressive disorder using PHQ-9, and the existence of an anxiety disorder using GAD-7.
 
 
 
Symposium #9
CE Offered: BACB
Emergent Learning and Textual Stimulus Variables for Teaching Reading to Children and Adults
Saturday, May 27, 2023
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center 405
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mei-Hua Li (Simmons University)
CE Instructor: Mei-Hua Li, M.S.
Abstract: As reading is an essential skill for children and adults, behavior analysts must continue refining methods for teaching reading to people with reading challenges. This symposium has two foci. The first is evaluating methods of generative instruction that produce emergent learning. With children at risk for reading failure, Brown and Cariveau demonstrated that compound class-specific consequences for trained discriminations resulted in emergent letter-sound correspondences and textual behaviors. With adult, Chinese-speaking ESL students, Li and Axe demonstrated the efficacy of matrix training with reading skills, defined as arranging learning targets so that some are taught and others emerge through the outcome referred to as recombinative generalization. The second focus is on the structural variables of textual stimuli. Brown and Cariveau manipulated the orientation of letters in discrimination training, and Hall et al. examined the effects of different fonts on the reading accuracy and efficiency of adults with dyslexia.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): dyslexia, emergent learning, matrix training, reading
Target Audience: BCBAs and educators who work with children and adults on reading.
Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to: 1) Describe a simple discrimination training procedure to establish letter-sound correspondence. 2) Identify the relations that may emerge when compound class-specific consequences are arranged. 3) Describe the use of matrix training to teach onset-rime reading with adult second language learners. 4) Describe the importance of including social-validity measures in assessments of specialized fonts.
 

Using a Simple Discrimination Procedure With Compound Class-Specific Consequences to Teach Early Reading Skills

ALEXANDRIA BROWN (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

The development of early reading skills is essential for overall academic success. Although behavior analysts are well-equipped to teach a variety of skills, behavior-analytic research on reading-related repertoires commonly includes less optimal training arrangements or target skills misaligned with best practices described in the educational literature. The purpose of the current study was to extend the research on reading interventions by evaluating the effectiveness of one emergent learning procedure on teaching letter-sound correspondence to children. In the current study, five participants at risk for reading failure completed simple discrimination training with intermodal (i.e., visual and auditory) compound class-specific consequences. The S+ included a correctly oriented lowercase letter and was presented with two incorrectly oriented versions of the same letter (i.e., the distractor stimuli). Selections of the S+ resulted in the presentation of the compound class-specific consequence which included the corresponding printed uppercase letter and the dictated letter sound. Following mastery of simple discrimination training, emergence of six arbitrary relations was assessed. For five of the eight evaluations, participants exhibited emergence of all targeted relations including the textual relation. These results suggest that the current emergent learning procedures may represent an effective method for establishing reading prerequisite skills.

 

The Effects of Matrix Training on Reading Responses With Adults Learning English as a Second Language

MEI-HUA LI (Simmons University), Judah B. Axe (Simmons University)
Abstract:

Learning a new language can be a time-consuming and painstaking process. Chinese-speaking immigrants are often faced with the challenge of learning English after they arrive in the United States. Therefore, finding an efficient and effective way to learn English is of great importance. The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of matrix training on reading onset-rime words with 13 adult English language learners. The experimental design was a multiple probe design across submatrices. In Experiment I, teaching and probes occurred in individual sessions using a probe-train-probe format. The instructor first taught the diagonal and overlap targets and subsequently probed for recombinative generalization of the untaught targets. In Experiment II, the instructor taught the overlap targets in group instruction, then subsequently probed for recombinative generalization of the untaught targets in a one-on-one setting. The results indicated that 13 English language learners benefited from overlap training instruction. Practical applications of teaching English reading using matrix training were discussed.

 

Evaluation of a Specialized Font for Use With Individuals Diagnosed With Dyslexia

LEONARD HALL (University of Alaska Anchorage), Bethany Munden (University of Alaska Anchorage), Christina Elmore (University of Alaska Anchorage), Emily Saeteurn (University of Alaska Anchorage), Kristin Riall (Alaska Association for Behavior Analysis), Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract:

Research has suggested specialized fonts can help children with dyslexia read faster and more accurately, but these claims have rarely been evaluated with adults diagnosed with dyslexia. The present study examined the extent to which different fonts affected the reading performance of three adults with dyslexia. Data on reading accuracy and efficiency were collected during 1-min sessions, and post-study preference ratings were obtained. During baseline sessions, participants read a randomly selected list of nonsense words printed in Times New Roman font. During test sessions, word lists were printed in either Dyslexie, Times New Roman with interspacing, Arial, or Arial with interspacing. The font for each test session was randomly alternated across sessions using a multielement design. Each participant experienced a reversal back to baseline, and a second series of test sessions. Results indicated variable accuracy and efficiency scores across fonts with only one participant (P1) attaining improvements in both accuracy and efficiency with the same font (Dyslexie). However, all participants reported preferring the font with which they demonstrated the best improvements in accuracy, efficiency, or both. These preliminary results suggest font preference might affect reading accuracy and efficiency and indicate that further research is both necessary and warranted.

 
 
Panel #11
Diversity submission PDS: Gaining Professional Experience as an International Student
Saturday, May 27, 2023
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center 401/402
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Zeinab Hedroj (University of Nebraska Medical Centre (UNMC))
JENNIFER L COOK (University of Manitoba)
NANNI PRESTI (Kore University)
SARAH C. MEAD JASPERSE (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract:

International students aid in the dissemination of applied behavior analysis to other countries and provide an intersectional and diverse perspective to everyday practice. However, international graduate students in the United States struggle with finding employment during their education per their Verified International Stay Approval (VISA) Restrictions. Student Verified International Study Approval (VISA) Restrictions restrictions curb the professional development of these students which puts them at a disadvantage compared to their peers by the time they graduate. The purpose of this panel is to go over some of the questions and struggles facing international students and to provide them with resources to find professional opportunities to supplement their education. The panel discussion will be compromised of three experts in the field of applied behavior analysis working as educators and clinicians internationally. Each panel member will have an opportunity to discuss their experiences as international scholars, some barriers to practice, and potential solutions to these challenges.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Behavior Analysis, Diversity, Employment, International Students
 
 
Panel #23
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Behavior Analysts and Advocacy in Public Policy: Lessons Learned, Pathways Forward
Saturday, May 27, 2023
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2B
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Kathryn M. Roose, Ph.D.
Chair: Donna West (University of Nevada, Reno)
ANTHONY BIGLAN (Oregon Research Institute)
HANNA C. RUE (LEARN Behavioral)
KATHRYN M. ROOSE (Unaffiliated)
Abstract:

Behavior analysts have an ethical duty to disseminate the science and practice of behavior analysis to the public, including third-party funders and government agencies. The success of such initiatives has been observed in the widespread adoption of funding for applied behavior analytic (ABA) services for the autism community in the United States. Given this funding, behavior analysts have become synonymous with treatment for the autism community. However, behavior analytic technologies can positively impact a wide variety of populations and behaviors at both an individual and societal level. Behavior analysts would benefit from learning the skills to promote the expansion of services to other areas. This panel, sponsored by the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group and Values to Action, will explore the lessons learned from advocacy for securing ABA funding for the autism community and discuss common obstacles to accessing funding, as well as opportunities for expansion of public advocacy for ABA practices into other social services (e.g., juvenile justice, child welfare, mental health) and social justice areas (e.g., racial justice, discrimination, health and education equity) through advocacy in local, state, and the federal government.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Interested individuals should have a basic understanding of behavior analytic concepts and principles.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Identify potential barriers to organizing social change 2) State potential strategies to increase advocacy efforts in their immediate and expanded communities 3) Identify strategies to recruit community advocates and scientific allies to promote public social changes
Keyword(s): advocacy, dissemination, public policy, social justice
 
 
Paper Session #25
Supervision: Identifying and Enhancing Its Role in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Services
Saturday, May 27, 2023
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: OBM
Chair: Kerri L. Milyko (CentralReach)
 
Beyond Supervision: Leadership for Today
Domain: Service Delivery
KERRI L. MILYKO (CentralReach)
 
Abstract: The creation of new behavior analysts relies on supervision. Yet LeBlanc, Sellers, and Ala’i (2020) detail a great distinction between supervision and mentorship where a supervisor ensures the supervisee completes the requirements of their job and is transactional. A mentor is invested in the relationship with their mentee that lasts in perpetuity. They share in the joy of the other’s accomplishments and invest in the mentee’s future. Today’s employee is a unique individual who seeks a mentor, not a supervisor. By 2025, 75% of the country’s workforce will be from the Millennial generation. They are more aware of their personal values and how they contribute to their professional values and are quick to leave an organization when the two do not align (Wilson & Meyer, 2021). As such, the old guard in leadership positions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) organizations cannot supervise or lead in the same way they were taught. This presentation shows data detailing differences in workplace experiences with respect to gender, race, disability, and intersectionalities. Strategies provided to both existing leaders and current supervisees are provided to help improve current skill sets to create a more inclusive, enriched mentorship experience that leads to diversity in ABA leadership.
 

Clinician, Trainer, Instructional Designer, Administrator, Mentor, and Performance Manager: The Many Hats of the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Supervisor

Domain: Service Delivery
HEATHER M. MCGEE (Western Michigan University)
 
Abstract:

What does it mean to provide "supervision"? The term "supervision" seems to have come to mean many different things within the field of behavior analysis. This is particularly true when comparing how the term is used in ABA professional certification/development circles versus OBM circles. In this talk, I will describe the various functions of supervision in human service settings, and discuss the role that OBM plays (or does not play) in each. Additionally, I will discuss the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required of performers within each supervision function, and provide recommendations for how supervisors might gain those KSAs beyond the required BACB® supervision training and coursework.

 
 
 
Symposium #33
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Findings and Future Directions for Caregiver Training: Increasing Effectiveness and Social Validity
Saturday, May 27, 2023
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Convention Center 401/402
Area: TBA/CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Casey Marsh (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Kerri P. Peters (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Kacie McGarry, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium includes four papers that involve the assessment and training of caregivers. In the first paper, Kacie McGarry will present a study involving the evaluation of an online training to increase parent’s language-promoting behavior. Results of the study point to next steps for evaluating training methods and the secondary effects of the training of their child’s behavior. In the second paper, Madison Molve will present a study describing an evaluation of BST to teach caregivers to identify choking hazards. Results of the study were consistent with previous research on using BST to teach hazard identification. In the third paper, Cressida Pacia will present a study evaluating the social validity and effectiveness of the Parent-Coaching Assessment, Individualization, and Response Stressors (PAIRS) tool to increase attendance and goal attainment. Results from further data analysis, as well as clinical implications, will be discussed. The fourth paper, presented by Daniel Kwak, explores the development and validation of a tool to inform culturally responsive parent training. Results found that the Values-Centered Assessment Tool (VCAT) was a valid and useful tool.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): BST, Culturally Responsive, Parent Training, Social Validity
Target Audience:

N/A-Basic level for entry level clinicians or clinicians of all ranges

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Learn about assessment that can be conducted to provide culturally responsive services to families from diverse backgrounds.2) Understand the use of tools to increase the engagement 3) Identify treatment components that increase the effectiveness of training caregivers.
 
The Effect of Video Model Dosage and Self-Monitoring on Parent's Use of Language-Promoting Behavior
KACIE MCGARRY (University of Florida), Kimberly Sloman (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment/ Florida Institute of Technology ), Emily Dowling (Florida Institute of Technology), Laurel Esther Domino (Florida Institute of Technology )
Abstract: Previous research has found a disparity between the language trajectories of children within a high, medium, or low-economic-status family. A relationship is reliably found between the language trajectory of toddlers and success throughout school. This study evaluated a training package to teach parents to engage in behaviors that promote language and assess the training's short-term effect on the trajectories of children (i.e., growing language) within low-socioeconomic backgrounds. Specifically, the training package evaluated the impact of the dosage of video modeling, self-evaluation, and self-monitoring on the acquisition of the targeted skills. The results from this training inform the barriers and next steps to creating a low-cost training resource for organizations serving families.
 
Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Identification of Choking Hazards to Substitute Caregivers
MADISON MOLVE (University of South Florida), Asha Fuller (University of South Florida), Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Choking is a leading cause of mortality in children (Committee on Injury, Violence and Poison Prevention, 2010). Over half of choking injuries occur due to food, and the remaining injuries involve common household objects (Chapin et al., 2013). Although studies have been conducted assessing the use of Behavioral Skills Training (BST) to teach hazard identification in substitute caregivers (Abarca, 2021), no studies have evaluated utilizing BST to identify choking hazards specifically. Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy of using BST to teach non-edible choking hazard identification (Phase One) and edible choking hazard identification and correction (Phase Two) to substitute caregivers following guidelines from the Home Accident Prevention Inventory Revised Protocol (HAPI-R; Tertinger et al., 1984). The results indicate that all participants significantly improved their hazard identification and correction following BST in both phases. Generalization probes were high in baseline for all participants across phases; however, all participants scored 100% correct on the final generalization probes. Implications and future research considerations for choking prevention trainings will be discussed.
 

Preliminary Evaluation of the Parent-Coaching Assessment, Individualization, and Response to Stressors (PAIRS) Tool to Complement a Caregiver-Mediated Social Communication Intervention

CRESSIDA PACIA (University of Galway), Ciara Gunning (University of Galway), Aoife McTiernan (University of Galway), Jennifer Holloway (All Special Kids)
Abstract:

Best practice for early intervention for children with autism includes integration of behavioural and developmental strategies, caregiver involvement, focus on pivotal skills, and individualization (Zwaigenbaum et al., 2015). While evidence-based interventions meet these criteria (e.g., Project ImPACT; Ingersoll & Dvortcsak, 2013), behaviour analysts report difficulty engaging caregivers and tailoring interventions (Ingersoll et al., 2020). The Parent-coaching Assessment, Individualization, and Response to Stressors (PAIRS; Pacia et al., 2022) was developed to bridge this gap. This study explores social validity and preliminary effectiveness of PAIRS when used alongside Project ImPACT. Seventeenparent-child dyads receiving services from two community agencies participated. Participants from Agency A received Project ImPACT (treatment as usual; TAU), while participants from Agency B received Project ImPACT + PAIRS. Social validity was evaluated through interviews with parents and providers, and preliminary effectiveness was measured by comparing attendance and parent fidelity of strategy implementation. Preliminary qualitative data review found parents were satisfied with Project ImPACT + PAIRS, and providers found PAIRS feasible and acceptable. Preliminary quantitative data review found higher attendance and a larger increase from baseline in parent fidelity in the PAIRS group. Interestingly, higher fidelity scores were found in the TAU group. Results from further data analysis, as well as clinical implications, will be discussed.

 
Development and Validation of the Values-Centered Assessment Tool (VCAT) to Inform Culturally Responsive Parent Training and Intervention
DANIEL KWAK (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida), Danielle Ann Russo (University of South Florida )
Abstract: In this study, we aimed to develop the Values-Centered Assessment Tool (VCAT) intended for use by behavior analysts to design and provide culturally responsive behavioral assessment, training, and intervention for individuals who are from diverse cultural backgrounds. The VCAT was developed through review of literature and interviews with behavior analysts and was validated through an expert panel review. The final version of the VCAT included questions about potential involvement of other stakeholders, questions about cultural practices that should be considered, questions aimed to facilitate effective communication, questions aimed to build a collaborative and trusting relationship, questions on potential challenges in accessing and continuing services, and questions on current parenting practices. Major revisions made from the initially developed VCAT included the addition of (a) a questionnaire for parents, (b) information to guide interviewers (behavior analysts), (c) a separate version of the VCAT that parents can refer to, and (d) Spanish versions of the VCAT for both the interviewers and parents. It was found that the VCAT was content valid and a useful and feasible tool to design culturally responsive assessment, training, and intervention
 
 
Symposium #43
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Backyard Behavior Science: How Technology Allows Weekend Warriors to Conduct Research
Saturday, May 27, 2023
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom B
Area: EAB/AAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Adrienne Jennings (Daemen University)
CE Instructor: David J. Cox, Ph.D.
Abstract: Science can be defined as the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. Historically, people may associate "doing science" with highly controlled laboratory or clinical settings, highly trained specialists, and significant amounts of funding for equipment and personnel. Assuming science can only be conducted under such specific conditions also assumes that only those with access to such conditions can advance our understanding of the physical and natural world. To this we say hogwash. The definition of science offered above highlights there are many ways to "do science" that anyone can participate in starting today. In this symposium we provide three demonstrations of how behavior science enthusiasts — in their free time, around existing commitments, and without breaking the bank — used their "backyard" to conduct translational research on behavior-environment relations. Importantly, recent advances in technology and computer science allow for any behavior science enthusiast to pick up similar tools and to start asking questions about the behavior of biological and artificial organismic behavior.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): artificial intelligence, citizen science, technology, translational research
Target Audience: Behavior analysts seeking to better understand basic principles and processes of behavior.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe simple setups for studying nonhuman animal behavior in their backyard; (2) describe simple robotics setups for studying behavior; (3) identify how 1 and 2 allow behavior analysts to learn about basic operant and respondent behavioral principles and processes.
 
Diversity submission Back Porch Studies: Not a Birden at All
(Theory)
JAVIER SOTOMAYOR (Endicott College & Habita), Asim Javed (Endicott College), David J. Cox (RethinkFirst; Endicott College), Jacob Sosine (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence)
Abstract: There are over 50 billion wild birds on Earth – six times the number of humans – comprised of more than 18,000 different species. Although scientists have studied birds for centuries, they have largely focused on less than 1,000 species based on aesthetics, commonality, or a close relation to human affairs (e.g., food, sport). The remaining 94% of wild bird species are, thus, relatively understudied in terms of behavioral repertoires such as food preferences, feeding schedules, and interspecies and intraspecies competition. Relatedly, one may assume that studying wild birds requires a highly controlled environment, advanced equipment, and a large amount of funds. Think again! This presentation describes how behavior or birding enthusiasts alike can study birds on one’s back porch through simple methods and tools such as off-the-shelf cameras (e.g., Ring), suction cups, birdseed, and a little coding; all for under $150. More specifically, we describe how a simple setup allowed us to study six bird species in the North Shore region of Massachusetts, what we learned about bird behavioral ecology (and ourselves), and how the results of this work can bring behavior science into anyone’s backyard. Overall, we hope this talk inspires future backyard studies by demonstrating it’s not too much of a birden.
 
