Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

  • AUT: Autism

    CBM: Clinical/Family/Behavioral Medicine

    CSS: Community, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    DDA: Developmental Disabilities

    DEV: Behavioral Development

    EAB: Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    EDC: Education

    OBM: Organizational Behavior Management

    PCH: Philosophical, Conceptual, and Historical Issues

    TBA: Teaching Behavior Analysis

    VRB: Verbal Behavior

13th Annual Autism Conference; San Francisco, CA; 2019

Event Details

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Poster Session #3
Poster Session
Friday, January 18, 2019
6:00 PM–8:00 PM
Pacific Concourse
1. Effects of Functional Communication Training on Disruptive Behaviours Maintained by Task Avoidance in Children With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: The present study intended to verify the effects of a Functional Communication Training (FCT) procedure plus a procedure to avoid escape from important activities, on disruptive behaviours, on the emission of verbal responses and non-verbal responses and to verify if there was a generalisation of the verbal and non verbal response to a naive experimenter. Participants were three children between three and six years of age, and diagnosed with autism. Initially, the results of the Functional Analysis showed that there was a considerably greater number of disruptive responses emitted by the three participants in the demand condition. In the Functional Communication Training (FCT) phase, each participant was taught to request a pause to perform tasks through verbal responses. In the fading out phase, the task execution response and a gradual decrease of the prompt was implemented, from most intrusive to least intrusive. The results showed that the three participants presented a decrease in the emission of disruptive responses after the acquisition of the verbal response to request a pause to perform tasks. The results also indicated that the three participants acquired the response for the task execution, reducing the emission of verbal pause requests for execution and maintaining a low number of disruptive responses. In the generalisation test of the verbal response (mand) and the non-verbal response (do the task) to a naive experimenter, it was verified that all participants responses generalized.
3. Moving From Awareness to Acceptance: Preliminary Results of Survey Data Collected on College age Students on Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIC JOSEPH BIENIEK (Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract: As diagnosis rates increase and persons affected by ASD mature, Autism Spectrum Disorder has grown to affect us as individuals, groups and society as a whole. Based on this premise, a sample of college-aged, young adults were surveyed on how they are connected, affected and perceive ASD. A purposeful sample of members of the AutismSPEAKS U chapter at a rural, western Pa university were identified for this study. Participants were queried on their direct experiences with ASD and their degree of awareness and acceptance (based on the Gibson Model of Disability Identity Development Model). Students identified areas perceived as significant in the success or failure of those affected by ASD as well as their comfort levels in establishing relationships at varying degrees with persons affected by ASD.
4. Educators’ Knowledge of Applied Behavior Analysis and Barriers to Its Implementation
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HAJAR A ALMUTLAQ (M.A. University of Oklahoma), Annie Baghdayan (PhD, BCBA-D, LBA University of Oklahoma Outreach )
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is an empirical and data-driven academic instruction for all students. In this study, educators were asked to complete an online survey about behavioral management strategies and ABA. Participants were recruited from public schools in Midwestern U.S. Participants included special education and general education teachers, teaching assistants and paraprofessionals, principals, occupational therapists, and speech and language pathologists. Participants completed a questionnaire using Likert-type scales to describe their experience dealing with students who exhibit challenging behaviors. The study identified barriers of implementation presented by the educators based on their knowledge of behavior management strategies and ABA. The results of the study offer practical suggestions from educators’ perspective about their preference of future learning opportunities, and it provides future suggestions to support the skills needed to manage students’ behaviors.
5. Teaching Eye Gaze Tracking to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Sheila Quinn (Salve Regina University), Andrea Chait (Momentum Inc; Salve Regina University), YANA GRIGORYEVA (Momentum Inc.)
Abstract: Eye gaze is considered integral to the development of more advanced forms of joint attention which are pivotal skills and considered one of the developmentally earliest forms of communication. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a discrete trial teaching program designed to develop eye gaze tracking in school-age children with autism. A multiple baseline across participants design examining the percent of correct responses to a 3-choice discrimination task indicated that all 6 participants learned to discriminate among objects based on the direction of an adult’s eye gaze. The children generalized this behavior beyond the immediate teaching situation as indicated by their performance on the more advanced objectives in the task analysis. Previous research has not documented a technique for teaching older children to utilize adult eye gaze. This article documents the effectiveness of applied behavior analysis for teaching eye gaze tracking, a skill preliminary to joint attention, to older children.
6. Increasing Accuracy of Data Collection by Direct Support Professionals With Task Clarification and Performance Feedback
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RUPA NADKAR (Temple University; Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
Abstract: Direct Support Professionals (DSPs) are responsible for collecting behavior data on client performance. For students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), these data are important for assessment, treatment, and ongoing adjustments to behavioral programs. The current study aimed to increase accurate data collection by DSPs by utilizing a task clarification and performance feedback treatment package at a Residential Treatment Facility (RTF) day program, observing clients with ASD. The treatment package resulted in an immediate increase in accurate data collection from baseline to intervention, with some evidence of generalization or “spill over” to one other staff member and non-participants. Obstacles were observed within the classroom setting but with the presentation of task clarification and performance feedback operating as an establishing operation, obstacles were no longer present. Participants maintained and exceeded mastery criteria for accurate data during maintenance phase. These results are discussed in the context of a behavioral systems analysis of organizational intervention.
7. How Parent Support Impacts Treatment Integrity in Parent Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIA CARTWRIGHT (The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas), Katherine Bellone (The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas), Stormi White (UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas), Rebekah Travis (Independent Practice, Dallas, Texas), Robin Jarrett (UT Southwestern Medical Center), Stephen Elliott (UT Southwestern Medical Center), Cole Hague (UT Southwestern Medical Center), Savanna Sablich (UT Southwestern Medical Center)
Abstract: Training parents as agents of behavior change increases intervention exposure, however, engaging parents in order to change parenting behavior proves difficult. Parents of children with disruptive behavior and Autism Spectrum Disorder experience high parental stress, which negatively impacts parenting and treatment engagement. The current study assessed outcomes of adding a parent-support component to RUBI Autism Network’s Parent Training for Disruptive Behaviors. In an alternating treatments design, a community-based sample of five parent-child dyads (average age of child = 32 months) participated in the parent-training protocol; half of the intervention sessions included a 15-minute parent-support component. The intervention effectively reduced disruptive behaviors and increased parent praise; the primary finding was that the addition of the parent-support component further increased parent treatment engagement, which was evident in increased parent treatment integrity and learned parenting skills. Results support a model of change for parenting behavior. Inclusion of a parent-support component is supported as an effective practice for parent training.
8. Replication of an Interview Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis in an Outpatient Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RACHEL KRISTINE ENRIGHT (Gateway Pediatric Therapy, LLC), Christina Vestevich (Gateway Pediatric Therapy, LLC)
Abstract: The purpose of is project is to continue dissemination of a completed functional assessment and treatment process for a patient previously received services in an outpatient clinic. The client displayed high frequency and intensities of problem behavior at home and at school that limit learning opportunities. This project involves analysis and presentation of data collected as part of the analysis and intervention through the utilization of Hanley's Interview Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA) in order to determine idiosyncratic contingencies of reinforcement maintaining undesired maladaptive behaviors. Once these contingencies were determined, desired functional communication responses were targeted to replace the previously exhibited maladaptive behaviors.
9. Acceptance and Commitment Workshop For Parents Of Adolescents And Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MOLLY ANN LAMB (University of Southern Illinois ), William Root (Southern Illinois University), India Pauly Hertel (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Research consistently demonstrates parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience more parental stress than parents with children in any other developmental category (Hayes & Watson, 2013). The current behavior analytic literature focuses on parent training of behavior plans, however, interventions for parents' private behaviors are not discussed. When parents implement behavior plans effectively to reduce problem behaviors, these behavioral stressors for the parents are being reduced simultaneously. However, the process itself may involve conditions reported to be stressful, so providing training on working through these conditions would be valuable for both parents’ and their children’s success. Previous research has begun investigating the use of Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) protocols as an intervention to increase psychological flexibility and reduce stress among this population (Hahs, Dixon, and Palilunas, 2018). Due to evidence provided in the literature demonstrating ACT as an effective intervention for parents of individuals with ASD, the current study conducted an evaluation of a brief ACT training in comparison with a traditional parent support group for this population. Participants of the study were twenty caregivers of an individual diagnosed with ASD. Each intervention consisted of two, two-hour sessions. Participants were provided with the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II and Parental Stress Scale pre and post intervention. Independent t-tests were ran in order to determine if mean change scores differed on the questionnaires across the ACT and TAU groups. Results of the independent t-test indicated that the difference in mean change scores of both the AAQ-II and PSS across groups were not statistically significant. Clinical implications are offered.
10. Bridging Policy and Practice: Examining Restraint and Seclusion Procedures in Schools for Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRIAN CONNERS (Seton Hall University), Jennifer Ann Scalera (Seton Hall University)
Abstract: The restrictive practices of restraint and seclusion are often used with students who exhibit challenging behaviors, such as physical aggression, self-injury, and elopement (Ryan & Peterson, 2004). These restraint and seclusion procedures are used widely with students with autism and developmental disabilities (United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, 2018). This poster provides a policy analysis of state legislation on restraint and seclusion to examine the inclusion of evidence-based behavior analytic practices in restraint and seclusion reduction (i.e., Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA), Functional Analysis (FA), antecedent-based and consequence-based interventions, and staff training/behavioral skills training). The analysis also examined these state legislations for the specific mention of autism and developmental disabilities, as well as the requirement of Board Certified Behavior Analysts® (BCBAs®) being involved in these procedures. Findings showed that a majority of state legislation required staff training, particularly in crisis intervention (95.7%). Results also illustrated that only three states required the involvement of BCBAs®. Furthermore, less than half of states required an FBA and only two states recommended an FA as part of state legislation. Policy implications and future directions for BCBAs® are discussed on how to bridge policy and best practice for students with autism.