Diversity submission Squirreling Around: A Simple Setup to Study Sciuridae as They Scurry for Science
(Theory)
JACOB SOSINE (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence), David J. Cox (RethinkFirst; Endicott College), Asim Javed (Endicott College), Javier Sotomayor (Endicott College & Habita)
Abstract: In the past decade, consumer-level technology has become increasingly cheaper, more advanced in its primary utility, and easier for non-expert individuals to interact with and use in novel ways. Simultaneously, our data-driven culture has led technology to collect, store, transmit, and automate the analyses of increasingly larger datasets. This improved mixture of technological form and function allows us to use technology in novel and creative ways. For behavior analysts, technological advancements offer new methods to efficiently and accurately collect data on behavior-environment relations. In this backyard science project, we used commercially available products (costing under $99) to observe and analyze the behavioral patterns of members of the Sciuridae species (i.e., squirrels). In this presentation, we demonstrate how similar backyard behavior science enthusiasts can use simple techniques and existing computer technology to measure: time allocation, automate reinforcer delivery based on prescribed schedules, and detect animal positioning from a two-dimensional video stream. Audience members should walk away with a general understanding of how they can begin to leverage easy-to-use consumer-level technology for their own backyard science projects.
 
Diversity submission Robots as Ends in Themselves: How Robots Can Teach Us About Behavioral Principles
(Theory)
DAVID J. COX (RethinkFirst; Endicott College), Jacob Sosine (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence), Asim Javed (Endicott College), Javier Sotomayor (Endicott College & Habita)
Abstract: Behavior scientists from behavior analysis and behavioral ecology have used robots to study and change the behavior of organisms through social interactions (e.g., teach technicians to conduct therapy, condition verbal behavior, study social stimuli in nonhuman animals). Often, the utility of robots was to precisely control an independent variable that would be difficult to control with the same precision if the social partner were a living, biological organism. That is, robots were a means to an end. In this presentation, we describe how robots can be used as ends in themselves to learn about behavior-environment relations via robotics kits costing under $150. Faculty might find robots a cheap alternative to teach basic behavioral principles in an age of dwindling funds for basic nonhuman animal labs. Basic researchers might find robots useful to study how basic behavioral processes interact without extra-experimental bio-behavioral processes getting in the way. And, behavior enthusiasts might find robots useful to learn how behavior is determined by many processes within a whole organism as opposed to focusing only on isolated Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence units.
 
 
Poster Session #47C
AUT Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
6. Comparing the Effectiveness of Group Discrete Trial Training to Individualized Discrete Trial Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAROLINE DUCLAUX (University of Utah), Garet S. Edwards (GulfSouth Autism Center)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to expand current literature by comparing the effectiveness of discrete trial training to individualized trial training for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers taught 12 different target skills. Half of the skills were randomly assigned to individualized teaching and the other half were randomly assigned to group teaching. The dependent variable of interest includes the participants’ percent correct of skills post- teaching. The experimental design that was used for this study was a multiple baseline design. This design was selected because the treatment cannot be unlearned or withdrawn. Results from this study vary from participant to participant.
 
7. Efficacy of an Online Caregiver Education Series on Supporting Autistic Adolescents' Daily Living Skills Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY F. RENTSCHLER (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract: An estimated 50,000 young adults with autism in the United States transition out of high school each year, and more than a third of them do not engage in any form of employment or formal education in their twenties. Daily living skills are one key?predictor of?autistic adults attending post-secondary education, obtaining employment, and living independently. However, autistic people often exhibit daily living skills discrepant to their cognitive abilities and chronological age. Adolescents with autism without an intellectual disability are unlikely to receive daily living skills instruction in their general education coursework. Caregivers of autistic adolescents have indicated they are unsure of how to work with their teen on these skills. To address these concerns, we developed an eLearning instructional tool to support caregivers on teaching daily living skills at home. This online module series presents caregivers with strategies for motivating their teen, setting goals, and using evidence-based practices to teach daily living skills. The current single case design study employed a multiple probe across participant dyads to measure the impact of the caregiver training on caregiver-adolescent collaboration, caregiver fidelity to the evidence-based practices, and adolescent independence with daily living skills. The study also assessed the social validity of the intervention.
 
8. Control of Transition Time in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEKSANDRA WOOD (UiA), Carsta Simon (University of Agder, Norway)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: Molar behaviourism has predominantly been explored in the laboratory with non-human subjects. It offers an alternative perspective to the Skinnerian view of understanding behaviour. We applied a molar understanding of behaviour when contrasting the effect of discriminative stimulus versus reinforcer control in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We aimed to determine whether the duration of their transitions from one reinforcer density to another is controlled by their most recent past or the likely future based on more extended past experience. In the first condition, reinforcer density (rich, moderate, or lean) was signalled. We observed that transition times to the leaner reinforcer were longer than those to the richer. The reinforcer density was unsignalled in the second condition. The differences between transition times disappeared in the second condition. The difference in durations of transitions to signalled and unsignalled reinforcer densities suggests that behaviour is primarily controlled by signals of likely future reinforcers as extrapolated from extended past experience rather than strengthened by the most recent event.
 
9. A Clinical Application of Pairing and Instructional Fading Before Intensive Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAROLINE DUCLAUX (University of Utah), Nicole Hendrix (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Garet S. Edwards (GulfSouth Autism Center)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract:

Therapist pairing and instructional fading procedures that precede intensive behavioral treatment can facilitate rapport building and reduce the likelihood of problem behavior occurring during intervention. The current study sought to replicate findings by Shillingsburg et al. (2019) on the effectiveness of a structured pairing and instructional fading protocol in a community-based clinic. The procedures were conducted with two preschool-aged boys who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to evaluate the effect of the procedures on problem behavior as well as proximity to therapist and compliance with therapist instructional demands. Results indicated effectiveness of the procedures across participants in a community-based clinic setting. Specifically, problem behavior during sessions remained low and compliance remained high as number of instructional demands were faded in.

 
10. Preparing Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorders to Have Happy and Comfortable Holidays
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BOBBY NEWMAN (Proud Moments), BOBBI ROGERS (Proud Moments)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
 
11. A Preliminary Investigation Into Conditioning Faces as Reinforcers for Minimally Verbal Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINA GERENCSER (Marcus Autism Center/Emory University ), Karla Zabala-Snow (Emory University/Marcus Autism Center), Kathleen Edmier (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Kristin Nicole OGuinn (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Rachel Yosick (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract: A core challenge for minimally verbal children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is restricted interests, which can include reduced interest in social stimuli such as human faces. Reduced attention to faces can result in impaired social skills, inability to form meaningful social connections with others, and learning critical foundational skills. The current literature available to clinicians on how to condition social stimuli in minimally verbal children when they do not already function as reinforcers is quite sparse. As such, clinicians are left with little to no recommendations on how to reduce the impact of this barrier in skill acquisition programs. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the use of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to increase the reinforcing value of human faces in minimally verbal autistic children. The pairing procedure involved repeated simultaneous pairing of established reinforcers (e.g., edibles) with instances of attending to human faces. Results indicate a positive effect of the procedure on participants’ orientation to faces during naturalistic observing response probes.
 
12. Examining the Effects of Video-Modeling on Play Initiations of Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MORGAN MARCON (San Diego State University ), Yasemin Turan (San Diego State University)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention on the play initiations of preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The effect of the intervention was evaluated using a multiple baseline design across three participants. The classroom teacher implemented the intervention during natural play routines in the classroom. All children's play initiations increased. The poster session includes information on the results and implications for research and practice.
 
13. Training Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sleep Disturbances via Telehealth: An Evaluation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANPREET RANDHAWA (Brock University), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Angeline Savard (Kalyana Support Systems), Catherine McConnell (Kalyana Support Systems), Meghan Dunnet (Kalyana Support Systems), Jeffrey Esteves (York University), Andrea Valencia (Kalyana Support Systems)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience sleep problems (e.g., delayed sleep onset, night wakings). Although research supports parent-implemented behaviour-analytic sleep interventions to address these problems, more research is needed to determine how accurately parents implement these interventions (i.e., treatment fidelity). The present study used a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate parents’ treatment fidelity. Child sleep-related outcomes (e.g., sleep onset delay, occurrences of sleep-interfering behaviours, and total sleep duration) were also monitored. Four parents and their children with ASD participated. Parents received behavioural skills training and nighttime coaching, via telehealth, over a 12-week period. Secure text chat software (VSee Messenger) was used to provide nighttime coaching. D-Link sound and motion detection cameras were used to collect data on parent and child behavior. Results indicate that parents’ treatment fidelity remained high throughout intervention and follow-up (i.e., >80%). For two of four child participants, sleep onset delay decreased, and total sleep duration increased. Occurrences of sleep-interfering behaviours remained variable for all child participants. Co-sleeping was eliminated for all children who engaged in this behaviour at the start of the study. Suggestions for future research and clinical practice will be discussed.
 
14. Employers' Opinion on Skills Necessary for Newly Minted Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANN JEANETTE SANTOS (University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mirela Cengher (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Adithyan Rajaraman (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Danielle LaFrance (SunRise ABA)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: Most behavior analysts work as clinicians with individuals who have developmental disabilities (Behavior Analyst Certification Board [BACB], 2021). The BACB has a test content outline that informs the verified course sequence adopted by most programs in the United States. The test content outline focuses on building a solid theoretical foundation of the science of behavior. However, there are other important areas of consideration for employers. The primary goal of this survey is to gauge employers’ perceived importance of theoretical knowledge, interpersonal skills, and professional skills for newly minted behavior analysts. The secondary goal is to gather information about how employers assess competence across these domains (e.g., direct questions, reference checks, work samples). A third goal is to evaluate whether employers’ perceived importance of different aspects that relate to theoretical knowledge align with the task list that informs the verified course sequence. We hope that the outcomes of this survey will help academic programs at least partially tailor their course sequence according to what employers value in newly minted behavior analysts, and according to how employers assess competence during the interview process.
 
16. Stimulus Fading to Enhance College Building Recognition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MALLIE DONALD (Mississippi State University ), Hailey Ripple (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: Emerging college transition programs develop functional life skills and prepare individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities for employment opportunities, thus increasing satisfaction during adulthood (Price et al., 2018). Transition programs note the importance of on-campus attendance but acquiring campus navigation skills can be difficult. Stimulus fading is an intervention that teaches skill acquisition for functional skills (Cooper et al., 2020), but has rarely been implemented in a virtual setting (Fischer et al., 2019). The current study involved one 19-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder who was accepted into a transition program in the southeastern United States. To increase the participant’s recognition of campus buildings, stimulus fading on 2-and 3-second prompt delays was used to teach building names. Further, a PowerPoint with pictures of 10 common buildings on campus was used and the name of each building was faded in to correctly pair the building with the name. The percentage of correctly identified buildings was visually observed with an increase in percentage correct that remained stable through intervention and generalization phases. The results suggest that stimulus fading is an effective method to teach building recognition for individuals with disabilities.
 
17. Utilization of Peer Yoked Contingencies to Increase a Child’s Peer Approvals
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Victoria Beaman (Behavioral Innovations; Capella University)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract:

An AB demonstration experimental design was used to determine if the implementation of peer yoked contingencies would correlate in an increase in a learner’s peer approval statements, while simultaneously decreasing the learner’s disapproving statements to peers, compared to baseline measures (Morgan, et. al, 2020). Peer yoked contingencies involve yoking peers together where they practice communication to each other, cooperative interactions, and working together towards “beating” the teacher (Greer & Ross, 2008). Typically, children with ASD do not have conditioned reinforcement for peers, therefore, they do not view peers as a source of potential reinforcement (Lawson & Walsh, 2007). The three participants chosen for this study were between the ages 7-9, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, and exhibited both high frequency of peer disapprovals and low frequency of peer approvals in non-instructional settings. Researchers examined peer yoked contingency boards (peer tutoring, I-Spy, and Bingo) as the independent variables for this study (Greer & Ross, 2008). The dependent variable for the study was the difference in peer approvals and disapprovals in non-instructional settings comparing pre-probe and post-probe data. Post probe data revealed a decrease in peer disapprovals for all the participants in the study and a substantial increase in peer approvals for two of the participants.

 
19. Parent-Implemented Volume Fading to Teach a Learner With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to Consume Liquid Medication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Sandra R. Gomes (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Jessica Lamb (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), EMILY E. GALLANT (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract: Volume fading was used to teach Carly, an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder, to consume an appropriate volume of liquid medication. Parents were concerned that they were unable to administer medication to Carly in any format (e.g,. liquid) or vessel (e.g., spoon, cup). Simple volume fading was used because liquid medications cannot often be diluted or mixed into other substances; flavored syrups were used to simulate liquid medication. A behavioral contract visually depicted reinforcement contingencies in effect (a motivational system with which Carly was frequently successful in acquiring other skills). Notably, intervention was delivered completely at home by Carly’s mother, with live video supervision from Carly’s instructors. Initial instruction consisted of teaching Carly to remain appropriate while a spoon with medication was touched to her lips; volume fading across a series of 24 steps resulted in Carly initially accepting 1.75 mL of simulated medication from spoon delivered by an instructor and ultimately self-administering 15 mL (an age-appropriate dose volume) of simulated liquid medication from a cup. Generalization and maintenance data indicate continued successful consumption over time of actual liquid medication, in the home setting, with parents. Future instructional goals include teaching Carly to consume medication in pill format.
 
20. Disparities and Inequities in Early Identification and Treatment for Black Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TORICA L EXUME (Florida Atlantic University Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: Delays in diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among Black children represent treatment disparity. Black children with ASD are disproportionately under-represented in programs for children with ASD in many counties in Florida. Black children are under-represented in ASD and face barriers in obtaining the initial diagnosis of ASD. A grant from the Florida Developmental Disabilities Council allowed Florida Atlantic University Center for Autism and Related Disabilities (FAU CARD) to conduct research related to factors behind the later and often less accurate identification of Black children with autism. Focus groups with Black families and professionals were conducted to examine experiences throughout the process of identifying ASD for Black children at early ages. Our findings indicated patterns of serious disproportionality and the need for national monitoring.?
 
21. The Effectiveness of a Parent Coaching Program for School-Age Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Taiwan
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHING-YI LIAO (National Taiwan Normal University), Yuet Yee Yumi Chan (National Taiwan Normal University), Yi-Zheng Du (National Taiwan Normal University)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract: Parent involvement is one of the essential components of successful interventions and treatments for communication outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research has suggested that after receiving parent coaching and support from professionals, parents are able to accurately implement evidence-based intervention strategies with their children across different natural settings. In Taiwan, more research is required to systematically develop a culturally adapted parent coaching protocol for families of children with ASD. The purpose of the present research is to evaluate a distance-delivered parent coaching program about evidence-based behavioral interventions and multimodal communication intervention for parents of children with ASD. A single-case experimental design study is conducted to evaluate parent implementation of intervention strategies and children’s communication outcomes. Results and implications for practices and research will be discussed in the presentation.
 
22. Evaluating Matched Sensory Stimuli for Saliva Play: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELINA MOREL (David Gregory School), Gladys Williams (CIEL)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: Manipulation of saliva either orally or with the use of hands is known as saliva play. It is unhygienic and over time could lead to potential health issues if left untreated. Additionally, saliva play may interfere with learning and become socially stigmatizing in public settings. Saliva play is a behavior often maintained by automatic reinforcement. Behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement are usually difficult to treat. The difficulty lies in finding a sufficient amount of stimuli that may match the sensory stimulation produced by the target behavior. A method used to identify such stimuli is competing stimulus assessments. The process usually involves several leisure items that are meant to serve the same function as the target behavior. By measuring engagement with leisure items, clinicians can determine which stimuli may be most successful when used in treatment. Behaviors such as saliva play may be especially difficult to treat given the limited stimuli that may compete with this behavior. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate and identify stimuli that competed with the reinforcing effect of saliva play and matched the textural properties of saliva. Findings showed that pasteurized egg whites resulted in the highest percentage of engagement and the lowest percentage of saliva play.
 
23. Preppin' Pals: Expanding Social Skills Through a Vocational Club in a Residential Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANNELIESE HARTMAN (The Center for Discovery ), Anatalia Martins (The Center for Discovery)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often struggle to develop friendships. This is even more prevalent in a pediatric residential program for students with severe problem behavior. To increase social skills in a residential group, we established a social club, Preppin’ Pals. The main focus of the group was to participate in vocational activities while developing social skills in a natural context. Two participants, aged 13-15 years old, were diagnosed with ASD, presented with severe problem behavior, and lived at the residential program. Both demonstrated deficits in social skills and friendship development. We targeted three categories of social skills; social play, social language, and social group behavior. During baseline, participants both received scores of 0 across all categories. With the introduction of the social club, social skills systematically increased. Results indicate a clear increase in these skills while inadvertently increasing vocational skills. We discuss the findings, limitations, and future research.
 
24. Functional Communication Training and Progressive Ratio Chained Schedule to Treat Disruptive Behavior Maintained by Escape of Activity in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RENATA MICHEL (Instituto de Pesquisa Conduzir), Maria Pereira (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT) is a differential reinforcement procedure that aims to teach an alternative verbal response to disruptive behavior. A limitation of FCT that is usually addressed in the literature is the requirement of reinforcing each verbal response. An alternative found was the use of chained schedule which has two components: during the S- component the verbal response is not reinforced, and a response to the activity is required to change the component; during the S+ component the verbal response is reinforced. The number of responses to the activity is increased throughout the experimental sessions. However, an alternative is using Progressive Ratio (PR) schedule in which the criterion for the activity response is increased with each trial. This study aimed to verify the effects of PR in a chained FCT. Six autistic children who presented disruptive behavior to escape of activities underwent the FCT procedure. After FCT training, they did one session on PR1 and one session on PR2 (the order of presentation was different for half of the participants). Progressive Ratio was effective in increasing responses to the activity while keeping low rates of verbal responses and disruptive behaviors for most participants. This study opens the possibility of using PR as an effective reinforcement schedule in applied settings.
 
25. Effects of Superflex Curriculum on Social Skills of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Charli Doyle (Walden University), STEVEN G. LITTLE (Walden University), Angeleque Akin-Little (Walden University)
Discussant: Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen University)
Abstract: An increase in the prevalence of autism has given rise to the need for evidence-based social skills curricula. Previous research indicated many children respond well to video modeling and positive reinforcement. However, literature on social curricula for children ages 7 to 10 years in a clinical setting versus a school setting is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Superflex, an ABA based superhero social thinking curriculum, on social skills and maladaptive behavior in children ages 7 to 10 years diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (Level 1 or 2) in a clinical setting. Data were collected (N=2) from an ABA clinic in a small town in the South-Central United States. Data were evaluated using visual inspection and percentage of nonoverlapping data. Effect sizes between baseline and intervention and baseline and maintenance were calculated using Cohen’s d. Results indicated the curriculum increased conversational skills and decreased maladaptive behaviors in both participants with effect sizes ranging from 1.35 to 3.26. Results are discussed in terms of best practices for teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorder.
 
26. Evaluating the Use of Identity Matching With Class-Specific Consequences to Expand Stimulus Classes
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LE THAO VY VO (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Cammarie Johnson (The New England Center for Children; Simmons University; Western New England University)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: The use of class-specific consequences (CSC) can lead to the inclusion of reinforcing stimuli in equivalence classes; however, there are few applied demonstrations. This study aims to teach food categories in a matching-to-sample format using CSCs and evaluates if the CSCs are related to the instructional stimuli by equivalence. A 21-year-old male with autism participated. He previously learned to match pictured food items (AB relation) from three food categories using CSCs, including the spoken name (E), pictured items (D), and an edible (C), all from the relevant food category. Tests showed emergent relations among the experimental and CSC stimuli. In the current study, we retaught AB relations using the same CSCs and replicated earlier results on emergent-relation tests. Next, the participant was exposed to an identity-matching task involving new pictured foods (Z) from the three categories; the same CSCs were used following correct responses. In subsequent tests, emergent relations and tact performances were shown, demonstrating equivalence relations among the A, B, Z and CSCs. Reliability measures taken provide confidence in the results and the fidelity of the intervention. These findings have implications for equivalence-based instruction using CSCs in classrooms and the expansion of classes with identity relations.
 
27. Performance Enhanced Schedule Thinning to Enrich Learning During Work Intervals
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KORTLYN KTAWNEY (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Lauren Layman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Riley Ruzicka (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Amanda Zangrillo (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The current study aimed to assess the effects of a modified chained schedule treatment, Performance Enhanced Schedule Thinning (PEST). Lovino et al., 2022 introduced a new type of functional analysis called the Performance Based IISCA (Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analyses) in which they delayed introducing the test contingency until the participant had three minutes of happy, relaxed, and engaged. We sought to apply the same procedure to a function-based intervention. The participant in the current study was a 7-year-old male diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, who was referred for severe problem behavior. Using a withdrawal experimental design, we compared having a fixed amount of time in reinforcement before continuing into the work interval (i.e., standard chained schedule procedures) to the PEST protocol in which the reinforcement interval was extended if the participant engaged in problem behavior. Specifically, we waited until the participant had sixty seconds without problem behavior or negative vocalizations before introducing work. With PEST, we saw decreased levels of problem behavior and increased durations of time in which the client was not engaging in problem behavior or negative vocalizations.
 
28. Analysis of Behavior Technicians' Willingness To Work With Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN PLEWES (University of North Texas), Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: Therapists may choose to work for a center based on a variety of factors, including the age of clients and the acceptance of clients with problem behavior. It has been shown, from a previous study done by the authors, that media does have a possible effect on someone's behavior. Therefore, we assessed the willingness of behavior technicians to work with clients based on their age and topographies of problem behavior. After viewing videos depicting problem behavior emitted by a variety of individuals across the lifespan, we re-assessed the behavior technicians willingness to work with clients who emitted problem behavior.We found that age was the primary variable that impacted participants’ willingness to work with clients with problem behavior.Additionally, we found that after viewing videos of problem behavior, participants were less willing to work with clients with problem behavior, regardless of their age. Based on our results, we will discuss several areas of future research and potential strategies to increase therapists' willingness to work with this underserved, marginalized population.
 
29. Modified Discrete Trial Teaching to Increase Functional Language for an Adult With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELISSA D HUNTER (Munroe Meyer Institute), Lisa Neitzke (Munroe Meyer Institute), Adriano A Barboza (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Lynda B. Hayes (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Adults with autism continue to experience communication impairments which are likely to impact multiple areas of functioning. In the current project, clinicians implemented a modified discrete trial teaching (DTT) strategy to increase the functional expressive language of an adult woman with autism and intellectual disability. The participant was a 27-year-old female who lived in her own apartment with constant support. DTT expressive language targets were chosen from her natural environment (family members, support team members, work setting, community settings). The DTT procedure utilized written prompts for expressive language. Data were gathered via a card sort procedure and video taped observations in the home and work settings. Support staff implemented the DTT program in 15 minute sessions twice per day during the week. Over the course of one year, the client mastered 132 new expressive language targets. Increased spontaneous expressive language was observed in the home environment but not in the work environment. Results suggest that DTT may be an appropriate intervention strategy for increasing expressive language for adults with autism and intellectual disability.
 
30. Utilizing a Multi-Component Treatment Package to Decrease Rituals and Increase Participation for an Individual With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Catatonia
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEX MELLOR (The Center for Discovery)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: Working with individuals with co-occurring diagnoses can be challenging due to traditional behavioral interventions as well as staff education. This study evaluated a treatment package including modified skills-based treatment and staff training with an individual with autism, obsessive compulsive disorder, and catatonia to decrease interfering rituals and increase participation throughout the school day. The results were promising in indicating that improving staff confidence with different diagnoses, coupled with skill-based treatment, could have a positive impact on the individuals quality of life
 
31. Using Behavior Skills Training to Teach Rapport Building Skills to Staff in Home Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANDREW NUZZOLILLI (Butterfly Effects; Western New England University; Elms College), Geoff Creed (Butterfly Effects), Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Endicott College, Butterfly Effects), Victoria Karlsen (Butterfly Effects)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The beneficial impact of rapport building on clinical outcomes, including increased engagement and reduced rates of challenging behavior, has been well documented in recent literature (Cariveau, et al., 2019; Kelly, et al., 2015; Shillingsburg, et al., 2018). Current calls to action in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) for socially validated, compassionate, values-based, and trauma-informed care all emphasize rapport building as an essential part of the behavior-analytic practice (Callahan, et al., 2019; Rajaraman, et al., 2020). Lugo and colleagues (2017) demonstrated that behavior skills training and verbal performance feedback was effective in teaching rapport building to staff working with toddlers in a university clinic. Our research replicated and extended Lugo et al. (2017) by teaching two behavior technicians the elements of rapport building in the home demonstrating that key features of rapport building can be systematically taught and have beneficial outcomes for both technicians and clients.
 
32. Promoting Generalization of Hand Washing With General Case Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZALIKA TYRELL (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: The effects of two methods of training; single exemplar training (SET) and general case instruction (GCI), were compared to evaluate which method is more effective in promoting skill generalization of a 6-step handwashing task. The participant was an adolescent student attending a school for children with autism. In SET there was 1 training trial type which sampled only one set of stimuli when teaching the handwashing skill. In GCI a variety of stimuli were sampled from relevant environments to make up 3 unique training trial types. Baseline probes were conducted prior to training and posttest probes were conducted following training for each training phase. Handwashing was mastered at 100% of task analysis steps correct in both the SET and GCI conditions. On probe trials, successful performance was defined as 83% (5 out of 6 steps) correct for the handwashing task analysis. Generalization was more robust following GCI than SET. Only 2 out of 8 probe contexts yielded successful generalization following SET. GCI yielded successful generalization for 3 out of 5 contexts. This study provides a successful demonstration of GCI to promote skill generalization.
 
33. Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Denial of Perseverative Mands
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VERONICA REYES (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Brianna Laureano (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Emily Ann Chesbrough (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Rajaraman & Hanley (2021) demonstrated the rise in studies targeting the assessment and treatment of problem behavior maintained by gaining access to adults’ compliance with mands (e.g., requests). We extended the current literature by targeting both restrictive and repetitive behavior (e.g., perseverations) and problem behavior maintained by mand compliance. Specifically, we conducted an assessment and treatment of problem behavior evoked by denial of perseverative mands of a 12-year-old Caucasian male admitted to an inpatient hospital unit. The results of a perseveration assessment suggested that the participant’s rates of problem behavior differed across denial responses (e.g., firmly denying, uncertainly denying, or ignoring). Thus, using a combined treatment of a multiple schedule for the availability of mand compliance with firm denial when mand compliance was unavailable, problem behavior and repetitive requests decreased. These results indicate the utility in conducting a perseveration assessment for individuals who engage in problem behavior evoked by denial of their repetitive mands. The clinical applications are discussed
 
34. Effects of Remote Rehearsal and Feedback During Behavioral Skills Training on the Levels of Procedural Integrity in Therapists Delivering Home Intervention for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Caroline Espindola do Nascimento (Grupo Conduzir, Brazil), Luís Fillipe Vasques da Silva (Grupo Conduzir, Brazil), Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri-St. Louis Grupo Conduzir, Brazil), JULIA SARGI (Grupo Conduzir)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is an empirically supported procedure for training direct interventionists to perform various skills necessary for the delivery of services. Two components of BST that are essential for its effectiveness are rehearsal and timely feedback. In settings where trainers do not have consistent face-to-face contact with trainees, opportunities to rehearse with live feedback might be compromised. An alternative is having the trainee rehearse the skill and receive feedback remotely and asynchronously. This case study reports on the effectiveness of remote rehearsal and feedback on the levels of integrity of direct therapist implementation of discrete trial teaching (DTT) during in-home intervention with children with autism. The therapists were seven females and males between 27 and 45 years old. Therapists received remote feedback via videoconference or asynchronous audio messages and a written report describing their performance. All therapists demonstrated an increase in the level of correct steps completed during the implementation of DTT and reached the criterion of 90% integrity. Thirty days after the last round of rehearsal and feedback, 66% of the therapists maintained criterium-level performance. This report described the effectiveness of BST in establishing high levels of integrity when rehearsal and feedback were conducted remotely and asynchronously.
 
35. Teaching Students With Autism in Groups: Effects of Added Stimuli to Signal Choral Responding
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Lauren Capizzi (Alpine Learning Group), AMIRA EL-BOGHDEDY (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group ), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Research shows that choral responding is an important skill for learning in groups (Haydon et al., 2013). Choral responding is a technique where all students respond verbally at the same time to a teacher’s question or instruction. However, there is little research evaluating procedures for teaching choral responding and if added stimuli such as a visual cue (i.e., a picture) and an auditory cue (i.e., clicker) could promote the acquisition of choral responding by signaling attention to the teacher. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if choral responding would improve in a condition in which an added cue (i.e., auditory and visual stimulus) was presented along with teacher delivered verbal discriminative stimuli. Choral responding in the signaled condition was compared to choral responding in a condition in which the auditory and visual stimuli were not added (i.e, un-signaled). Data showed an overall increase in choral responding over baseline in both conditions. We concluded that reinforcement alone was likely responsible for improved choral responding and that added cues possibly interfered with choral responding in the signaled condition. Pretest and posttest intraverbal and worksheet assessments indicated that participants learned the content presented in both conditions.
 
36. Teaching an Adult With Autism When to Use Self-Advocacy Statements
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CORTNEY DEBIASE (Alpine Learning Group), Kellie Clement (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group ), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: Little research has explored procedures for teaching adults with autism when to make self-advocacy statements. The present study used a multiple baseline design across stimuli to evaluate the effects of discrimination training, a text prompt, and time delay procedure on the acquisition and generalization of self-advocacy responses. A 19-year-old adult with autism participated in the study. The participant was presented with situations that required a self-advocacy response (e.g., someone else using his phone) and situations that did not require them (no one else using his phone). During intervention, self-advocacy trials were presented in which a text prompt was used to teach a self-advocacy response (“Excuse me, that’s mine). Upon a correct response, the instructor corrected the situation (i.e., gave the phone back to the participant) and provided reinforcement on the participant’s motivational system (S+ trials). Reinforcement was not provided if self-advocacy statements were emitted on S-delta trials (i.e., no self-advocacy scenario presented). Results showed an increase in responding on S+ trials and no responding on S-delta trials. Furthermore, generalized responding occurred to novel examples and materials for each situation. Future research should investigate these procedures with additional participants as well as explore teaching more advanced and varied self-advocacy responses to adults with autism.
 
37. Stimulus Control and Functional Analysis Informed Procedures for Reducing Non-Contextual Vocalizations: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ISAMAR BECERRA (Alpine Learning Group), Erika Cruz (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group ), Amira El-Boghdedy (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: For an adolescent with autism, non-contextual vocalizations (NCV) consisted of making repetitive comments and requests throughout the day (e.g., “Go to grandmas, go to grandmas”). An antecedent analysis indicated that NCV occurred at high rates during face-to-face instruction, low to moderate rates during independent tasks, and low to zero levels when alone. Non-contextual vocalizations were first brought under the control of environmental stimuli (e.g., the presence and absence of a bracelet) using discrimination training. A reversal design was then used to examine the effects of a differential reinforcement procedure with the conditioned bracelet cues on reducing NCV across the school day. If NCV occurred during baseline, teachers responded as they normally would by making one reciprocal comment and directing the participant back to work. During intervention, the participant wore the bracelet that was discriminative for “quiet” for a specified interval. If the participant completed tasks during that interval in the absence of NCV, the bracelet was removed and the participant was provided with the opportunity to engage in NCV for a short period of time and a preferred edible. A reversal design demonstrated that levels of NCV changed reliably with the introduction and removal of the DRO in baseline and intervention phases, however decreases in vocals were not socially valid. NCV decreased only slightly when auditory stimulation provided via headphones was added to the treatment package.
 
38. Evaluation of a Treatment Package to Reduce Repetitive Vocalizations in an Adolescent With Autism: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIKA CRUZ (Alpine Learning Group), Amira El-Boghdedy (Alpine Learning Group), Isamar Becerra (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group ), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: For an adolescent with autism, repetitive vocalizations (RV) consisted of narrating his own actions and the actions of others repetitively, sometimes followed by a question requesting affirmation of the statement from others (e.g., “I am tying my shoe. Yes?”). Functional assessment determined that RV were maintained by social reinforcement, and that removal of the social reinforcer alone (i.e., acknowledgement of the narrated action, “Yes you are tying your shoe) was not effective at decreasing RV. Antecedent interventions consisted of a differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) procedure in which the participant earned reinforcement (social interaction) paired with a check mark symbol for the absence of RV on a variable schedule. Additionally, the participant was taught to engage in appropriate conversations on a fixed time schedule throughout the day (DRA). Rules (i.e., remember to work quietly) were also used as an antecedent intervention prior to independent work tasks. Positive practice paired with a visual cue (i.e., a hashtag symbol) was used as a consequent intervention. If the participant engaged in RV, the hashtag was shown to the participant. If he continued to engage in RV, he was instructed to practice the last response in which RV occurred. If he did not continue to engage in RV, the hashtag was removed, he was not required to engage in positive practice and he moved on with his daily schedule. Data showed reductions from baseline with the implementation of the intervention package and that data reliably changed with the removal and reimplementation of the intervention package within a brief reversal design.
 
39. A Systematic Review of Caregiver-Mediated Interventions for Autistic Adolescents: Implications for Social Validity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSEY SWAFFORD (Baylor University ), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Remington Michael Swensson (Baylor University ), Janelle Lynn Carlson (Baylor University )
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: A growing body of evidence has accumulated in support of caregiver-mediated interventions in the service of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families. However, few reviews of the literature have been conducted to examine the efficacy of caregiver-mediated behavioral interventions with adolescents (ages 10-18) with ASD and no known reviews of the literature have been conducted to assess the presence and quality of social validity measures in this area of research. The present study sought to review the current existing literature to evaluate the efficacy, social validity, and overall quality of caregiver-mediated behavioral interventions with adolescents with ASD. Findings indicate a need for evaluation of reliable and valid measures of social validity as well as expanding the use of these measures include feedback from adolescent clients.
 
40. Benefits and Limitations of Using the Telehealth Platform to Provide Evidence Based Services for Families Impacted by Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SWATI NARAYAN (WECAN ProACT India ), Gita Srikanth (ABA India)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: Technology has resulted in the emergence of WhatsApp™, and Zoom Video conferencing as competitive alternate training platforms to in-person training sessions. The wide reach of internet based technology has made telehealth an effective and low-cost method of training parents as interventionists using the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study aimed at training a parent of a child with ASD to implement and deliver evidence based autism intervention.The outcomes were measured using a gold standard developmental based assessment, the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). The results indicate notable changes in scores on the assessment, acquisition of skills on the part of the child and the parent’s skills in playing the role of the interventionist, coupled with the development of a harmonious and positive relationship between mother and child. Suggestions for further research include using the telehealth model and evidence based parental training for the dissemination of quality services to a larger population
 
41. Effects of Utilizing Behavioral Skills Training in Parent Training Sessions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLI SANTA MARIA (Butterfly Effects), Whitney Marie Cromley (Butterfly Effecs)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Effects of parent training utilizing behavioral skills training (BST) to teach implementation of the behavior intervention plan to decrease maladaptive behaviors in a child with autism, skills were then able to be generalized to siblings. This was a retrospective single case design looking at the implementation of using behavioral skills training with both mother and father of an autistic male child age eight years old at the start of the study. At the start of the parent training, both parents had mixed involvement in sessions and parent training, and the child was receiving 30 hours of direct treatment service per week and minimal parent training. BCBA implemented a new Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) with parents and taught the implementation of the BIP to each parent individually, then working together. This was able to show a decrease in aggression, tantrums, and property destruction, with both parents now able to fully implement the BIP independently. The skills of the implementation of BIP by utilizing BST were then able to be generalized in parent training sessions to two siblings in the home who also both have autism and engage in maladaptive behaviors? (Schaefer & Andzik, 2021)?.
 
42. Incorporating Components of Brief Habit Reversal to Reduce Skin Picking and Vocal Tics in an Adult With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHANNON ANGLEY (Children’s Specialized Hospital Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services), Grace P Kurywczak (Marcus Autism Center), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Brian D. Greer (Rutgers Brain Health Institute and Children’s Specialized Hospital–Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services (CSH–RUCARES) and Department of Pediatrics, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: Habit behaviors (e.g., nail biting, skin picking) can pose various types of health risks and result in social stigmatization. Habit reversal procedures have been demonstrated as an effective intervention for tic disorders, nervous habits, and stuttering across a variety of patient populations (Miltenberger et al., 1998). However, the results of some research suggest that the procedures may not be effective with individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD; Long et al., 1999). These findings are not entirely surprising given many components of habit reversal require prerequisite skills or advanced verbal behavior that individuals with IDD may not possess. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of two main components of habit reversal (i.e., modified awareness training [i.e., self-monitoring] and competing-response training) in reducing the vocal tics and skin picking exhibited by a young adult with IDD. Results revealed that self-monitoring was not successful alone in reducing his habit behaviors. However, competing response training procedures resulted in significant reductions of both habit behaviors that generalized across implementers and settings and maintained over time. We discuss the implications of the findings and considerations for future research.
 