11. Functional Communication Training and Generalization in Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN CARPENTER (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Ya-yu Lo (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract: To extend limited research on the generalization effects of Functional Communication Training (FCT) through training diversely, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of FCT in combination with teaching multiple stimuli (specifically people), using a multiple probe across interventionists design, on the generalized use of the communicative response and level of challenging behaviors of two elementary students with autism in a school setting. The experimenter first conducted a trial-based functional analysis to determine the function of the interfering behaviors for each participant. During FCT, participants were taught to use their new communicative response by the designated interventionist using a least to most prompting procedure. Three interventionists served as trainers to implement FCT in a staggered manner, whereas the fourth adult served as the generalization measure in that this person was not trained to implement FTC. Overall, the results showed that one participant improved newly learned communicative response and reduced challenging behavior when FCT was implemented across adults; there was also preliminary support for the effectiveness of FCT on generalized outcomes. Results for the second participant were inconclusive. Implications for research and practice include continued research on examining generalization effects within FCT and staff training of FCT implementation.
12. Science Instruction for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Analysis of Single-Case Research
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JIWON HWANG (California State University Bakersfield), Karen Rizzo (Pennsylvania State University, Behrend), Jonte Taylor (Pennsylvania State University), Doris Adams Hill (Auburn University)
Abstract: Society writ large has taken a major interest in supporting the need for a science-literate society, largely due to more occupational opportunities in STEM fields. However, for students with ASD, STEM opportunities as well as STEM achievement significantly lag behind their peers without disabilities. In order to remedy this situation, research has provided support for students with ASD in science classrooms and learning science content and concepts. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the efficacy of classroom science instruction for students with ASD. We used a variety of single-case research effect size analyses (Tau-U, PND, and visual analysis) to answer the following questions: (1) What were the effects of science-related achievement studies for students with ASD? and (2) What were the effects of intervention components for students with ASD? We examined peer-reviewed experimental studies addressing the effects of interventions designed to enhance science achievement for students with ASD. Three inclusion criteria were used for the review: experimental studies with single-case design; classroom- or behavior-based interventions in the areas of science; and school-aged participants primarily diagnosed with ASD. In the 8 identified studies, a total of 19 students with ASD were included (male=17) and majority of students were in middle schools (elementary=3, middle=15; high=1). Overall results of effect size analyses indicated that science-related interventions in 8 studies were effective. After we thoroughly analyzed each of 8 interventions, 9 evidence-based instructional components were identified: discrete-trial/1:1 instruction, explicit instruction, embedded instruction, graphics organizer, inquiry-based instruction, self-management strategies, task analysis, time delay, and technology-related strategies. Among 9 instruction components, both PND and Tau-U effect size indices indicated that embedded instruction, inquiry-based instruction, and task analysis were the most effective. Finding will provide a guideline and useful information for general science education and special education teachers to provide students with ASD optimal opportunities to succeed in science and STEM. Educational implication and limitation are discussed.
13. The Role of Parent Characteristics in Parent-Mediated Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
REBECCA A. SHALEV (NYU Langone Health), Caila Lavine (NYU Langone Health), Adriana Di Martino (Child Mind Institute)
Abstract: Parent-mediated interventions (PMI) are increasingly being used to target skill deficits in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Evidence documenting the benefits of PMI is accumulating, however, little is known about whether parent characteristics impact children’s treatment outcomes. We reviewed the PMI literature using PRIMSA guidelines to address this gap. We identified 82 PMI studies published between 1987 and 2016; of these, only 9 examined the contributions of baseline parent characteristics on children’s outcomes. These studies vary widely in regard to the interventions employed and outcome measures explored. Early intervention programs were the most common form of treatment and parent/family stress was the most frequently targeted parent characteristic. Results indicated that parent or family stress, socioeconomic status, and the broad autism phenotype may be related to children’s outcomes with varying effects depending on the specific treatment and outcome examined. These results underscore the need for systematic research on the role of parent baseline characteristics in PMI. A deeper understanding of the relationship between parent variables and child outcomes in PMI may provide means to better inform treatment selection and elucidate key mechanisms of therapeutic change.
14. A Strategy for Successful Full Inclusion of Students With Autism in Florida Public Schools
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
CHRONA JANETT CONLEY (Nova Southeastern University)
Abstract: Historically, young children with autism spectrum disorder have often been segregated in special education settings away from their typically developing peers, where educators have focused more on managing behavior. However, with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, legislation has shifted from segregated to inclusive classroom settings. While policies call for the usage of evidence-based practices for successful inclusion of students with disabilities, there is a gap between the research base and real-world practice in schools. Further investigation of the literature on instructing students with autism reveal a variety of challenges, including insufficient knowledge about evidence-based practices, low implementation of programs, and the lack of a standardized program that can be tailored to fit the needs of a student within an inclusive setting. To formulate a program that can address these issues, a thorough needs assessment should be conducted to gain an adequate understanding of the challenges that hinder the successful implementation of interventions for students with autism. This presentation outlines a proposed plan for assessing normative, relative, expressed, and perceived need, which—once implemented—will direct the organization of a standardized intervention program that can be modified to fit students with autism in inclusive settings.
15. School-Based Problem Behavior Interventions for Individuals With Autism: Meta-Analysis of Single Case Data
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER LEDFORD (Vanderbilt University), Katherine Severini (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: A review of school-based problem behavior interventions for individuals with autism in schools was conducted; nearly all resulting studies were conducted using single case design (Severini, Ledford, & Robertson, 2018). Multiple effect size measures were calculated and meta-analyses were conducted. Both substantive and methodological ramifications are discussed.