43. The Effects of a Self-Recording Procedure on Student’s On-Task Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIA LEVENTHAL (James Madison University ), Trevor F. Stokes (James Madison University)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Strategies to reduce challenging classroom behaviors often rely on external agents to manage contingencies, putting an unsustainable burden on teachers, administrators, and others. Fortunately, studies have shown self-management procedures to be effective across differing populations. However, these studies have commonly paired self-management with external reinforcement, limiting conclusions about the utility of self-management procedures themselves. In this study, I investigate the isolated effects of self-management on student’s on-task behavior through an operant analysis. Three elementary-aged students, receiving ABA services at a special education school, will be taught to self-record their on-task behavior using a Gymboss miniMAX Interval Timer cueing them at variable intervals. Using a changing criterion design, I will demonstrate whether a functional relation between self-recording and on-task behavior exists. Following baseline, participants will be trained to self-record using Behavior Skills Training, then a series of phases will be implemented to gradually increase the interval schedule. To isolate the effects of self-management, feedback or reinforcement will not be provided. During baseline, participants demonstrated low and variable levels of on-task behavior. Upon implementation of the self-recording procedure, the rate of on-task behavior increased in a stepwise manner, suggesting that this self-management intervention is effective at improving the on-task behavior of participants.

 
44. Developing a Socially Valid and Reliable Acuity Scale for Practicing Behavior Analysts
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JUSTICE LESLIE DEAN (Emergent Learning Clinic; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jesse Sears (Emergent Learning Clinic; Student in ABA at Drake University), Autumn N. McKeel (Emergent Learning Clinic)
Discussant: Samantha Wallbank (Brock University)
Abstract: In the field of behavior analysis and autism treatment, there are various factors and domains that should be considered by a practicing Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) when determining the level of service that a client needs. Acuity scales are commonly used in various healthcare fields such as nursing and social work as a complete and objective clinical measure of patient need and clinician resources. However, there has yet to be such a scale developed for practicing BCBAs. The BCBA Acuity Scale for Interpreting Client/Caseload Severity (BASICS) is a tool developed to assess the overall intensity of case management. The BASICS analyzes areas such as challenging behavior, communication, medical needs, and parent training needs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the social validity and reliability of the BASICS. Practicing BCBAs completed the BASICS for each of their clients and subsequently completed a social validity questionnaire. Reliability of the scale was also evaluated by analyzing the inter-observer agreement of scores. This acuity scale may be a useful resource for BCBAs to determine and maintain an ethical caseload within their available resources.
 
Diversity submission 45. Using Systematic De-sensitization to Assist in Food Acceptance
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
TRACY YIP (N/A), ZEYI YANG (N/A)
Discussant: Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Children with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder were commonly found to have eating problems such as food selectivity or restricted diet. If food selectivity is not resolved and managed, it can lead to serious health concerns and malnutrition. The current study involve a participant, a 5-years old boy who only accept a few food items in his common diet. His refusal of food was displayed by vomiting the food consumed, pushing food items away, and turning his head away from the spoon with the food item. Using systematic de-sensitization, positive reinforcement and shaping strategies, the participant was able to consume a variety of food items introduced during the training session. A follow up report indicated the training was effective in maintaining the food items selected as well as generalization of food acceptance across different food groups.
 
46. The Indirect Benefits of an Evaluation of Consequences to Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Samantha Pacewicz (University of Florida graduate), Melanie Perez (The University of Florida), CATHERINE KISHEL (The University of Florida), Savannah Tate (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Tyler-Curtis Cory Elliott (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Behavior analysts develop treatment plans to reduce maladaptive behaviors. Consequences to problem behavior are often included in treatment plans with the goal of reducing behavior. However, without an evaluation of the effects of programmed consequences, these responses might not always result in the desired reductive effect (e.g., Fisher, Ninness, Piazza, & Owen-DeSchryver, 1996). Some strategies intended to reduce behavior might instead reinforce or have no effect on responding. However, failure to identify an effect when evaluating a consequence does not mean that the data set does not yield useful information. The current analysis comprised of an empirical evaluation of the effects of consequences to problem behavior of two children with autism and yielded indirect benefits. A pairwise functional analysis (Iwata, Duncan, Zarcone, Lerman, & Shore, 1994) compared the effects of providing programmed consequences contingently versus on a time-based schedule. The data demonstrate that consequences delivered for certain problem behaviors can result in the child engaging in other behaviors that can be reinforced if already adaptive or further shaped. Although the specific consequences evaluated in the present study exerted null or inconclusive effects on target behavior, the assessment nonetheless yielded valuable information about child behavior that could translate across settings.
 
48. Duration-Based Assessment to Select Chores for Individuals With Severe Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHELBY LYNNE QUIGLEY (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Maryland Association for Behavior Analysis), Sara Deinlein (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan K. Gregory (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Tyler-Curtis Cory Elliott (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Duration-based assessments can be used to determine an individual’s level of engagement with items (DeLeon, Iwata, Conners, & Wallace, 1999) or activities such as vocational tasks (Worsdell, Iwata, and Wallace, 2002). However, if the goal is to identify items or activities with a high level of engagement and a low level of problem behavior, a competing stimulus assessment can be used (e.g., Piazza, Fisher, Hanley, Hilker, & Derby, 1996). Three individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities who were hospitalized for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior participated in a competing stimulus assessment to identify chores with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior for inclusion in their daily schedule during treatment. For two of the three participants, multiple chores were identified; for the third participant, although he interacted with the materials for most of the sessions (e.g., held the broom in his hand and walked around), productive engagement in the chores was low (e.g., he did not sweep the floor). As a result, teaching sessions were initiated to increase productive engagement in chores.
 
49. Identifying Preference for Protective Equipment Used to Treat Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRA M DEMEO (May Institute), Emily Sullivan (The May Institute), Yannick Andrew Schenk (May Institute)
Discussant: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
Abstract: The use of protective equipment (e.g. arm splints, helmet) is used to reduce engagement in or mitigate injury as result of self-injurious behavior. However, individual preference for these types of equipment have been rarely assessed, perhaps due to the emphasis on safety because of the severity of self-injurious behavior that necessitates the application of protective equipment. The present study aimed to first evaluate the one participant’s adaptive responses, engagement in self-injury, attempted removals of protective equipment, as well as an injury impact score while wearing two types of protective equipment (i.e., helmet and arm splints). Following determining that both forms of equipment resulted in a low injury impact score, a forced choice preference assessment was conducted. Results indicated that arm splints were not only selected as the preferred form of protective equipment, but also resulted in the lowest level of self-injurious behavior and attempted removals.
 
50. Modifying Functional Communication Training for an Individual With Visual Impairments and Severe Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RAJEN BAJRACHARYA (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Brianna Laureano (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Emily Ann Chesbrough (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Tyler-Curtis Cory Elliott (University of Georgia)
Abstract: The effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) for decreasing severe problem behavior has been widely acknowledged within the science of applied behavior science. In a recent review, Ghaemmaghami et al. (2021) outlined a number of limitations pertaining to the feasibility of this function-based treatment when applied in the community. One such limitation involves limited research on the application of this intervention among individuals with visual impairments who engage in severe problem behavior. Within the current study, we incorporated modifications and modern technology to augment FCT procedures for an 8-year-old girl with visual impairments. Through the incorporation of tactile stimuli and a backwards chaining procedure, the participant acquired the functional communication response. The results of this study demonstrate the importance and success in modifying training procedures when teaching communication responses to individuals with visual impairments. This study further supports the necessity of individualizing common function-based interventions, such as FCT, to increase their efficiency and feasibility in the treatment of individuals with varying disabilities.
 
51. The Effects of Multiple-Context Training on Operant Renewal of Behavior Decreased by Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAIGE TALHELM (University of Florida), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Discussant: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
Abstract: Translational human laboratory studies are conducted under the assumption that outcomes will be relevant to clinical conditions. Much recent attention of this sort has been devoted to relapse of previously treated problem behavior. The assumption of correspondence seems critical when evaluating factors that promote or mitigate relapse, but few studies have examined if laboratory preparations predict if similar findings with clinically relevant behaviors and fewer still have examined correspondence within the same participants. This study will expose individuals with developmental disabilities, who display problem behavior, to parallel laboratory and clinical paradigms of two forms of relapse: resurgence and context renewal. It represents a first step towards identifying the variables that promote correspondence, thus allowing future researchers to design more clinically accurate mitigation models.
 
52. Increasing Access to Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AAKSHAN K LIDHAR (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Jessica Foster Juanico (University of Kansas), Amber Valentino (Trumpet Behavioral Health ), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (Trumpet Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Tyler-Curtis Cory Elliott (University of Georgia)
Abstract: The Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2020) states that behavior analysts must maintain competence by engaging in professional development activities such as reading relevant literature (Code 1.06). There are barriers to accessing the published literature that can result in a research to practice gap such that practitioners become progressively less informed about the literature as time since graduation and certification increases (Briggs & Mitteer, 2021). In the current study, we evaluate a system in a large human service agency developed to increase practitioner access to the literature using an electronic request form and a liaison to the literature search approach. We present data on the frequency of use of the system, the certification level of users, topics of interest, and other patterns of responding. We discuss the value of this type of system, the limitations of the design, and considerations for practitioners considering the implementation of a similar system in their human service agency.
 
53. A Quality Assessment of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Speech Interventions for Minimally Verbal Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities: An Overview
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
SOPHIE LOUISE BRADBURY (University of South Wales), Richard James May (University of South Wales)
Discussant: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
Abstract: Systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) have been identified as the gold standard for evidence synthesis. Given their potential to inform practice and policy, it is important that SR and MA adhere to internationally agreed guidelines. We undertook a review of the methodological characteristics and reporting quality of SR and MA of interventions targeting early speech production in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Intellectual Disabilities (ID). The review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42021236361). Two instruments designed to evaluate SR and MA, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and, A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR-2) were used to appraise the existing literature. We identified 12 SR and/or MA that met the prespecified inclusion criteria. The assessment of the methodological quality (i.e., AMSTAR-2) found that the vast majority (k=10) of the reviews were rated as critically low. We also found relatively low adherence to the reporting guidelines outlined in PRISMA for most of the included studies. We discuss our findings in the broader context of the evidence synthesis for behaviour analytic interventions.
 
54. Using Traditional Drill and Practice to Increase Drivers Permit Knowledge for Young Adults With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAYLA BATES-BRANTLEY (Mississippi State University), Madison Billingsley (Mississippi State University), Meredith Huff Staggers (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Tyler-Curtis Cory Elliott (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder experience significant barriers when learning to drive. These barriers impact their licensure rates and time it takes to successfully obtain a license when compared to neurotypical peers. A majority of research examining these barriers focusses on an individual’s ability to drive in a simulation. However, little to no research has been conducted to examine effective intervention strategies for obtaining a learning permit. The current study examines the effects of a Traditional Drill and Practice (TDP) digital flashcard intervention on increasing knowledge of material on the drivers permit exam. A multiple probe design across participants was used to examine the effects of this intervention. Three young adults with ASD, who did not currently hold a valid driver’s license or permit were included as the participants. Results indicated TDP had a large effect on increasing participants’ skill acquisition of learner’s permit exam material. Limitations, implications, and future directions of this research will be discussed.
 
55. Elopement: A Case Study From Functional Analysis Through Caregiver Generalization
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA RENEE JONES (Butterfly Effects), Molly Ann McGinnis (Butterfly Effects), Claire Spieler (Butterfly Effects), Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Endicott College, Butterfly Effects)
Discussant: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
Abstract: Children affected by intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs/DDs) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a higher prevalence of elopement which can lead to significant consequences including police involvement, abduction, drowning, etc. (Boyle & Adamson, 2017). Functional analysis determined the function of the elopement behavior in this case study to be access to the outdoor environment, or the child’s backyard. Caregiver collaboration led to intervention design of functional communication training (FCT) paired with response blocking. FCT criteria increased in complexity to vocal-verbal communication with shaping procedures. Response blocking was faded over time from barriers and locked doors to only a visual prompt remaining as a conditioned stimulus during the generalization phase along with intermittent reinforcement. The intervention led to a significant decrease in elopement successes and attempts and also improved caregiver confidence in addressing problem behaviors and safety concerns.
 
56. Producing Meaningful Clinical-Outcome Data From Restraint and Seclusion Logs
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARY KATHERINE CAREY (Glenwood, Inc)
Discussant: Tyler-Curtis Cory Elliott (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Programs delivering applied behavior analytic (ABA) services often collect data on safety interventions such as physical restraints and seclusion procedures. These interventions are either programmed into behavior plans or are performed only in emergency situations. Regardless, there a movement in the field to decrease physical restraint and seclusion (Rajaraman et al 2021) in an effort to advance procedures that capitalize on reinforcement-based approaches. There is little guidance, however, on the best way to summarize restraint and seclusion data in a meaningful way that will produce evidence of a program’s adherence to best practices over time. In the current project, five years of restraint data from a non-profit agency were summarized and analyzed in multiple ways to determine the best way to report on an agency’s use of physical restraint and seclusion. When analyzing data across years, breaking the data down monthly rather than yearly provided a richer set of data to visually analyze. When examining data within a year, calculating the number of physical restraints and/or seclusion procedures implemented per child who is approved for such procedures rather than a total frequency count proved to be the most sensitive.
 
57. Reducing Employee Absenteeism With Performance Feedback and an Individual Contingency Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DESIREE POOLE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Brittney Workman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher Dillion (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute and The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
Abstract: Unplanned absences are a common issue within human service settings (T. F. Ferguson et al., 2001). Organizations have employed a variety of behavioral interventions to improve staff attendance, including the use progressive discipline (Briggs, 1990), verbal feedback (Berkovitz et al., 2012), public feedback (Camden et al., 2011; Luiselli et al., 2009), and both individual- (Berkovitz & Alvero, 2019; Feinup et al., 2013) and group-based contingencies (Berkovitz et al., 2012). However, high rates of absenteeism are still observed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate an individual contingency intervention designed to reduce absenteeism among direct-care staff in a human service setting. The intervention included performance feedback and restricted access to working additional overtime shifts. Results showed that absenteeism decreased from a group mean of 34.59% of shifts missed during the baseline period to a group mean of 23.57% of shifts missed during the intervention phase. The outcome of the intervention was a 11.03% decrease in the average percentage of shifts missed. Implications surrounding these findings are discussed. Keywords: absenteeism, attendance, individual contingency, human service setting
 
58. Using a Video Activity Schedule With an Embedded Social Script to Teach Cooperative Games to Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
IVAN DUARTE (University of Texas at San Antonio), Marie Kirkpatrick (University of Texas at San Antonio), Roberta Carrillo (University of Texas at San Antonio), Geninna Noelle Arriola Ferrer (University of Texas at San Antonio), Mariela Gonzalez (University of Texas at San Antonio), Aparna Mathew (University of Texas at San Antonio), Lauren Gonzales (University of Texas at San Antonio), Katherine Cantrell (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Tyler-Curtis Cory Elliott (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Video activity schedules are a combination of video modeling and activity schedules that teach a singular task or a series of tasks to be completed. Instead of a sequence of pictures, videos demonstrate to the learner what is expected to be done. Research has focused heavily on using video activity schedules to teach daily living or vocational skills; however, there is a lack of research on using video activity schedules to teach play skills. Social scripts are verbal prompts that cue the learner on what to say and have proven to be effective at teaching autistic people how to engage in conversation. In this study, a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effect of a video activity schedule with an embedded social script to teach four dyads of autistic children how to play cooperative games and engage in a conversational response during a summer day camp. Results indicate that all participants learned how to play the game and engage in the conversational response, including during generalization and maintenance probes. Limitations and future research will also be noted.
 
59. Texture Advancement Expectations and Outcomes in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Severe Food Selectivity
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CATHERINE TAYLOR (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Addam J Wawrzonek (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Valerie M. Volkert (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Rashelle Berry (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Lydia White (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Caitlin Waddle (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), William G. Sharp (The Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
Abstract: Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a feeding disorder marked by restricting food intake to the point of significant weight loss, malnutrition, or functional interference. Previous studies have demonstrated comorbid concerns with feeding in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A possible explanation for these feeding problems may be due to the core ASD symptoms, poor adaptive skills and/or sensory sensitivities. These core symptoms can affect feeding relative to tolerance of higher textures. The present study examines the outcomes from an applied behavior analysis (ABA) based, intensive multidisciplinary intervention program for ARFID, specifically looking at children with and without a comorbid diagnosis of autism and severe food selectivity. Results demonstrated that a higher percentage of children with ASD remained on puree texture throughout treatment when compared to children without ASD, despite both groups demonstrating a significant increase in number of foods accepted. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating treatment progress for children with ASD and how to better support treatment expectations and outcomes, specifically with texture advancement. Further research is needed on this subset population on how oral motor deficits affect texture advancement, and to develop strategies for feeding and chewing functions throughout treatment.
 
60. Assessing Client Preference on Social Proximity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA WARD (Salve Regina University), Jocelyn Vanessa McCormack (Salve Regina University/Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Tyler-Curtis Cory Elliott (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Physical proximity affects both problem behavior and client engagement with academic demands (Oliver et al., 2001; Conroy et al., 2004). Assessing preference of proximity is useful, but some methodologies, such as those used in Oliver et al. (2001), might evoke problem behavior which may not be desirable or ethical in all clinical situations. The purpose of this study was to utilize a concurrent-chains assessment to target client preference of proximity without evoking problem behavior. The study was conducted with an 18-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, whose history of severe problem behavior resulted in staff distancing themselves from the client by 12 feet. A concurrent-chains choice assessment was implemented to evaluate the participant’s preference on proximity as well as the effects of proximity on rates of problem behavior. The participant chose between two proximity options at varying distances from him to determine from which he preferred. The distances between the chairs and the participant were systematically manipulated by experimenters. The results of the assessment demonstrated the client’s preference for close proximity attention (within 2 feet) without evoking problem behavior. IOA was collected during 95% of trials using trial-by-trial agreement. IOA scores were 100% across sessions.
 
61. Comparing Functional Communication Training Arrangements on Reduction of Tangibly Maintained Aggression
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAITLYN FEDERICO (Salve Regina University ), Jacqueline Wilson (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT) has been used to treat the function of problem behavior across many functions and many behaviors. Nuanced variables, which include but are not limited to, the severity of behaviors and time constraints can make implementing FCT difficult. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effects of FCT arrangements on reduction of problem behavior. This project specifically compared a rate-based arrangement and a latency-based arrangement to implement FCT. This study was conducted with a 13-year-old male diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Treatment was evaluated in 5 minute conditions. In the rate-based condition, the functional Communication Response (FCR) was presented every 30 seconds. In the latency-based condition, the FCR was presented once at the start of the condition but not again for the remainder of the condition. The results of this study indicated that problem behavior reduced in both formats and the participant acquired the FCR in both formats. IOA was collected for 81% of sessions with 95% agreement. Procedural Fidelity was collected for 100% of sessions and fidelity was 98%.
 
164. Building Comfort With Health and Self-Care Routines for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN RUFFO (University of Nebraska Omaha; University of Nebraska Medical Center; Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Elizabeth J. Preas (Austin College), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mikayla Crawford (University of Nebraska Medical Center; Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism (ASD) often exhibit challenging behaviors during health- and self-care routines. Children may require sedation to complete necessary routines, which increases risks when participating in medical care. Caregivers may also avoid completing vital self-care routines due to the fear their child experiences. Current evidence suggests that graduated exposure treatment packages are effective at increasing tolerance during healthcare procedures. Graduated exposure consists of exposing an individual to a hierarchy of stimuli from least to most feared, which have previously caused fear-based responses (e.g., negative vocalizations, disruptions, attempts to leave). Although graduated exposure has been shown to increase tolerance, this procedure can be resource intensive. The purpose of the current study was to extend previous research by examining procedures to increase the efficiency of graduated exposure. Four children with ASD were exposed to a treatment package that included graduated exposure, distraction, and frequent terminal probes to teach a variety of health- and self-care routines. The results showed that the treatment package was effective at increasing tolerance with routines. Additionally, frequent terminal probes allowed participants to skip unnecessary steps and increased the efficiency of the treatment package. Future research and clinical implications will be discussed.

 
 
 
Poster Session #47E
CBM Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Diversity submission 65. Experienced Stigma and Healthcare Avoidance Among Women With Obesity: Fusion as a Moderator
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MCKENNA PRYNN (80230), Mirka Jara Rivas (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Elizabeth Lukela (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Keegan Moore (Metropolitan State University of Denver), Maureen Flynn (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Obesity is associated with health care avoidance and delay for preventative care among women. Considering the potential impact of healthcare avoidance on morbidity and mortality, it is important to identify factors that may influence healthcare avoidance among women. One such factor is experienced weight stigma (e.g., Puhl et al., 2013), which is commonly experienced among individuals with obesity (e.g., Puhl et al., 2021). Therefore, we need to identify malleable variables that may influence the relationship between experienced weight stigma and health care avoidance. One such variable may be fusion (i.e., difficulty detaching thoughts or images from what they refer to). Thus, the current study aimed to examine whether fusion (general and related to body image) moderated the relationship between weight stigma and healthcare avoidance among women with obesity. The sample consisted of 261 adult female participants with obesity. Participants were recruited on Prolific, which is an online participant recruitment company. Participants completed a series of questionnaires online. Results showed that fusion, both general and related to body image, moderated the relationship between experienced weight stigma and health care avoidance. Future research should examine the impact of interventions that target fusion on healthcare avoidance among this population.
 
66. Examining the Effects of Interviewer Behavior on the Accuracy of Children’s Responses: A Replication of Sparling et al., (2011)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MILAD NAJAFICHAGHABOURI (Utah State University ), P. Raymond Joslyn (Utah State University), Emma Preston (Utah State)
Discussant: Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Various factors may influence the accuracy of children’s responses to questions about recent events in the context of an interview. Research has shown that children may respond idiosyncratically to the way questions are asked and the interviewer’s responses to their answers. However, behavioral research in this area is limited. Sparling et al. (2011) showed that children frequently provided inaccurate responses to questions about video clips they had just watched depending on the antecedents (i.e., the way a question was asked) and consequences (i.e., the response of the interviewer to their answers). In the current study, we replicated Sparling et al. and found that only two of five children were sensitive to the various antecedents and consequences manipulated in Sparling et al. Our findings indicate a need for more research in this area to determine the relevant environmental variables for evoking children’s accurate and inaccurate responses.
 
Diversity submission 67. Weight-Related Stigma and Healthcare Avoidance Among Women: The Role of Experiential Avoidance as a Moderator
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MIRKA JARA RIVAS (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Mckenna Prynn (80230), Keegan Moore (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Elizabeth Lukela (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Maureen Flynn (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Although obesity is associated with increased heatlh care utilization, it is also linked with preventative health care avoidance among women. Experienced weight stigma is positively associated with health care avoidance among women with obesity (e.g., Puhl et al., 2013) but there must be moderating variables involved. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether experiential avoidance (i.e., avoidance of internal private events) and acceptance (i.e., willingness to allow difficult internal experiences to be present) strengthen or weaken the relationship between experienced weight stigma and healthcare avoidance among this population. The sample consisted of 261 female adults, who were recruited on Prolific (i.e., an online participant recruitment company). Participants completed an assessment battery in an online format. Results showed that experiential avoidance moderated the relationship between experienced weight stigma and health care avoidance but acceptance did not. These results show a need to develop and test the efficacy of treatments targeting experiential avoidance on healthcare utilization among this population.
 
Diversity submission 68. Weight-Related Stigma and Well-Being Among College Students With Overweight and Obesity: The Role of Fusion as a Moderator
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH LUKELA (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Keegan Moore (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Mckenna Prynn (80230), Mirka Jara Rivas (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Maureen Flynn (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: According to results from a nationally representative college student sample, 30.4% were overweight or obese. Obesity is negatively associated other quality of life variables, such as life satisfaction (e.g., Kuroki, 2016; Wadsworth & Pendergast, 2014), flourishing (e.g., Robertson et al., 2015), and obesity-related quality of life (e.g., Mannucci et al., 1999). Experienced stigmatizing situations related to weight is associated with lower levels of wellbeing among individuals with obesity (e.g., Hayward et al., 2018). The aim of the current study was to examine whether fusion (i.e., difficulty detaching thoughts or images from what they refer to) moderates the relationship between experienced stigma and well-being among college students with overweight or obesity. Participants included 366 college students with overweight or obesity. Participants completed a series of assessments online. Results showed that both fusion moderated the relationship between experienced stigma and wellbeing such that fusion strengthened the relationship. Future studies could examine the efficacy and effectiveness interventions that target fusion reduction on well-being among college students who are overweight or obese and have experienced stigma related to their weight.
 
69. The Efficacy of a Brief Values Interventions in a Spider-Related Behavioral Approach
Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
KEEGAN MOORE (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Elizabeth Lukela (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Mirka Jara Rivas (Metropolitan State University Of Denver), Mckenna Prynn (80230), Maureen Flynn (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Using the same procedures, Hebert et al. (2019) and Flynn et al. (2022) found that a brief values intervention resulted in more approach behaviors in a contamination anxiety-related behavioral approach task (BAT). The aim of the current study was to partially replicate these studies to test the robustness of the findings by using a different BAT. Undergraduate participants (n = 231) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: values, tickets, and control. All participants first completed a series of questionnaires and a spider-related BAT (Cochrane et al., 2009). Next, participants received the intervention based on their condition and then completed the BAT a second time. Results showed that there was not a significant difference between conditions on BAT discrepancy scores (i.e., steps completed in the second BAT minus steps completed in the first BAT). One reason for this different finding may be related to the BAT task itself. Approximately 56% of the sample completed all 8 steps in the first BAT, meaning there was no room to improve post intervention. Future studies could use the same task but only include participants who completed fewer that seven steps in the first BAT in the main analyses.
 
70. Principal Component Analysis of Measurement of Parent-Child Interactions
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
LYNN SCHUMACHER (Mount St. Mary's University), Elizabeth Parthum (Mount St. Mary's University), Kwadwo Britwum (Mount Saint Mary's University), Eric Jacobs (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Discussant: Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Measures of systematic social interactions are an effective way to evaluate contingencies between parent-child dyads in natural settings. Despite the utility of these measures, very few well established measurement instruments exist to validate the changes in these systematic interactions. The present study conducted a principal factor analysis of 38 cases of parent data collected using the Systematic Observation of Family Interactions (SOFI) instrument (Greene, 2020). Results revealed two main factors, with specific instrument target behavior clumping under these two factors. The findings imply that items under each factor with highest correlational values may be influenced by the same variables and as such, specific target behavior on the instrument may be eliminated to ensure a clear focus for data collectors. Further implications are also discussed while highlighting the utility of principal factor analysis in improving the focus of behavioral measures used in the natural environment situations.

 
72. Reinforcer Valuation, Alcohol Use, and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in a Crowd-Sourced Sample
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARK JUSTIN RZESZUTEK (University of Kentucky College of Medicine), Mikhail Koffarnus (University of Kentucky College of Medicine)
Discussant: Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) and alcohol use are leading causes of physical, psychological, and societal suffering. Up to a third of suicide decedents have alcohol in their body at time of death, and alcohol use severity has been linked to STBs. Decision-making has been related to alcohol use and STBs, but little has been done to clarify exactly how. Behavioral economic demand is a measure of decision-making rooted in the operant tradition, whereby relative reinforcing value of a commodity is determined by consumption when it is free, and how much an individual is willing to defend consumption as effort to obtain it increases. We conducted a study using a crowdsourced sample and examined alcohol use, STBs, delay discounting, and demand for alcohol. Demand intensity and elasticity was related to suicide risk, while proportion of time drinking while experiencing an STB was correlated with proportion of time drinking and experiencing other STBs. Taken together, elevated alcohol demand may be an important marker of suicide risk, while alcohol may also act as a context for inducing STBs in a subset of people. Interrupting alcohol use for a subset of people therefore may also decrease STBs.
 
73. An Evaluation of an ACT-Based “Aging Resiliently” Group
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
DANA B. MORRIS (Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University), Elizabeth Hirschhorn (VA Puget Sound Health Care System, American Lake Division, Tacoma, WA, USA)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Objectives: There were two quality improvement aims in this project: (1) to evaluate the outcomes of a six-week closed geriatric focused Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)-based group called “Aging Resiliently” offered in a primary care setting, and (2) to obtain feedback from group members in order to make relevant modifications to future groups. Methods: Four cohorts of veterans ages 58 and older participated in the group (N = 17). Paired samples t-tests were computed to determine the significance of changes on pre- and post- self-report measures of depression, experiential avoidance, and life satisfaction. Veterans also provided feedback in the form of an open-ended feedback questionnaire. Results: There were statistically significant improvements in depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life, but not in experiential avoidance. Two major themes emerged from the feedback questionnaire about what group members found to be the most helpful: (1) self-reflection/values, and (2) the social process of the group. Conclusions: At our institution, the Aging Resiliently group yielded meaningful outcomes for older veterans presenting with different problems related to aging. Clinical Implications: This Aging Resiliently group proved to be a potential effective, feasible, and acceptable psychotherapy for older veterans in our established local primary care setting.
 
74. Using Brief Habit Reversal to Decrease Speech Disfluencies in Public Speaking – A Systematic Replication of Perrin et al. (2021)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Anja Göhring (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt), CHRISTOPH F. BÖRDLEIN (Technical University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt (THWS))
Discussant: Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: This study evaluated brief habit reversal in reducing speech disfluencies such as filled pauses, filler words or tongue clicking that occur during public speaking. To extend prior research a previous study was replicated that conducted brief habit reversal in groups with an interdependent group contingency (Perrin et al., 2021). A total of nine students, divided into three groups, participated in this study. They delivered speeches of five minutes. The frequencies of speech disfluencies were documented. After baseline the participants received brief habit reversal, consisting of awareness training and the instruction of a competing response. The results showed that compared to baseline all participants reduced speech disfluencies during brief habit reversal. No group required booster sessions. The low rates of speech disfluencies were maintained during post sessions. At follow-up 2.5 to 6 weeks after training six of nine participants achieved a reduction of at least 80 percent from baseline. The social validity scores showed that the participants rated the treatment as acceptable and they would recommend it to others. In addition, they rated their own public speaking skills as better after the training.
 
75. A Comparative Analysis of Verbal and Self-Image Prompts in the Acquisition of Proper Body Placement for Bear Holds
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA TRUETT (University of West Florida), Shane Kelly (University of West Florida)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

Core stability protects individuals from injury and can support the movement of smaller muscle group movements such as hand, shoulder, and ankle movements (Kobesova et al., 2014). To strengthen the core muscles Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS) paradigms can be used to train older individuals in core stability in the same order of infant development (Kobesova et al., 2014). The DNS model targets the natural progression of stability through functional movement pattern exercises such as the bear hold. In physical therapy, the bear hold is part of a progression to strengthen and correct major muscle groups to recover from and reduce risk of further injury. Physical therapy professionals use this exercise to target stability and is applicable in many cases to measure and increase strength with recovering injuries. While this exercise is quite common in physical therapy, there is usually confusion and frustration for the people receiving therapy about how to properly get into the position and maintain the correct form. Possible support provided during therapy includes verbal prompts for correct form or mirror image. The presented study will measure the correct body placement during a bear hold with verbal prompting compared to a video mirror image.

 
166. Primary Care Staff Behavioral Skills on the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide Adoption
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
VIOLETA FÉLIX ROMERO (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Silvia Morales-Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Purpose: We developed and evaluated an online training program for the mhGAP Intervention Guide. Methods: Nine hundred and seventy-five health professionals in Mexico were enrolled in the training program, most of them during the period of social distancing brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed a pre-post online evaluation strategy including Knowledge screening, assessment of Learning Activities, and performance in Programmed-Simulated cases to evaluate knowledge and skills for the assessment, management, and follow-up of Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders. Results: We found that participants improved their knowledge and skills from training on the mhGAP online course. Notably we observed these positive results regardless of sex, profession, institution, or social vulnerability rating of participants, suggesting that this is a relevant training program for primary care staff. Conclusions: These results contribute to the Mental Health Gap Action Programme and advance the use of online teaching and evaluation technologies in this field.

 
167. A Behavior-Analytic Approach to Couple Therapy: An Evaluation of Functional Behavior Assessment Training and Social Validity to Address Problem Behaviors with Couples
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE KANEW (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Crystal Fields (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Amanda Mahoney (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Susan D. Flynn (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

A common approach to address relationship dissatisfaction and problem behaviors within couples includes couple therapy. Few studies, especially within recent literature, have examined the application of solely behavior analytic methods to address problem behaviors with couples. The purpose of this study was to extend the use of functional behavior assessments and behavior intervention plans to the behaviors of neurotypically developing adults in committed relationships by teaching dyads of partners how to a) conduct behavior assessments, b) select evidence-based interventions and c) then apply the taught skills to target behaviors. Application of virtual didactic training as well as modules was implemented with couple dyads to teach FBA methods and intervention selection. Dyads self-administered FBAs and selected evidence-based interventions based on the results of the assessment. Results included that couples were able to increase their knowledge base of behavior analytic concepts post-training as well as demonstrated a decrease in rate per day of target problem behaviors. Cohabitation pre- and post-questionnaires indicated an increase in individual and partner roles as well as an increase in environmental satisfaction for four of six participants. Social validity measures indicated that participants found the training to be time sensitive and easy to follow. However, full assessment and ongoing data collection was considered to be more challenging to implement and require more response effort. These findings have important implications for extending the scope of application of ABA methods to a variety of populations.

 
 
 
Poster Session #47F
CSS Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Anna Kate Edgemon (Auburn University)
Diversity submission 76. Evaluating College Students Relational Framing of Gender and Intervening to Promote Greater Flexibility Surrounding Gender Diversity
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
LAUREN ROSE HUTCHISON (Missouri State University ), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Ashley Payne (Missouri State University ), Erin Travis (Missouri State University )
Discussant: Dennis D. Embry (PAXIS Institute)
Abstract: Rigid relational responding patterns surrounding gender in adulthood can have profound effects on those that meet certain gendered stereotypes. In study one, we evaluated college students resistance to change in terms of gender stereotyping using multidimensional scaling (MDS). Results showed that participants’ responses increased or decreased across chosen adjectives depending on the gender pronoun that was used. The MDS results showed that individuals were relating the adjectives across two distinct gendered binaries, as well as by appetitive and negative functions. This research was extended in a second study where three college student participants were taught using relational training to respond to individuals using correct gender pronouns. A multiple probe design across participants was used with a pre and post-test MDS measure using train and test stimuli. Relations that were taught included textual gender expression (A; man, woman, non-binary, or uncertain) to correct pronouns (B; he/him, she/her, they/them), and pictures of different individuals with various gender expressions (C) to their correct gender identity (A). The derived relation C-B was tested for. Results showed that training increased scores to mastery for the C-A relation, and once this relation was taught, the C-B relation was derived. Results from the pre-test MDS procedure showed that participants were relating stimuli across a gradient of feminine-to-masculine presenting individuals. However following training, participants related stimuli based on each individual’s gender identity that was trained. Taken together, these studies have impact on how behavior science can be used to support gender diverse communities
 
77. Using Video Prompting With Embedded Safety Checks to Teach Prospective Parents and Caregivers Correct Installation of Child Passenger Safety Restraints
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
NIRUBA RASURATNAM (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Discussant: Anna Kate Edgemon (Auburn University)
Abstract:

In North America, motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of unintended injury-related deaths among children under the age of 14. The primary cause of these deaths is the improper use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSR). Correctly installed CPSRs can decrease the risk of death by 71-82%. To date, no study has (a) used video prompting as an individual intervention to teach correct CPSR installation or (b) examined the use of embedded safety checks within the task analysis of a CPSR installation. We used a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of a video prompting procedure with embedded safety checks to teach prospective parents and caregivers to correctly install CPSRs; both installation of a car seat in a rear-facing position using the Universal Anchorage System and harnessing of an infant-sized doll. The results of this study provide empirical support for the use of video prompting with embedded safety checks with minimal researcher participation to increase correct CPSR installation.