Telehealth Coaching in a Multimodal Communication Intervention for Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Sanikan Wattanawongwan (Texas A&M University), Jennifer Ganz (Texas A&M University), Lauren Pierson (Texas A&M University), Valeria Yllades (Texas A&M University), CHING-YI LIAO (Texas A&M University - College Station, TX), Sarah Ura (Texas A&M University)

Parent coaching via telehealth facilitates communication between therapists and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and provides the potential to decrease the discrepancy between demand for behavioral intervention services and families’ ability to access those services. The purpose of this single case multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effects of telehealth coaching on child communication skills in a multimodal communication intervention with parents of children with ASD. Three parent-child dyads and one parent-child triad participated in the study, with child ages ranging from 3 years to 15 years. The study design included three main phase changes in each level, including baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. The generalization data was conducted across all three phases. All parents completed 10 to 12 coaching sessions ranging in duration from 30 to 60 minutes one time per week via a telehealth platform. The coach provided weekly feedback to parents after data analyzation of a video-recorded parent-child interaction. Results of the functional relation between parents’ fidelity and intervention, correlation and effects between parents’ fidelity and the child’s behavior, study limitations, and implications will be discussed.

17. Increasing the Verbal Behavior of Preschool Students With Autism in Texas Public Special Education Classrooms
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LUPE CASTANEDA (Northside Independent School District), Carol L. Reynolds (Military School Districts Cooperative), John A. Reynolds (Medina Valley Independent School District), Sonya Casas (San Antonio Independent School District), Kelsey L Cody (San Antonio Independent School District), Alonzo Alfredo Andrews (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Lee L Mason (Univ of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract: For the 2018-2019 academic year, nine San Antonio area school districts were funded by the Texas Education Agency to provide early intensive verbal behavior intervention for 100 students with autism. At the start of the year we assessed participants using the Stimulus Control Ratio Equation (SCoRE) to determine the extent to which mands, echoics, tacts, and sequelics exerted disproportionate levels of control over their verbal behavior. The results of the SCoRE were then used to develop individualized verbal behavior intervention plans for each student. We subsequently trained 120 teachers and paraprofessionals to implement referent-based verbal behavior instruction to transfer control across these four primary verbal operants. In addition to providing direct classroom-based services for students with autism, the project includes monthly parent trainings conducted by district behavior analysts throughout the life of the award. At the end of the year, students are re-assessed with the verbal behavior SCoRE to analyze language gains. Here we present an outline of the project along with results for each grant objective to date.
19. Lunch Bunch: The Effects of a Group Intervention With a Parent Coaching Component on Challenging Mealtime Behaviors in Young Children at Risk for Autism and Related Developmental Delays
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
YEVGENIYA VEVERKA (University of Washington)
Abstract: Mealtime challenges commonly occur in young children at risk for autism spectrum disorders. Mealtime challenges can be detrimental to a child’s health, social development, and family functioning. This study investigated the effects of a group intervention with a parent education component, called Lunch Bunch, on the mealtime behaviors of young children as well as mealtime related stress and confidence levels in parents. Six young children, five of whom qualified for an Individualized Family Service Plan and were at risk for developing autism or related developmental delays, participated along with a parent. In this program, an interventionist provided information on mealtime strategies and then coached parents through mealtime in a group setting. Multiple baseline data demonstrated an increase in appropriate mealtime behaviors in children such as staying at the table and eating a wider selection of food. Parents also reported increased confidence in using positive feeding practices and decreases in stress surrounding mealtime. This intervention, implemented in an early intervention environment, helped families of children at risk for autism and related developmental delays change mealtimes from a stressful situation into a successful family event.
20. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on the Acquisition of Aquatic Skills in Children With Autism and Obesity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: Childhood obesity is a growing public health concern. Studies have suggested that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at a higher risk of obesity compared to the general population. Specific interventions to increase physical activity in this population is needed to promote a more active lifestyle. The current study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on the acquisition of aquatic skills needed for exercise for 2 participants diagnosed with ASD and obesity. Prior to implementation of BST, each participant was evaluated using the American Red Cross level 4 criteria. Skills selected were skills needed to swim laps for exercise. Baseline data showed that targeted skills were 0% correct. Treatment was evaluated using a multiple baseline across skills. Results showed that the percentage correct increased for all skills following BST. These results suggest that BST is a viable approach for teaching swimming for exercise to children with ASD.
21. What's Your Function? Reducing Self-Injurious Behaviors in Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JASMYN LEDFORD (Howard University )
Abstract: This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Color-Coded Card (CCC) Behavioral Intervention on reducing self-injurious behavior (SIB) in students recently classified with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The Color-Coded Card Behavioral Intervention utilizes a visual representation of reinforcement, in which reinforcement is delivered when behaviors other than SIB are exhibited. This study serves to also examine the outcome of this behavioral intervention on students who have not been previously exposed to function-based interventions addressing SIB. A multiple-baseline design across participants will be used. Participants will be selected based on the following set of criteria: (a) recent (within 1 year) clinical diagnosis of an ASD using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- IV criteria or educational determination of autism (IDEA), (b) age range of 5 years 0 months and 12 years 6 months at the start of the study, (c) evidence of self-injurious behavior, (d) parent/caregiver consent to participate in the intervention.
22. Investigating the Symptoms of Traumatic Stress in Fathers of Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CLINTON SMITH (University of Tennessee at Martin), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis), Robert Williamson (Simon Fraser University), Susan Elswick (University of Memphis)