 
79. The Effects of Vocal-Motor Response Pairing on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Skill Acquisition and Retention
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
NIKOLAOS TSOLAKIDIS (Melmark), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Discussant: Anna Kate Edgemon (Auburn University)
Abstract:

During emergency situations, beginning and accurately performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as soon as possible are pertinent to increasing a person’s chances for survival. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests happen very infrequently and the maintenance of appropriate fluent responding is critical. The Red Cross and American Heart Association recertification requirements are every two years and thus the average person may only contact these skills during recertification. The Vocal-Motor Response Pairing procedure combines Behavioral Skills Training (BST) as outlined in Parsons, Rollyson, & Reid (2012) as well as other behavioral concepts from applied behavior analysis, social cognitive psychology, and the experimental analysis of behavior, such as behavioral fluency, speech-action coordination, and self-instruction. The experimenter observed the emergency actions steps (Check-Call-Care) through one cycle of CPR, and implemented a systematic error correction procedure. A Non-Concurrent Multiple Probe design across Participants was used, and intervention included the additional component of vocalizing the step immediately prior to or during the step’s action. Average steps and percent steps independent increased, and duration of one cycle of CPR and duration of Chest Compressions aligned more closely to the Red Cross curriculum. Immediate decreases in both duration of trials and trials to criterion were also found, which might result in a more time and resource efficient, effective, and socially significant and acceptable training technique.

 
 
 
Poster Session #47J
EDC Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
123. Evaluating Presession Attention as an Evidence-Based Practice for Attention-Seeking Behaviors in General Education Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
KERRY KISINGER (Eastern Washington University )
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract:

Presession attention is an antecedent-based intervention that may be used in classrooms to provide reinforcement for attention-seeking, often disruptive, behaviors as determined on a functional behavior assessment. Presession attentions works as an abolishing operations reducing the motivation for one to engage in certain behaviors by lowering the value of a reinforcer and providing satiation to the individual. The following presentation focuses on previous studies in order to determine whether this can be considered an evidence-based practice for students in a general education setting .

 
124. Impact of Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) Curriculum on Special Educator Self-Efficacy for Teaching Students With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), JULIA M HRABAL (Baylor University), MacKenzie Raye Wicker (Baylor University), Kailah Hall (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Aisling Costello (Baylor University), Tracey Sulak (Baylor University)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in their ability to complete a specific task or accomplish specific goals. Special educator self-efficacy includes a teacher’s beliefs about their ability to perform tasks specific to educating students, such as implement effective instruction and manage disruptive behavior. Higher teacher self-efficacy is related to improved student outcomes and job satisfaction as well as reduced job-related stress (Klassen et al. (20210). Prior to and after completing a three-phase professional development series containing the 40-hour Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) curriculum, we administered the Autism Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers (ASSET; Ruble et al., 2013) via a Qualtrics survey to 64 educators who teach students with autism. The ASSET contains 30 common tasks for teaching a student with autism (e.g., teach this student play skills). Teachers are to assign each task a score of 0 – 100 with 0 indicating they cannot do it at all and 100 indicating they are highly certain they can do the task. Prior to participating in the RBT professional development, teachers reported a mean score of 71.3 across the 30 prompts. After participating in the RBT professional development, the mean score increased to 85.1. Results indicate that professional development on behavior analytic interventions can improve educator’s confidence in teaching students with autism.

 
125. Culturally Responsive Preventive Strategies to Address Challenging Behaviors
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
GUOFENG SHEN (University of Northern Colorado; Seven Dimensions Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Reactive policies (e.g., school suspension and restraint procedures) are often implemented in response to escalated behaviors displayed by students receiving special education services within school settings (Heilbrun et al., 2015; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2019). However, since these reactive policies typically address the physical form of student behaviors (i.e., what behaviors look like) as opposed to root causes of student behaviors, these policies often fail to both address problem behaviors and facilitate meaningful behavior change among students (Robinson et al., 2022). Function-based interventions allow students to access reinforcement within classroom settings and, in the process, enhance the quantity and quality of educational experiences among students with behavioral support needs. Thus, the preventive and proactive functional based interventions are the best interventions. Attendees will learn reactive policies and proactive approaches, implementing preventive strategies (e.g., Non-Contingent Reinforcement, Functional Communication Training, Differential Reinforcement) for supporting students who exhibit challenging behaviors within inclusive school settings. In addition, participants will also learn strategies for embedding the cultural responsiveness into these preventive interventions.
 
126. Using Self-Monitoring, Public Posting, and Verbal Feedback to Improve Training Performance of Competitive Athletes
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHIRI AYVAZO (Kinneret Academic College; David Yellin Academic College), Mey-Elle Naveh (Kinneret Academic College )
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract: Behavior analytic procedures have been implemented in various individual (e.g., swimming) and team sports (e.g., football), and among beginning to advanced athletes. Previous studies commonly investigated self-management procedures such as self-monitoring, goal setting and public posting documenting promising results (Schenk & Miltenberger, 2019). Applications of behavioral procedures in cycling are rare (e.g., Broker et al., 1993) and mostly focus on the effects of non-verbal types of feedback (e.g., auditory) on cycling performance. Using an ABAB design, this study aimed to (a) investigate the potential effects of a self-management package including self-monitoring, public posting and verbal feedback on the cycling performance of three competitive male cyclists aged 14-16 and (b) to assess the cyclists' accuracy of self-monitoring. The dependent variables measured were training intervals assigned completed, assigned precision (i.e., by measures of heart rate and sprint duration), and irregularity of total practice time assigned. Various sporting technological instruments were used to measure the dependent variables. All data were presented as a percentage of response. Findings demonstrated consistent improved performance for two participants and variable improved performance for one participant. Athletes' accuracy of self-monitoring was improved during the intervention, with higher accuracy during the reintroduction of the intervention. Training performance was enhanced under the self-management conditions.
 
127. Increased Frequency of Implementation Errors Negatively Affects Fidelity Data Accuracy
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ABBIE COOPER (West Virginia University), Marisela Alicia Aguilar (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: One common task for supervisors is to monitor the fidelity with which their trainees implement behavioral procedures. However, supervisors report receiving little training in collecting fidelity data. As a result, supervisors may need to learn to collect accurate fidelity data with little feedback from others. To determine the extent to which individuals accurately identified errors in implementation, we used a multielement design in which novice implementers scored fidelity checklists from video models with three levels of programmed fidelity (40%, 80%, and 100%) of differential reinforcement of other behavior. Participants made significantly more errors scoring the 40% videos compared to the 80% and 100% videos. These findings demonstrate that accuracy of measurement varies systematically with the frequency of errors, suggesting that individuals collecting fidelity data may need additional supports to detect and record all errors when procedural fidelity is low.
 
128. Training Future Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses Using Virtual Video Modeling and Video Feedback
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JASMINE SORRELL (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton-Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kayla BATES-BRANTLEY (Mississippi State University), Mark E. Wildmon (Mississippi State University), John Borgen (Borgen Future Development)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract: Students commonly engage in problem behaviors, yet teachers report handling difficult behavior as their biggest challenge. Some research over the last few decades has used functional analyses to determine the function of student’s problem behavior and then developed functional-based interventions based on the functional analysis findings. Despite the success of the studies, research has indicated traditional functional analysis methodologies are not always feasible for teachers and/or schools, so a need exists to develop better and more efficient ways to train teachers to conduct functional analyses. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using virtual video models to train future teachers how to conduct trial based functional analyses and to assess if the skill could generalize into an in person setting. A multiple baseline design across participants was used, and results indicated the videos were effective at teaching the participants to conduct a trial based functional analysis. The virtual training then generalized well into an in person setting, with only one participant needing additional feedback. Additionally, results indicate the virtual intervention was socially valid for all participants. Limitations and directions for future research will also be discussed.
 
129. Special Educator Frequency of Implementing Evidence-Based Practices
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KAILAH HALL (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Julia M Hrabal (Baylor University), MacKenzie Raye Wicker (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Crystal Evans (Baylor University), Tracey Sulak (Baylor University)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Special educator use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with positive outcomes for students with autism. The purpose of this study was to determine if completing the 40-hour Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) training would impact the frequency with which special educators implement evidence-based practices with their students with autism. We delivered a three-phase professional development series, based on the RBT Task List, 2nd edition, to 59 special educators. Before and after completing the training, educators’ frequencies of using the 28 evidence-based practices identified by Steinbrenner et al. (2020) were surveyed. Educators rated their use on a scale from never (1) to daily (5). We analyzed results using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the mean use of evidence-based practices after completing the training, µ = 4.08, was slightly larger than the mean use of evidence-based practices prior to completing the training, µ = 3.97. Comparison of specific evidence-based practices: discrete trial training, naturalistic intervention, prompting, and task analysis yielded similar results. For each practice, mean use after completing the series was only slightly greater than prior to training. Results indicate that special educators need additional support beyond traditional professional development approaches to increase implementation of evidence-based practices.
 
130. Examining the Use of Video Modeling with Verbal Feedback to Enhance Performance in Springboard Divers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN MICHELLE JOY ISOLA (Western Michigan University), Leanne Latocha (Western Michigan University), Jessica Detrick (Western Michigan University ), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract: There is a growing body of literature examining the use of behavior analytic coaching techniques to enhance athlete performance across many different sports. To date, no studies have utilized behavior analytic coaching techniques in the sport of springboard diving. Springboard diving skills are complex behavior chains and require the accurate performance of multiple smaller, component skills. Several studies have used task analyses combined with video and verbal feedback to teach such complex motor skills (BenitezSantiago & Miltenberger, 2016; Quinn et al., 2019; Walker et al., 2020). Additionally, Walker et al. (2020) combined video and verbal feedback with simultaneous expert modeling to improve the performance of complex rock climbing skills by novice athletes. This study replicated and extended the use of this expert modeling with video and verbal feedback training package to enhance the performance of three springboard diving skills in a multiple baseline design. Following the application of the training package, all participants showed an increase in accurate performance of the targeted skills.
 
131. The Effect of Video Modeling and Self-Monitoring on the Conversational Skills of Adolescents With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHIRI AYVAZO (Kinneret Academic College; David Yellin Academic College), Yafit Shmuel (David Yellin Academic College, Israel), Inbar Bin-Nun (Kinneret Academic College)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract:

Conversational skills are important social behaviors for the establishment of communication and interpersonal relationships (Laugeson & Ellingsen, 2014). Individuals with autism experience difficulties in conversational skills which affects their quality of life and engagement in social settings. Video modeling is a common strategy utilized for teaching conversational skills to individuals with autism (Gardner & Wolfe, 2013). Self-monitoring is another procedure that can enhance learning and maintenance of a newly learned skill. This study aimed to improve the conversational skills of three adolescents with autism aged 16-18 who attended a special education high school. An intervention package including video modeling and self-monitoring was implemented via a reversal ABAB design. Its effects on conversational skills' response class (i.e., maintaining conversational turns, maintaining the conversational topic, responding to questions, asking topic-related questions) were measured during a 10-minute dialogue with the researcher using an event recording system. Data were presented as percentage of response. Conversational skills improved for all participants under the intervention conditions. Follow-up probing measurements of conversational skills in the natural setting once intervention commenced showed an average of 81%. The intervention was found effective in improving conversational skills. The monitoring forms may have constituted a discriminating stimulus for conversational skills.

 
132. Application of Behavioral Coaching Strategies in Dance Education: A Scoping Review
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Sarah Davis (Brock University), KENDRA THOMSON (Brock University ), Tricia Corinne Vause (Brock University), Dana Kalil (Brock University)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

Behavioral coaching strategies have been successfully applied in the dance context to enhance the performance of dance skills and promote the satisfaction of dancers. A scoping review of the behavioral literature that provides a description of the coaching strategies applied in the dance context and identifies gaps that need to be addressed has not yet been conducted. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses – Scoping Reviews process to guide the systematic search of these databases: Web of Science, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Sport Discus. A combination of key search terms (‘dance or dancing’ and ‘behav* coaching or behav* analysis or behav* modification or behav* intervention’) yielded 209 findings. Identified articles are in the process of being assessed for inclusion based on the following criteria: (a) implemented a behaviorally based coaching method (i.e., alters observable and measurable behaviour) with dancers and/or dance instructors, (b) utilized an experimental or quasi-experimental design, (c) published in a peer-reviewed journal, and (c) written in English. All articles that meet these inclusion criteria will be summarized. Areas of strength in adopting behavioural coaching strategies in dance education and possible limitations to be addressed by future research will be discussed.

 
133. Developing Awareness of Behavior Analysts to Serve Rural High Poverty Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
KIMBERLY GRIFFITH (University of West Florida, University of West Alabama)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Many behavior analysts receive cultural awareness training to work with individuals of different races, ethnicities, religious beliefs, views, values and practices that are different from their own. Little to no awareness of rural culture and its effect on education as it applies to behavioral supports is incorporated into degree programs and training sessions for individuals preparing for or currently serving as applied behavior analysts. There are numerous challenges providing for individuals, especially those with autism, in rural agricultural and aquafarming environments. Rural areas are like deserts, with limited or no individuals inclined to service educational institutions and others within the community. Many who agree to provide supports may experience rural culture-shock due to inadequate preparation in the facets of a rural high poverty community. This lack of cultural awareness of the needs of rural environments and absence of acculturation can contribute to inadequate numbers of behavior specialists that will service these areas. Including cultural awareness training on rural high poverty communities and their needs could increase the number of behavior analysts for this region and address cultural insensitivity toward these communities.
 
134. Using a Smart Virtual Reality for Behavioral Skills Training: Demonstration of Feasibility for A Verbal Mathematical Questioning Strategy
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SETH KING (University of Iowa), Anne Estapa (University of Iowa), Tyler Bell (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract: Researchers increasingly identify virtual reality (VR) simulations as a potentially effective professional development tool. However, simulations used in education and behavior analysis typically require active oversight from technicians and instructors. “Smart” VR integrated with artificial intelligence could independently administer simulation components, alleviate logistical challenges associated with high-quality professional development such as behavioral skills training (BST), and provide trainees with opportunities to extensively practice skills across a range of disciplines. The current study used a randomized, combined multiple probe across behaviors and participants design to examine a smart VR application’s ability to deliver components of BST and assess participants (n=2) acquisition of a mathematical questioning strategy designed to examine covert student problem solving in general education settings. Results suggest that automated assessment of participants corresponded with results of direct observation. Although insufficient to demonstrate a functional relation between training and participant performance, the iterative experiment pro- vides qualified support for the use of automated BST as a tool for skill acquisition. Findings indicate smart VR represents a promising means of improving professional development and a fruitful area of interdisciplinary collaboration.
 
135. Effects of a One-Time Aversive Intervention for Addressing a High Frequency Problem Behavior in a High School and Implications for Behavior Analytic Practice in Secondary Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JAMI BAHNEY (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Tardiness in secondary schools is a socially significant behavior for behavior analysts to consider. Tardy sweeps are a common intervention to reduce tardiness, but the immediate and long-term effects on behavior remain unclear. This retrospective data analysis used existing schoolwide data to investigate effects of this one-time aversive intervention on student punctuality using a series of AB graphs replicated across grades. The following questions were addressed: 1. Can meaningful behavioral data be collected from a school-wide data collection system on a socially significant, high-rate behavior (tardiness)? 2. Can pre-existing data be utilized by behavior analysts to address behavioral interventions? 3. What are the immediate and prolonged effects of tardy sweeps on reducing tardy behavior and are there differential effects by grade level? For baseline, data were pulled approximately one month before the intervention. Unexcused tardy reports were taken from school-wide data collection system for the class following lunch from the date of the tardy sweep until the end of the school year. Graphs across grade levels indicate that the intervention may have reduced reports of tardy behavior temporarily, before steadily rebounding to pre-intervention levels, with 12th grade students showing less rebounding. Implications for practicing behavior analysts and researchers are discussed.
 
136. The Effects of Behavior Skills Training on Treatment Fidelity of Staff Using Token Economy Systems in Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXA NAKVOSAS (Trinity Christian College)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

This research focused on the use of behavior skills training (BST) to train special education paraprofessionals to use token systems with high levels of fidelity in a classroom setting while observing effects on student problem behavior. A focus was placed on the accessibility of BST for busy educators with limited collaborative time. The primary author was the lead special educator involved in this study. The participants were two paraprofessionals with over 15 years of experience in education, but a range of 3-15 years working with individuals with disabilities. A multiple baseline design was utilized to teach three distinct components of token systems: setting up the environment, reinforcement delivery, and redirection from problem behavior. Results showed a distinct increase in staff fidelity following training, as well as a corresponding decrease in student problem behavior. This research came with positive implications for educators and the accessibility of evidence based training programs for relevant staff.

 
137. The Effects of Student-Generated Self-Questioning on Comprehension of Secondary School Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TOLULOPE OLAYEMI SULAIMON (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: The active processing perspective of self-questioning instruction suggests that comprehension occurs when students generate questions during reading because it allows students to engage in deeper processing of the text as their attention is drawn to the content. For this reason, four secondary students with reading fluency were taught self-generate questions. They were taught to generate appropriate questions using question starters and question-answer relationships to find information and understand text structures and how they convey information. Because of the reading fluency deficit, text-to-speech accommodation was provided to bridge the fluency gap.
 
Diversity submission 138. Computer Assisted Delivery of Discrete Trials to Teach Early Literacy Skills to Students With Significant Intellectual Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. SWEENEY (The University of South Dakota), Tammi D. Haverly Waltjer Waltjer (Children's Care Hospital)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction to deliver discrete trial training of academic skills to students with significant intellectual disabilities. Based upon the principles of Applied Behavioral Analysis, discrete trial training was identified as an evidence-based practice in teaching skills to students with disabilities. The criteria for single-subject case research within a multiple baseline design across behaviors and participants was implemented for this study. The individual subject and the repeated measures across skills served as the experimental control to verify results. The multiple baseline design evaluated the effect of the intervention computer assisted to deliver discrete trial training to teach early literacy skills to students with significant disabilities. Results of the study indicated the use of computer assisted instruction in the delivery of discrete trial training is effective in teaching individuals with significant intellectual disabilities early literacy skills.