Abstract: The current study focused exclusively on exploring traumatic stress on fathers of children with an autism spectrum. The purpose of the current study was two-fold. First, the existence of any stress in fathers of children with ASD regarding the thoughts of receiving their child’s diagnosis was explored. The participants in this study consisted of 83 fathers of children diagnosed with autism recruited from across the United States. The Los Angeles Symptom Checklist (LASC) was used to measure a specific traumatic event, the diagnosis of autism for their child. The data from the LASC suggest that some fathers do experience such stress. With 17.6% of participants receiving the LASC categorization of PTSS positive and 30% being categorized as partial PTSS positive, it is clear that just under half of the sample indicated levels of stress associated with PTSD. Further statistical analysis backs up the findings that differences exist in the magnitude of stress symptoms felt across fathers when considering the initial diagnosis of their child with an ASD. While just under half of the father participants in the current study were considered to experience at least partial symptoms of PTSS, all participants varied greatly in the magnitude of the symptoms each experienced. Suggestions are given for supporting fathers who have children diagnosed with autism those in the health care and behavioral communities. It is important to provide supportive information on evidence-based treatments to families regarding interventions for their child and multi-systemic programming that is available to them as they navigate service delivery and supports for their family and individual needs. Interventions with fathers should focus on the reduction of using avoidance strategies to cope with their stress and implement a more problem-based approach to cope with stress.
23. Training Affects Self-Reported Functional Analysis Practices
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AMIN DUFF LOTFIZADEH (Easterseals Southern California), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Jennifer Frieder (Affiliate)
Abstract: A number of survey studies have indicated that clinicians do not regularly conduct functional analysis assessments when designing behavior intervention plans. The respondents in those studies were not all Board Certified Behavior Analysts® (BCBA®s), nor did they conduct functional analysis assessments as part of their regular job duties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate self-reported practices for those who were expected to conduct functional analysis assessments at work. We extended previous studies by evaluating the role of training and service setting on self-reported functional analysis practices. The respondents indicated that they did not regularly conduct functional analysis assessments. Those with formal training in functional analyses conducted them more, rated the barriers as lower, and perceived them to be more useful than those who were not formally trained. Service setting did not influence the responses. These results have implications for how BCBA®s should be trained in functional analyses.
24. Continuous and Discontinuous Data Collection Methods: Effects on Learning Trials Presented
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGHAN HERRON (Easterseals Southern California), Amin Duff Lotfizadeh (Easterseals Southern California)
Abstract: A critical dimension of the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA) is data analysis. There are a variety of data collection methods that are used to assess learning, they range from continuous to discontinuous methods. A common form of continuous data collection is trial-by-trial data collection and a common form of discontinuous data collection is first-trial data collection. Although prior research has indicated that trial-by-trial data collection is more accurate and sensitive than first-trial, it is considered more effortful and may take away from therapy time. The purpose of the present study was to compare the number of learning trials presented by behavior therapists when they used trial-by-trial versus first-trial data collection methods. The results indicated that trial-by-trial resulted in more teaching opportunities than first-trial. On average trial-by-trial resulted in 32% more teaching trials than first-trial data collection.
25. Utilizing Video-Hero Modeling to Improve Bathroom-Related Skills of a Female Student With an Intellectual Disability
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AYAKA TAKAHASHI (The Joint Graduate School in Science of School Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education)
Abstract: A video-based intervention called video hero modeling (VHM) has been reported recently (Ohtake, 2015). In this strategy, participants are encouraged to watch the motivational video in which a participants' subject of interest (i.e. hero) serves as a model engaging in target behaviors. This study investigated the effect of VHM on improving bathroom-related skills of a female student with an intellectual disability. The participant was a 6-year-old girl with an intellectual disability. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors was utilized as an experimental design. Three bathroom-related skills observed in her school bathroom were selected as target behaviors: drying her hands, washing her hands, and tucking in her shirt. Improvement was observed in the early part of the intervention phase for the first and the second behaviors but decreased slightly in the latter part of the intervention. The improvement was limited for tucking in her shirt; Except for two sessions in which the participant exhibited level 1, she scored level 0 on all sessions during intervention period. The participant tended to get lower performance levels when her teacher was not present in the bathroom.
26. Using RTI for Teacher Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MICHAEL C. LAMBERT (Western Washington University), Gail Coulter (Western Washington University)
Abstract: Response to Intervention (RTI) and Curriculum-based evaluation (CBE) has strong support in the professional literature for K- 12 populations. Application of the technology is relevant in higher education, especially special education preparation, but yet this technology is rarely used with this population. CBE is a sophisticated assessment, instruction and evaluation framework, employing complex decision-making processes and serves as a means of gaining reliable and valid data in a timely manner. In our research, faculty participated in multiple steps, identifying key vocabulary terms representing concepts and knowledge. The corpus consisted of approximately 1,000 terms and definitions. A total of 100 words were randomly selected from the corpus for each administration across the program. Candidates matched the terms to the definitions as quickly as possible. Faculty noted that the assessment differentiated candidates progress in knowledge of vocabulary. Faculty also noted that individual scores supported instructors' perception of candidates progress throughout the program and were consistent with exam scores. After examining students performance, changes were made to increase students competence in working with students with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities.