 
139. Caregiver Training on Antecedent Strategies to Promote Children's Instruction Following in the Home
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HUNTER KING (University of Utah), Aaron J. Fischer (University of Utah), John Davis (University of Utah), Daniel D. Houlihan (Mankato State University), Keith Radley III (University of Utah ), William R. Jenson (University of Utah), Lauren Elizabeth Martone (University of Utah), Anniette F Maldonado (University of Utah)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract:

In the absence of early intervention, excessive difficulties with instruction following can impede children’s academic engagement, social-emotional development, and participation in organized activities. To capitalize on the effects of early intervention, in two evaluations, caregivers were trained via telehealth to deliver two antecedent strategies to increase instruction following in the home. Three caregivers of neurotypical children ages 3–5 participated. Dependent measures included initiation latency and compliance with high- and low-probability commands. In a preliminary analysis of a modified pretrial delivery procedure, caregivers jointly engaged with their child in a moderately preferred activity prior to the issuance of a predetermined command. Results showed that initiation latencies for low-probability commands trended downward for two of three children, while latencies for high-probability commands remained low for two of three children. In a second, more rigorous evaluation, the three low-probability commands with the highest latencies during pretrial delivery were further targeted with the high-probability command sequence. Using a multiple baseline across behaviors design, results showed increased levels of instruction following and decreased initiation latencies with low-probability commands for all three children. The current study extends previous research on telehealth-mediated behavioral supports by representing the first demonstration for pretrial delivery and the high probability command sequence.

 
140. The Effects of an Intervention Package on the Science Skills of Students With Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KAILEE LIESEMER (Western University), Nicole M. Neil (University of Western Ontario), Gabrielle T. Lee (Western University)
Discussant: Elian Aljadeff (Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee)
Abstract:

Traditional methods of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education present barriers to the general curriculum for students with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Students with NDD often require differentiated instruction to access STEM learning alongside their peers; however, research guiding equitable access to STEM education for this population is lacking. Most of the current literature focuses on teaching science vocabulary or content knowledge instead of science practice skills (e.g., asking questions, making predictions, and observing results) in the context of STEM education. As a result, traditional STEM instruction is often beyond reach for students with NDD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficacy of a multi-component intervention package used to teach science practices to students with NDD. The intervention package consisted of a video-enhanced activity schedule with embedded video modelling, multiple exemplar training, a graphic organizer, least-to-most prompting, and naturalistic reinforcement. A multiple probe design across participants was used to determine the efficacy of the intervention package delivered virtually to two students with NDD in the fourth grade. Further, a single case study comprised of a treatment and baseline phase showed positive preliminary evidence for using the intervention package for a student with an intellectual disability, although more high-quality research is required. The practical and policy implications of supporting students with NDD using a multi-component intervention package and future research directions will be discussed.

 
 
 
Poster Session #47K
OBM Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Paula Kenyon (Northeastern University and Grupo Método)
Diversity submission 141. Setting Intention: Diversity and Inclusion Accountability Practices for Early Career Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Professionals
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
LORI ANN DOTSON (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis), Allison Liu (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Paula Kenyon (Northeastern University and Grupo Método)
Abstract:

The limitations of awareness-only trainings are well known, and yet they remain the go to training modality in many classrooms and boardrooms. In particular, awareness-only trainings in diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) have shown little translation in applied practice. In this poster, qualitative data will be provided regarding the efficacy of awareness training for early career ABA professionals when immediately paired with intention setting (explicitly stating in writing a plan to apply what they’ve learned to their direct practice). Common themes identified by early interventionists working in diverse community-based environments will be described, and recommendations for reflective supervision and support for application of DEI theory to practice will be discussed.

 
142. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness and Feasibility of a Brief, Online, and Self-Guided Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Intervention for Intellectual and Developmental Disability Support Staff
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINA AXENOVA (Western University; York University), Albert Malkin (Western University)
Discussant: Andressa Sleiman (Florida State Unviersity)
Abstract: The present research pilots a brief, online, and self-guided adaptation of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention for intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) support staff to reduce burnout and psychological distress and increase psychological flexibility and work performance. A randomized waitlist control trial was implemented with an intervention group (n=5) and waitlist control group (n=11). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), the Comprehensive Assessment of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Processes (CompACT), the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Service Version (MBI-HS), the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), and a follow-up feasibility questionnaire. Independent t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests indicated that the intervention significantly reduced one dimension of burnout and increased the values-based process of psychological flexibility between-groups and within the waitlist group. The findings demonstrate preliminary evidence for implementing online-based interventions for IDD support staff; and present feasible future directions in enhancing workplace mental health and well-being.
 
143. Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) Workplace Preferences
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
DANIEL ALMEIDA (Cambridge College and Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Ross Consultation LLC)
Discussant: Paula Kenyon (Northeastern University and Grupo Método)
Abstract:

Identification of the workplace preferences of Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) is important to attract and retain quality staff. Forty BCBAs employed by a home-based agency providing early intensive behavior intervention services completed an on-line survey. Forced-choice and Likert-scale questions assessed participants’ demographic information and their preference for and willingness to do work to obtain 18 various items and activities associated with the workplace that were consolidated into four categories: tangible rewards, social rewards, working conditions and compensation. Sixty percent of the participants had been a BCBA between 0-8 years and 83% were between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Results found that a majority of respondents said they would be willing to work more hours per week for additional compensation. Also, respondents reported compensation was the most preferred category. Social rewards and working conditions were slightly less preferred. When asked what should be provided noncontingently (as a condition of employment) versus provided contingent on performance, respondents said tangible rewards and compensation should be contingent and social and working conditions should be noncontingent. Implications for the OBM literature will be discussed and directions for future research will be offered.

 
145. Workplace Reinforcement, Burnout, and Job Satisfaction of Behavior Analysts
Area: OBM; Domain: Basic Research
Dana Blydenburg (Creative Interventions), JAMES W. DILLER (Eastern Connecticut State University), Melissa Saunders (Creative Interventions)
Discussant: Paula Kenyon (Northeastern University and Grupo Método)
Abstract: Job burnout has been a longtime concern in human services professions such as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). This burnout can lead to high turnover in ABA providers, which results in expenses for agencies and potential disruption of services for clients. To evaluate some factors that might contribute to burnout, a sample of behavior-analytic practitioner (N = 114), including behavior technicians and certified behavior analysts (BCaBA, BCBA, BCBA-D), completed online surveys about the frequency of reinforcement in their workplace, characteristics of their workplace (Job Descriptive Index [JDI], Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969), and their level of burnout (The Oldenberg Burnout Inventory, Demerouti, 1999). Scores on the burnout scale were positively correlated with the proportion of positive descriptors selected in the JDI in all categories on the scale except for pay. Levels of reinforcement in the workplace were positively correlated with scores on the burnout scale, r s (112) = .54, p < .01. Levels of reported reinforcement in the workplace varied as a function of satisfaction with salary (U = 1151.5, p = .028), with higher workplace reinforcement being reported by people satisfied with their salary compared to those who were not. However, satisfaction with salary was not significantly associated with burnout (U = 1196, p = .17). This investigation provides a useful first step in identifying factors associated with burnout in ABA practitioners.
 
146. Workplace Violence in Applied Behavior Analysis: Victimization Response Training
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
MOLLY CATHERINE MALONE (Forte Residential, Inc. ), Jessica Foster Juanico (University of Kansas), Karla Saucedo (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Andressa Sleiman (Florida State Unviersity)
Abstract: Workplace victimization involves an employee performing an act of violence towards another employee within the work environment. The majority of literature on workplace victimization has focused on the use of surveys. Responses to workplace victimization surveys often indicate a need for increased resources or trainings; however, few studies have evaluated training a response to incidents of workplace victimization. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use remote behavioral skills training to teach a response to workplace victimization to three adults who were currently working or previously worked in applied behavior analysis. Remote behavioral skills training was effective in teaching all three participants a response to workplace victimization. Additionally, high levels of responding maintained for two of three participants in the presence of novel probes. This study expands the literature on training victimization responses in the workplace.
 
147. Behavioral Skill Training to Establish Discrete Trial Teaching Performances
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
HEIDI SKORGE OLAFF (OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University ), Ida Koch (School and Education, Oslo Municipality)
Discussant: Paula Kenyon (Northeastern University and Grupo Método)
Abstract: Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is an empirically supported training package with the purpose to guide staff to achieve an effective behavior change that optimizes their performance and consists of four main components, (1) instruction, (2) modeling, (3) training and (4) feedback. In a primary school setting, special pedagogies and assistants have a central role in the establishment of essential skills for children with special needs. Given this important role, effective training and guidance is crucial. This study established skills in discrete trial teaching (DTT) in school-assistants through BST. The design consisted of a multiple probe design across three assistants. The study expands previous research using BST to establish DTT skills, as well as provides an investigation of the social validity of BST. In addition, we assessed generalization across training programs and settings––not directly involved during training. The results show that all participants demonstrated correct DTT-performances across components, the behavior changes were generalized across different training programs and to a different setting, and the skills were maintained three weeks after the end of the study. In addition, this study shows a high degree of social validity. Behavioral analytical principles involved in the establishment of DTT skills through BST are discussed.
 
 
 
Poster Session #47L
PCH Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Genevieve M DeBernardis (University of Nevada, Reno)
Diversity submission 148. Interlocking Operant Contingencies Intersecting With Respondent Conditioning: Understanding Police Interactions With African Americans
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
GRIDANIA CHRISTY JEAN (Salem State University ), Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University)
Discussant: Erin S. Leif (Monash University)
Abstract:

In many cultures, and especially the United States of America, there are ways in which the general public and law enforcement differentially interact with each other. This interaction, by definition, involves a complex set of antecedents, behavior, and consequences. Understanding complex human behavior in terms of interlocking behavioral contingencies involves operant behavior analysis. However, to fully understand the conditioned physiological responses as well as the operant behavior that is involved, a comprehensive model should also include respondent conditioning. In this poster, we propose a conceptual model of how these types of conditioning intersect with the interactions between law enforcement and people of color and how that intersection affects both parties. Specifically, the model describes the interlocking metacontingencies and macro-contingencies, which assist in describing and explaining these functional relationships. According to this model, there are implications for all stakeholders to benefit from receiving behavioral skills training to partake in interactions that are less frightening and reactive. In addition, several recommendations are given for reinforcing de-escalation tactics and promoting more positive interactions.

 
149. Algorithmic AI Models or Evaluating Shaping Procedures
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
JURNEE SKYLAR DUNN (Salem State University), Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University)
Discussant: Genevieve M DeBernardis (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Technology in the form of electronics and artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly interlocked with our daily lives, and especially in the field of behavior analysis. As our behavior is influenced by technology, and technology influences our behavior, we should continue to use AI to our advantage to better influence desirable target behaviors. AI is increasingly being used to bridge the gap between computer science and behavior analysis: By coding programs to help carry out gradual change procedures, for example, AI can be used to study effective parameters, predict behavior, and make recommendations about how to create better selection by consequences. This work can lead to accelerated or more efficient behavior change. In this poster, an algorithm for evaluating different methods of shaping procedures will be presented, including hill climbing and percentile reinforcement. In addition, current applications and future directions will be covered, as will extensions to other technologies, including robotics.
 
150. The Role of Context in Translation
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
CHIARA FERRARI (University of Nevada Reno), Matthew Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Erin S. Leif (Monash University)
Abstract:

From a Skinnerian perspective, translation is a “special intraverbal behavior in which stimuli and responses are in different languages” (Skinner, 1957, p. 77). In defining translation as a “special” type of intraverbal, Skinner’s analysis was focused on the behavior of the speaker. While Skinner recognized the role of the listener in some circumstances (e.g., what it means to say that a listener “understands” an instance of verbal behavior), this is not described in detail in his analysis of translation. This poster aims to analyze translation in terms of the behavior of both speakers and listeners, with special attention to the issue of meaning and how this is determined by context. Skinner's analysis of a verbal episode in terms of speaker’s and listener’s roles will be reviewed, and his account of translation will be examined in this light. A distinction between a) acts of translation as a “speaker” and b) responding to the stimulus products of acts of translation as a “listener” will be drawn and analyzed. In both cases, the importance of context will be considered. Implications for conceptual and applied issues will be discussed.

 
151. The Founding of Applied Behavior Analysis: Rating and Ranking the Early Applied Behavioral Research Literature
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
EDWARD K. MORRIS (University of Kansas), Deborah E. Altus (Washburn University), Matthew Novak (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Genevieve M DeBernardis (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: This poster describes the founding of applied behavior analysis by rating and ranking the degree to its founding articles (1959-1967) and those published in the first volume of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (est. 1968) were consistent with the field’s seven dimensions. A literature search identified 18 founding articles (1959-1967) which were compared to 22 articles in the journal’s first volume. Rating and ranking them was based on rubrics that had zero-to-six-point scales for the degrees to which their research was consistent with the dimensions. The ratings of each article were used in graphical analyses of, for instance, (a) rankings of the founding articles and research programs and the first published article among them (i.e., Ayllon & Michael, 1959); (b) trends in the degrees to which the pre-journal articles were consistent with the dimensions and the journal articles (e.g., an increasing monotonic trend across them and those in the journal); and (c) differences in the ratings within the dimensions for the pre-journal and journal articles (e.g., the journal articles were significantly more behavioral and technological; see Fig. 1). The presentation concludes with additional analyses of the ratings and rankings for understanding the founding of applied behavior analysis.
 
 
 
Paper Session #52
Compassionate and Culturally Responsible Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Services
Saturday, May 27, 2023
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4E/F
Area: AUT
Chair: Jennifer Bellotti (TBD)
 

Using Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Criticism to Inform Person-Centered Compassionate Care (PCCC): Conceptual Framework

Domain: Theory
DUAA ALZAHRANI (Umm Al-Qura University ), Reva L. Mathieu-Sher (Duquesne Univeristy)
 
Abstract:

The authors of this paper qualitatively investigated the critiques of ABA that have been raised by the autism community and their advocates to identify patterns of concerns and utilize such critiques to inform the development of the person-centered compassionate care (PCCC) framework. The paper provides an overview of possible barriers to compassionate care in ABA, defines Person-Centered Compassionate care, identifies its core values as it relates to ABA, and provides future directions for researchers and practitioners.

 
Autism Inclusion for Behavior Analytic Providers
Domain: Service Delivery
JENNIFER BELLOTTI (Full Spectrum ABA; Bible Based ABA; Full Spectrum Behavior Institute), Jessica Moore (Full Spectrum ABA; Full Spectrum Behavior Institute), Collin E Streetman (Full Spectrum ABA; Autistic & Neurodiverse United Association of Behavior Analysis; Neurodiverse Training in Creative Industries; Bible Based ABA), Erica Lighter (Full Spectrum ABA; Autistic & Neurodiverse United Association of Behavior Analysis; Neuroviderse Training in Creative Industries; Lasalle College), Michelle Vinokurov (Full Spectrum ABA; Autistic & Neurodiverse United Association of Behavior Analysis; Neurodiverse Training in Creative Industries; Manatee County School District), Joshua Kingston (Full Spectrum ABA; Autistic & Neurodiverse United Association of Behavior Analysis; Neurodiverse Training in Creative Industries)
 
Abstract: Behavior analysts are responsible for creating meaningful employment and educational opportunities for autistics. This creates cultures of inclusivity, independence, and empowerment. The authors will discuss how to transform organizational practices to amplify autistic voices. The Full Spectrum ABA Autistic Advocacy Group, Autistic & Neurodiverse United Association of Behavior Analysis (ANU-ABA), and Neurodiverse Training in Creative Industries (NTICI) strive to accomplish this mission and will be reviewed from the perspective of autistic providers. The Full Spectrum ABA Autistic Advocacy Group utilizes own voices accounts to foster an environment of inclusion and support for autistic adults to learn and grow within the field and to teach other neurodivergent and neurotypical ABA providers most compassionate practices. NTICI, created by autistics and behavior analysts, teaches digital marketing skills relevant to today’s job market and celebrates the strengths of autistic individuals through an easily accessible and free app. ANU-ABA is a foreword thinking organization which strives to educate ABA companies and providers on best practices in behavior analysis that are autism friendly. The goal of these initiatives is to shift society toward becoming more inclusive, tolerant, and accepting of neurodivergence, ensuring that autistics receive evidence-based, individualized, and high-quality supports.
 
 
 
Panel #61
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Consultation in Diverse Public School Settings: Community-Centered Frameworks
Saturday, May 27, 2023
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center 403/404
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Megan G. Kunze, Ph.D.
MENAKA KUMARI DE ALWIS (University of Oregon)
BERENICE DE LA CRUZ (Texas A&M University-San Antonio)
WENDY I GUFFEY (Texas A & M University-San Antonio)
Abstract:

Educators in public schools face a diverse student population, requiring them to address unique academic and adaptive needs, encourage self-regulation, and decrease challenging behavior. Pre-service teachers receive some classroom management training in their preparation programs, yet this is limited and often leaves teachers with minimal understanding of preventing and responding to disruptive classroom behavior. Limited resources and budgets are common barriers to further in-service training for educators, burdening school administrators with increasing maladaptive behaviors and teacher burnout. One solution is strengthening the partnership between Behavior Analysts and schools through consultation. This panel will discuss various frameworks and share their experiences of providing ABA consultation in public schools (Pre-K through Secondary) to support diverse student populations and stakeholders. Panelists will explicitly highlight three consulting frameworks, each addressing unique school needs and settings: a multi-year consultation, a framework based on the Registered Behavior Technician Task List (2nd ed.), and a framework supporting regional district needs in rural areas. Panelists will discuss lessons learned, challenges, and ethically responsible problem-solving using the Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts (2020). Finally, panelists will discuss the impact of legislation on available resources and the implementation of ABA in schools. Attendee participation is highly encouraged. Questions and experience-sharing are welcome throughout the session.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Students should have completed some coursework toward their BCBAs and have experience working or practicum experiences in school settings. Professionals should be BCBAs or educators working with BCBAs looking to learn key factors in teaming in schools and have experience with behavior consulting or would like to pursue this partnership.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Define at least two community-centered frameworks and how to begin a partnership between BCBA and educators in a public school setting 2. Name three critical ethical considerations when in the role of a consultant. 3. Describe at least three key factors to consider in supporting diverse students when positioned in a behavioral consultation role. 4. Describe at least three key factors to consider in supporting diverse teachers when building partnerships with in-school personnel and stakeholders in behavioral consultation situations.
Keyword(s): community-centered frameworks, ethical ABA, school consultation
 
 
Panel #62
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Learn From the leaders: Roadmap to be a Successful Clinical Leader in an Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Organization
Saturday, May 27, 2023
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall A-C
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Fumi Horner, Ph.D.
Chair: Fumi Horner (Bierman Autism Centers)
JANA M. SARNO (Hopebridge)
CHRISTINA BAROSKY (Bierman Autism Centers)
NANETTE PFEIFFER (Key Autism Services)
Abstract:

As more and more individuals are getting certified as BCBAs (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2021), there are increased opportunities to grow as a clinical leader. Only a small percentage of BCBAs start their own practice and become their own bosses, while many BCBAs work for organizations or institutions for the bulk of their careers. Even a smaller number of BCBAs make it to the highest level of the clinical leadership role in mid-to-large ABA organizations. In recent years, more resources and training opportunities to be an effective supervisor have become widely available, yet there are limited opportunities to learn how to be a leader within an ABA organization with the current climate of business operations in the field. Leading a large group of BCBAs and RBTs on top of working collaboratively with the operations team and other service providers requires far more than being a great BCBA. This panel discussion addresses some critical learning opportunities, difficult decision-making experiences, strategies, and tips to be a successful leader.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Any BCBAs who are currently practicing as a case manager (supervise groups of RBTs) and interested in learning some tips on how to become a successful and effective clinical leader/supervisor at a mid- to large- sized ABA organization.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Identify some critical steps to take as a brand-new BCBA. 2) Describe the supervisor’s responsibilities to help others to grow. 3) Describe the critical learning opportunities as a leader. 4) Describe some strategies to resolve conflicts between clinical and operation teams. 5) Describe some strategies to ensure/maintain clinical quality when transitioning from a “client-facing” role. 6) Describe steps/tips to build partnerships with non-BCBAs (other service providers, individuals with business background, etc.)
Keyword(s): Collaboration, Ethics, Leadership, Supervision
 
 
Symposium #63
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Incorporating Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion within Behavior Analytic Coursework
Saturday, May 27, 2023
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center 401/402
Area: TBA/CSS; Domain: Theory
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
CE Instructor: Anita Li, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysis graduate programs must train their students to be culturally responsive and aware so that they are prepared to effectively serve a diverse clientele. One important strategy for helping students gain cultural responsiveness and awareness is embedding diversity, equity, and inclusion materials into behavior analysis graduate course sequences. However, little guidance exists for selecting content related to diversity, equity, and inclusion within behavior analysis to include in behavior analytic coursework. This symposium will present two papers to address topic recommendations and readings that can be embededded into typical course structures into behavior analytic graduate programs.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): diversity, equity, inclusion, literature
Target Audience:

Faculty, instructors, and supervisors in behavior analysis

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) list topics in diversity, equity, and inclusion that can be included in coursework part of a verified course sequence; (2) identify commonly assigned readings on diversity, equity, and inclusion; (3) identify what is considered essential readings in diversity, equity, and inclusion in behavior analysis.
 