27. Measurement of Fidelity and Social Validity: Caregiver Application of Trial-Based Functional Analysis Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARA FELDMAN (University of North Texas; The Helm ABA)
Abstract: The present study utilized multiple-baseline and multi-probe across participants designs to measure both fidelity and efficacy of caregivers as primary interventionists when using Trial Based Functional Analysis (TBFA) procedures. Participants included any caregiver of a child with a medical or educational diagnosis of autism and challenging behavior. Caregiver fidelity of implementation of TBFA procedures was measured across three phases: baseline, training, and independent implementation or generalization. Within the implementation phase, caregivers independently conducted TBFAs on their respective children within the home setting. Fidelity, efficacy, and social validity across each participant were measured. Each caregiver was able to reach fidelity during the training phase, and three out of five caregivers were able to identify a clear behavior function for their child’s behavior within the implementation phase of the study. Social validity was evaluated. Results indicate that caregivers may be able to supplement traditional interventionists during the TBFA process. Implications for future practice are reviewed.
28. The Effects of Lag Schedules of Reinforcement on Fictional Writing
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAWRENCE PLATT (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Joshua Garner (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Shannon Ormandy (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Writing is used in numerous contexts from filling out a job application to taking standardized exams. Writing can also be used as an outlet for creative and imaginative ideas. Individuals with autism experience difficulty engaging in imaginative ideas (American Psychological Association, 2013). The literature on creative writing and increasing sentence variability with individuals with autism is limited. Lag schedules of reinforcement have been used to increase vocal variability (Esch, Esch, Love 2009), mand variability (Brodhead, Higbee, Gerencser & Akers 2016), and intraverbal repertoires (Contreras & Betz 2016). Lag schedules were extended in this study to look at variable fictional sentences with two children with autism using a multiple baseline across participants design. For one participant the Lag schedule condition resulted in almost 100% increase in novel sentences compared to the continuous schedule of reinforcement condition. For the other participant a 50% increase in novel sentences in the Lag schedule condition compared to the continuous schedule of reinforcement. Implications are that Lag schedules of reinforcement can be used to increase the novelty of responding.
29. Teaching the Foundational Components of Pretend Play and Language to Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA SCHISSLER (ACI Learning Centers), Nancy J. Champlin (ACI Learning Centers)
Abstract: Research identifies a number of complex stages in the typical developmental sequence of pretend play. Teaching children diagnosed with autism appropriate play skills requires isolating the individual components within each stage of play to acquire, maintain, and generalize the target skill. Deficits in play are linked to poor social relationships, limited expressive language and high rates of stereotypic behavior. The purpose of this study was to utilize the Pretend Play and Language Assessment and Curriculum and evaluate the effectiveness of teaching a series of 19 components encompassing the first developmental stage of play. Three to four pretend play actions and corresponding vocalizations were taught individually using least-to-most prompting to three children diagnosed with autism between the ages of 3 and 5. Each pretend play action was targeted across three agents of play, three objects of play, three categories of play, and social play including responding to and initiating interactions with peers. The outcome of this study demonstrated the efficacy of the sequence to teach three children with autism the foundational components of pretend play. All three participants acquired the pretend play actions and corresponding vocalizations with an average of 57 teaching opportunities across the 19 components of pretend play.
30. Assessing Typical Children's Imaginary Play to More Effectively Program for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
NANCY J. CHAMPLIN (ACI Learning Centers), Melissa Schissler (ACI Learning Centers)
Abstract: Play is a child’s work that captures their attention and interest. Play stands out as a distinct domain because of its systematic relationships with other developmental domains. Through play, children acquire various skills critical to their development including language development and social skills. When looking at object play it has been identified that the diversity of object play is theoretically predictive of communicative word use, lexical density growth, and future language (Tomasello, Striano, & Rochat, 1995; Yoder, 2006). The long-term effects of an impoverished play repertoire are observed in social interactions later in life. McConnell (2002), discovered that children with disabilities spend more time in isolate play, make fewer attempts to initiate social interactions, are less likely to respond to the social initiations of peers, and spend less overall time engaged in direct interactions with peers. The purpose of this study was to assess the pretend sociodramatic play skills of typically developing children, ages 2 ½ -5. Typically developing boys and girls were video-taped playing in dyads in a designated play room with 15 different play schemes. Researchers coded and evaluated the play to identify variations in play across the age spans including gender differences, scheme preference, and abstract play.
31. Fad Treatments in Autism Intervention: An Evaluation of Fidget Spinners
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSEPH H. CIHON (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Christine Milne (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Julia Ferguson (Autism Partnership Foundation), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership)
Abstract: New, unsubstantiated therapies for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that lack empirical support for their effectiveness seem to be introduced almost daily. These unproven therapies should be subjected to the methods of applied behavior analysis to experimentally evaluate their effectiveness. This study provides an empirical evaluation of a popular device, fidget spinners, that have been marketed as improving focus for individuals diagnosed with ASD. Two young children diagnosed with ASD participated. The effects of the fidget spinner on auditory conditional discriminations were evaluated using a reversal design. The results indicated the fidget spinner was ineffective at improving auditory conditional discriminations for both participants. Following the ineffectiveness of the fidget spinners, a behavioral intervention was provided which resulted in improvements in auditory conditional discriminations for both participants.
32. Interview Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis: A Replication and Extension With a Child Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIA FERGUSON (Autism Partnership Foundation), Jeremy Andrew Leaf (Autism Partnership), Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Christine Milne (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership)
Abstract: Recent literature has described the analysis and treatment of problem behavior that involves an open-ended interview to inform the conditions under which problem behavior is likely to occur, conducting a synthesized contingency analysis, and implementing treatment that includes functional communication training, delay and denial tolerance training, and increasing the amount of demands present after a denial (e.g., Hanely, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). This process has been described as an Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA). Much of the literature evaluating the IISCA has originated from authors within the same research group. The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend previous research on the IISCA with a different group of researchers and in a different setting (i.e., an early intensive behavioral intervention clinic). This study sought to extend previous literature by including additional measures of social validity on the open-ended interview, contingency analysis, treatment, and pre-post measures on parental stress. The results were similar to previous research with an overall reduction in problem behavior and increases in functional communicative responses and compliance with demands.
33. Stability in the Social Sensitivity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Measured by Matching Law
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Isabelle Duval (Université du Québec à Montréal), CAROLANNE PONTON (Université du Québec à Montréal), Jacques Forget (Université du Québec à Montréal), Philippe Valois (Université du Québec à Montréal), Kathleen Carvajal (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Abstract: Studies (Forget & Rivard 2010) show that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are sensitive to social attention. There is little evidence of the stability of social sensitivity following an intervention. Stability is analyzed according to the matching law (Herrnstein, 1970) which postulates that the frequency of appropriate behaviors depends on the relative rates of reinforcement associated with them. Social interactions between children and adults are observed at home using an observation grid (Duval & Forget, 2005). Appropriate behaviors correspond to a response, to the maintenance of the interaction or to the social initiation. Inappropriate behaviors include refusal of attention, other social behaviors, self-stimulation, non-response, or other non-social behaviors. Three children with ASD that started a early intensive behavioral intervention were selected. The data was collected in the first week and thirteen weeks later. Welch Two Sample t-test for unequal variances were performed between observed sensibility in time 1 and in time 2 (table 1) and between observed bias in time 1 and in time 2 (table 2) for each child. The differences between time 1 and time 2 are shown with their respective lower and upper bound. No test was significant, but the confidence interval for the sensibility of L2 is large enough to doubt the stability hypothesis.
34. An Evaluation of Trial Number and Order When Teaching Receptive Labels for Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CHRISTINE MILNE (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Julia Ferguson (Autism Partnership Foundation), Elizabeth Wong (Autism Partnership; St. Could University), Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership)
Abstract: Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is a procedure commonly used to teach a variety of skills for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including receptive language skills. Counterbalancing has become a common recommendation within DTT to teach receptive labels. This involves ensuring each stimulus is presented the same number of times in each location of the array, as well as a prescribed order of the target stimulus. However, research is still required to identify the specific components within this method that are necessary for skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to compare three approaches that manipulate various components of the counterbalancing procedure to compare acquisition of receptive labels. In all conditions, the rotation of stimuli were identical (i.e., counterbalanced rotation). The predetermined condition established the order and number of trials per label prior to intervention sessions. The constrained condition restricted the number of trials per label (i.e., 3 per label), while the instructor had the flexibility to determine the order of the trials. The unconstrained condition allowed the instructor to determine the order of trials as well as the number of trials per label. The results of an adaptive alternating treatment design replicated across three participants and three sets will be discussed.
35. A Treatment Package Promoting Safety and Continuity of Care for an Individual Exhibiting Aggressive Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
STEPHANIE BROCKMAN (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Christopher Margaritis (Ascendigo)
Abstract: Aggressive behavior can be a safety concern as well as a barrier for accessing resources in the community. The current case looks at a 23-year-old male with autism with a history of aggressive behaviors. During treatment, aggressive behavior escalated towards staff prohibiting them from entering the home. To ensure safety, two sessions per week were devoted to increasing functional communication skills to replace escape maintained aggressive behavior. A graduated intensity functional communication training protocol which included practicing functional communication over the phone, at the door, then in the home was introduced. Two sessions per week were devoted to telehealth focused on improving underlying communication deficits. Due to aggressive behavior being paired with increased anxiety levels, the client learned to identify his anxiety level on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 3 and initiate coping strategies when anxiety was elevated. The data demonstrate increases in functional communication initiations from 0 up to 5 per session, as well as decreases in aggressive behavior with only one aggressive behavior occurring following the introduction of FCT, an increase in intensity of treatment from an average of 3 trials per session to 38, and an overall decrease in anxiety level from 1.4. to 0.3.
36. The Latina Perspective on Higher Education: The Need for More Latinas in Behavior Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NATALIA BAIRES (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Jessica M Hinman (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Sebastian Garcia-Zambrano (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Chasity Ratliff (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: In the past year, cultural diversity and competency have become topics of discussion in behavior analysis, however specific ethnic and racial groups have not been focused on. Latino/a families cite lack of Latino community knowledge and perceptions of autism, parent and family factors, and health care system factors as three general barriers to beginning the diagnostic process for their children (Zuckerman et al., 2014). Furthermore, Latino/a families often request modifications be made to their behavior analytic services or terminate services altogether due to competing contingencies, which are likely not being adequately identified by behavior analysts. One way to ensure cultural competence with Latino/a families is simply to increase the number of Latino/a behavior analysts; however, it may be difficult with the low percentage of Latinos, specifically Latinas, pursuing higher education. The current study devised a survey for undergraduate Latinas attending a four-year university that included items pertaining to barriers, values, family background, mentorship, and gender differences in relation to pursuing higher education. Implications, systems of support, proposed societal changes, and why there is a need for Latinas in higher education and behavior analysis are provided.