Diversity submission Essential Readings in Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Behavior Analytic Training Programs
ANITA LI (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Nicole Hollins (The University of Kansas), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University ), Hannah Christine Grey (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: Cultural responsiveness is imperative for the success of behavior analysts. As topics within diversity, equity, and inclusion are emphasized within coursework and supervision, there is growing need for resources. To date, there is limited research on suggested readings within diversity, equity, and inclusion for behavior analysts. We surveyed behavior analysts to construct a list of essential readings within diversity, equity, and inclusion and reported common publications that instructors assigned and students were assigned within behavior analytic coursework.
 
Diversity submission Some Suggestions for Including Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Content in Behavior Analysis Graduate Course Sequences
CODY MORRIS (Salve Regina University ), Anita Li (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Nicole Hollins (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Behavior analysis graduate programs must train their students to be culturally responsive and aware so that they are prepared to effectively serve a diverse clientele. One important strategy for helping students gain cultural responsiveness and awareness is embedding diversity, equity, and inclusion materials into behavior analysis graduate course sequences. However, little guidance exists for selecting content related to diversity, equity, and inclusion within behavior analysis to include in behavior analytic coursework. This paper provides topic recommendations for diversity, equity, and inclusion within behavior analysis that can be embedded into typical course structures in behavior analysis graduate programs. Each course requirement in the Association for Behavior Analysis International’s Verified Course Sequence is given specific recommendations.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #71
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Advancing Racial Equity in Applied Behavior Analysis: Autism as a Case Example
Saturday, May 27, 2023
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 1
Area: DEI; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jomella Watson-Thompson (University of Kansas)
CE Instructor: Brian Boyd, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: BRIAN BOYD (University of North Carolina)
Abstract: In many ways, autism research is at a crossroads. There are debates over the language used to describe the condition, the interventions provided to those who are autistic, and who should have a voice in articulating any future research agenda. In these debates, we sometimes fail to acknowledge that autistic people and their families are not a monolithic group and can occupy multiple minoritizing identities. These multiple minoritizing identifies, such as being black and autistic, can affect their access to quality services, life experiences, and outcomes. Thus, there have been increasing calls to better center equity within autism research and practice to address long-standing disparities that exist along socioeconomic and racial lines. This presentation will (a) highlight research that demonstrates existing disparities; (b) discuss strategies for advancing racial equity within clinical practice, including within ABA-based interventions; and (c) describe a path forward for autism research and practice.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Researchers and Clinicians

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the state of autism research showcasing existing disparities; (2) Describe strategies to promote more culturally focused care; (3) Discuss ways to better center equity within autism research and practice
 
BRIAN BOYD (University of North Carolina)
Brian A. Boyd is the William C. Friday Distinguished Professor in Education in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was previously the Director of the Juniper Gardens Children’s Project at the University of Kansas. Dr. Boyd is quite engaged in research that involves the most vulnerable, and often marginalized, populations. As a special educator by training, much of his research has involved the development and evaluation of evidence-based practices that could be implemented within school and home contexts. His more recent work has focused on how issues of implicit bias and race affect the outcomes of children with and without disabilities. Dr. Boyd’s research has been continuously funded by federal agencies such as the Institute of Education Sciences and National Institutes of Health. Currently, he serves as Vice President of the International Society for Autism Research and Co-Editor of the Journal of Early Intervention. He also serves on multiple national boards that are dedicated to improving the outcomes of autistic persons and those from historically underserved communities.
 
 
Panel #77
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission It's Not Just Racism: The Framing of Political Extremism
Saturday, May 27, 2023
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2B
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Natalie A. Parks, Ph.D.
Chair: Ryan Sain (Mary Baldwin University)
NATALIE A. PARKS (Saint Louis University)
BEVERLY KIRBY (Team ABA LLC)
SHAWN THOMAS CAPELL (Covenant 15:16 LLC)
Abstract:

In the United States, it is sometimes taken for granted that those who stand for Black Lives Matter are also pro-choice and anti-death penalty, even though these topics and issues are not clearly interrelated functionally or topographically. Have you wondered why those who practice racism also seem to practice homophobism, are pro-life, and believe in cutting taxes? To move towards a more socially just society, we must first understand the interrelatedness of seemingly unrelated topics including racism, classism, ageism, abortion, taxation, abolishing police, and freedom. Stimulus class formation occurs when a group of stimuli evoke functionally similar responses. The panelists and chair of this presentation have conducted preliminary exploratory research and hypothesized that stimulus classes exist that evoke responses with topics that are seemingly different, both topographically and functionally, often sometimes contradictory. Further, we will discuss how to identify functional reinforcers that establish beliefs (i.e., verbal behavior) and actions. A conversation regarding stimulus equivalence and nonequivalence of extremist parties will occur, focusing on the behavioral phenomena that both form and maintain these classes as well as how to change them.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

This panel discusses interlocking contingencies, stimulus class formation, and stimulus equivalence and nonequivalence. Participants should be well versed in these topics prior to attending.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Identify how stimulus classes that contain seemingly unrelated topographical and functional classes form 2. State how the development of extremist groups are the similar 3. Identify at least one strategy to change a stimulus class to move away from extremism and towards a more socially just society
Keyword(s): classism, diversity, interlocking contingencies, stimulus equivalence
 
 
Symposium #87
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Using Data to Inform Ethical Practices in Research and Clinical Work
Saturday, May 27, 2023
4:00 PM–5:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4A/B
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kathryn Glodowski (Mission Autism Clinics)
Discussant: Amy Gravino (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services/A.S.C.O.T Consulting)
CE Instructor: Kathryn Glodowski, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Professional organizations for behavior analysts and the Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2020) are intended to protect vulnerable populations receiving applied behavior analysis (ABA) services and offer service providers support and accountability in upholding guidelines set to protect clients. When selecting practices in alignment with professional guidelines, behavior analysts also may want to confer with the research literature to ensure their selections are evidence-based. This symposium includes four presentations, each one showcasing a dataset related to an area of ethical need within the field. The first presentation will discuss survey results about researchers’ use of practices to obtain consent and assent from research participants. The second presentation will cover survey results regarding clinicians’ use of assessments and behavioral procedures to minimize behaviors that may cause harm. The third presentation will share results from an experiment comparing the efficacy and acceptability of using parents’ preferred or non-preferred language during behavioral skills training. The fourth presentation will consider results from a systematic review of recent literature in behavioral journals involving autistic people, comparing the use of deficit-based vs. strengths-based terminology. Amy Gravino (A.S.C.O.T Consulting, LLC) will discuss these four presentations based on her experiences and perspective.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Assent, Language Diversity, Problem Behavior, Strengths-Based Terminology
Target Audience:

The target audience includes BCBAs or BCBA-Ds providing ABA services and/or conducting ABA research. The pre-requisites include knowledge of the Code of Ethics for Behavior Analysts and the ability to make evidence-based decisions.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Describe various methods to obtain consent and assent from research participants, as well as the relevant items from the Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts (the Code). 2. Describe clinicians’ reports of using assessment and behavior-reduction procedures when minimizing behaviors causing harm, as well as the relevant items from the Code. 3. Describe the benefits of using a families’ preferred language when working with culturally and linguistically diverse families, as well as the relevant items from the Code. 4. Describe behavioral researchers’ use of deficit-based vs. strengths-based terminology in autism research, as well as the relevant items from the Code.
 
Diversity submission Consent and Assent Practices in Behavior Analytic Research
SARAH C. MEAD JASPERSE (Emirates College for Advanced Education), Michelle P. Kelly (Emirates College for Advanced Education (ECAE)), Shannon Ward (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by The New England Center for Children), Jonathan K Fernand (Florida Institute of Technology), P. Raymond Joslyn (Utah State University), Wilhelmina van Dijk (Utah State University)
Abstract: While consent and assent (when relevant) are required components of behavior analytic research activities according to the Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts (Behavior Analyst Certification Board®, 2020), information about the use of assent procedures is not always included in published research (Morris et al., 2021). The purpose of the present study was to explore consent and assent processes in behavior analytic research by surveying researchers about their knowledge, practices, resources, barriers, and solutions with respect to consent and assent. The results from 123 behavior analytic researchers suggest that a variety of methods are being used to seek consent and assent, even though those processes are not always described in published literature. Additionally, discrepancies were noted between behavior analytic researchers’ responses related to consent and assent, which suggests the need for more research, training, resources, and social contingencies related to assent.
 
Diversity submission Clinicians' Use of Assessments and Treatment Procedures to Reduce Problem Behavior
KATHRYN GLODOWSKI (Mission Autism Clinics), Jacqueline Duchow (They Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg), Sundal Ghori (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg), Emma Olszewski (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg), Lindsay M. Knapp (Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: Evidence-based and ethical practice for treating problem behavior includes selecting, designing, and implementing FBAs and reinforcement-based treatment procedures informed by the results of the FBAs (BACB, 2020). A punishment component may also be needed only if socially valid outcomes have not been achieved with less intrusive procedures or if the risk of harm of the behavior outweighs the potential risk of harm of the procedure. Relatively little empirical information is available about clinicians’ process for treating problem behavior. The current project includes a survey of 252 BCBAs’ use of FBAs, treatment procedures for problem behavior, and punisher assessments if they’ve used punishment. Most respondents reported always using interviews and descriptive assessments when developing behavior-reduction plans, and almost all reported using differential reinforcement, extinction, and noncontingent reinforcement to reduce moderate or severe forms of aggression and self-injurious behavior. In addition, most respondents reported using response blocking, response interruption and redirection, response cost, and contingent demands; but few respondents reported using direct punisher assessments. A discussion about practice recommendations and future research is included.
 
Diversity submission An Empirical Investigation of the Effects of Preferred Language Use in Parent Training
ABRIL GISELLE LOPEZ CERVANTES (Fresno State), Marianne L. Jackson (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: The Behavior Analyst Certification Board’s (BACB) Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts provides guidelines for BCBAs to follow when working with diverse populations. Ethical code 1.07, Cultural Responsiveness and Diversity, points out that behavior analysts need to gain knowledge and skills related to cultural responsiveness and diversity while assessing their own biases and capacity to address the needs of people with diverse backgrounds. Within the provision of ABA services, many systemic barriers exist for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) families. These barriers include the lack of diversity in research and practitioners and the common use of English as the default language in the provision of services. The current study examined the effectiveness and acceptability of caregiver training using their preferred and less preferred language. We recruited four parent-child dyads. Parent participants identified as Hispanic or Latina females between 37 and 57 whose primary language is Spanish and secondary is English (bilingual), with children aged between 3 to 8 years diagnosed with ASD or a related IDD. The study employed an alternating treatment design to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of each condition (i.e., preferred versus less preferred language) and its related intervention (i.e., sleep and toilet training) during behavioral skills training (BST). The results suggest that the use of each parent participant’s preferred language was slightly more effective and that parents rated the preferred language intervention higher on scales of acceptability and preference. The implications of this are discussed, as are the difficulties of conducting research in this area and suggestions for future studies.
 
Diversity submission 

A Systematic Review of How Behavioral Researchers Talk About Autism and Implications for Ethical Practice

SUMMER BOTTINI (Marcus Autism Center, Emory School of Medicine), Hannah Morton (Oregon Health & Science University), Kelly Buchanan (Binghamton University), Kait Gould (College of St. Rose)
Abstract:

Autism and disability research are shifting to a strengths-based approach including acceptance of characteristic differences and recognizing differences can be socially constrained. Advocates have suggested that terminology surrounding autism may negatively impact service delivery and people on the autism spectrum. In response, advocates have published recommendations for alternative terms to use in autism research. We aimed to identify how behavioral researchers describe autism and intervention supports to determine whether current language practices are consistent with recommendations. We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA-S guidelines for articles involving autistic people in 2021, yielding 2360 articles across 242 peer-reviewed journals. We will present results from articles in behavioral journals (n = 98 articles). We specifically examined the use of traditional deficit-based language relative to recommended alternative terms. Initial findings suggest that behavioral researchers still predominantly use terms consistent with a deficit-based model as opposed to strength-based alternatives; however, this is consistent with autism discourse across other disciplines of research as well. We will discuss ethical and practical implications of such language choices and provide recommendations for behavioral researchers.

 
 
Panel #91
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Cultural Responsiveness and Values-Based Care: What Starting Services in the Caribbean Can Teach Us
Saturday, May 27, 2023
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4E/F
Area: AUT/CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau, Ph.D.
Chair: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Flamboyán Behavioral Services)
SLOANE PHARR (The Wellness Centre)
MEGHAN CROWLEY (Tropical Behavioral Services)
GABRIELLE INDAH TORRES (Autism Aid Foundation / Find Your Balance LLC / Capella University)
Abstract:

Acceptance of care, quality of care and outcomes of care are all influenced by the cultural responsiveness of the clinicians delivering that care. Nowhere has this been clearer than in service delivery in the Caribbean. Our panelists from the Cayman Islands, St. Croix and Curacao will provide a brief introduction of who they are and the roles they play and have played in behavior analysis in the Caribbean. After these introductions, our chair from Puerto Rico will moderate a discussion based on questions from the audience focused on exploring the importance of cultural responsiveness and values-based care in communities where access to care has been limited; mental health stigmas still exist; and cultural factors must be taken into consideration. This panel is appropriate for anyone interested in learning more about starting services outside the United States or in rural/remote areas in the United Stated where services are not yet accessible, and barriers to care including cultural barriers exist.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts with at least 1-2 years of experience.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Identify the importance of cultural responsiveness in a service delivery model 2) Understand what it means to provide values-based care to clients and their families 3) Describe considerations for delivering high quality, appropriate care in settings with limited resources 4) Explore how to resolve conflicts of interest and issues of scope of competence when they are the only, or one of few, providers in a region
Keyword(s): Caribbean, cultural responsiveness, dissemination, values-based care
 
 
Paper Session #100
Conceptual Issues in the Analysis of Culture and Culturally Sensitive Care
Saturday, May 27, 2023
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom D
Area: PCH
Chair: José G. Ardila-Sánchez (University of Nevada, Reno)
 
Aesthetics in Interpersonal Relations
Domain: Theory
JOSÉ G. ARDILA-SÁNCHEZ (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
 
Abstract: The analysis of phenomena in terms of stimuli and responses is a common scientific practice in behavior analysis. Aesthetics, as a case in point, has been analyzed as a type of response (Mechner, 2018), and a sort of audience control (Malott, 2018). The difference between aesthetics as conventional linguistic practice and as natural phenomena from a naturalistic perspective will be introduced. This presentation offers a view of aesthetics as a property of molar contingencies based on Emilio Ribes-Iñesta’s theory of molar behaviorism (2018) and its extension to his study of social relations, called sociopsychology (Ribes-Iñesta et al., 2016). Molar contingencies are analyzed in terms of functional relations, initial and terminal conditions, and process of attachment-detachment. Social relations are analyzed in terms of two general types of social contingencies: interpersonal and impersonal relations. Two general points about aesthetics will be made with respect to individual and interindividual contingencies. The first point consists in presenting an analysis of transformation contingencies (Ribes-Iñesta, 2018) and the role of aesthetics therein. The terminal condition in transformation contingencies is of key concern; the transformed referential practices are coherent, harmonic, or aesthetic. The second point consists in presenting a sociopsychological analysis (Ribes-Iñesta et al., 2016) of the interindividual contingencies juxtaposed to transformation contingencies. The social relations regulating the transformed practices will be considered; the notion of power will bear upon these last set of considerations. The implications of these points to the science of cultural phenomena otherwise known as “culturo-behavior science” will be offered.
 
Abstract:

Recently there has been an increased interest in cultural considerations in service delivery. Although most behavior analysts frequently work with diverse populations, many may lack the expertise required to serve the needs of individuals with cultural backgrounds that may differ considerably from their own. To address this issue, the new Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts requires certificants to accrue a minimum of 3 CEU related to culturally responsive service delivery. However, since many of these trainings are offered by professionals who are not from diverse backgrounds, discussions about the cultures of others are often based either on stereotypes or on what is documented in the literature. We suggest that these discussions may not always reflect the perspectives and experiences of practitioners and families from underrepresented cultures. Considerations from the perspective of the “other” will be highlighted, focusing on examples from Arab culture.

 
 

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