37. Teaching Children With Autism to Mand for Information Using "Why?"
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN PYLES (California State University, Sacramento; Pyles and Associates: Panda Division), Amanda Chastain (California State University, Sacramento), Areli Perez (California State University, Sacramento), Tatiana Zhirnova (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty developing complex verbal behavior, such as question-asking. Due to this difficulty, special procedures may be necessary to teach them to ask questions. The current study evaluated a procedure to teach children with autism to ask “Why?” questions which are reinforced by causal information that describes the reason an event occurs. To increase the value of information as a reinforcer, we denied access to preferred items, and did not provide a reason. Participants were then taught to ask “Why?” and were provided information that led them to access preferred items. To ensure that “Why?” only occurred when information was valuable, we included a condition where access to preferred items was restricted, but causal information was not needed to access the item. Both participants learned to ask “Why?” when information was needed and refrained from asking “Why?” when information was not needed.
38. Vocabulary and Main Idea Treatment Utilizing Preference to Support Improvements in Reading Comprehension for Students With High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
COLLEEN REUTEBUCH (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Current school-based reading instruction does not adequately support students with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (Mcintyre et al. 2017). Specifically, reading comprehension, more than word recognition, presents more of a challenge for this population of learners (Ricketts et al., 2013). We investigated a multicomponent reading intervention (approximately 35 session/30 min each) for students with HFASD in grade 4. A single-case design was utilized, using multiple probes across groups. We were interested in documenting the effects of a multicomponent reading intervention on reading comprehension and vocabulary outcomes for students with HFASD in middle grades when implemented by school staff. The features of a multicomponent reading intervention showing promise for improving students’ reading comprehension, as well as increasing verbal discourse and engagement among students, will be highlighted. The effect of student preference of reading materials on outcomes is also discussed. Brief recommendations for resolving realistic challenges of delivery of reading strategy instruction are also presented.
39. Parent Treatment Integrity Across Multiple Components of a Behavioural Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RALUCA NUTA (Brock University), Julie Koudys (Brock University)
Abstract: Children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with challenging behaviours such as aggression, extreme tantrums, non-compliance, or self-injury. Behaviour analytic interventions are considered evidence-based practice for decreasing these challenging behaviours; however, most effective, multi-component interventions are implemented in clinic environments by trained professionals, and treatment effects do not automatically generalize to the home. The literature is lacking research on parent-implemented multi-component interventions in the home environment, as well as research exploring the treatment integrity with which such interventions are implemented. Treatment integrity is crucial to both intervention outcomes, as well as confidence in the validity of the results. As such, it is important to select effective training procedures that may enhance treatment integrity, such as behavioural skills training (BST). The present study sought to determine, using a multiple baseline design, whether BST can be successfully used to train a parent of a six-year old child with ASD to implement a multi-component intervention in the home, while carefully monitoring treatment integrity, as well as the impact on child behaviour. Results support the use of BST for this purpose. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
40. Transitioning Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Life Prep Course
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEAGHEN SHAVER (St. Lawrence College, Centre for Behavioural Studies), Andrea Elizabeth Roblin-Hanson (St Lawrence College, Centre for Behavioural Studies)
Abstract: In this study, community service gaps were identified in relation to the development of adaptive living skills for individuals with ASD transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. A scan of the literature was conducted to identify evidence based practices for this population and target skill area. In the initial phases of research, the Assessment of Functional Living Skills – Community Participation Protocol was used to identify target skills in 8 participants diagnosed with ASD, and subsequently these skills were taught in a five-week skills group format called the “Life Prep Course”. A treatment package that included Behavioural Skills Training, Video Modelling and In-Vivo Generalization opportunities was implemented. Assessment scores, probe data and social validity scores were collected to demonstrate the effectiveness and acceptability of the intervention. Results showed that the participants acquired the targeted skills. Specifically, 6/8 participants increased their assessment score by over 10% upon reassessment. Generalization of skills was moderate, and was demonstrated to be at 80% success by week 5 of the program. Participants and caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. In upcoming phases of research, maintenance will be assessed, and a replication of the “Life Prep Course” will be conducted.
41. Use of Curriculum Assessments and Skill Acquisition Programs in Public Schools for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MEAGHEN SHAVER (St. Lawrence College, Centre for Behavioural Studies), Kim Trudeau-Craig (St. Lawrence College, Centre for Behavioural Studies)
Abstract: In this project, curriculum assessments were conducted for 20 participants with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the school setting. The assessments were completed by students of the Autism and Behavioural Science Graduate Certificate Program at St. Lawrence College who were completing a field placement requirement under the supervision of a behaviour analyst. For each participant, a report with recommendations was provided to school staff and parents outlining areas of strength and those for development. Participants also received skills based instruction based on the identified goals resulting from the assessment. Eight participants were reassessed after 6 months. Social validity was also assessed via an open ended questionnaire given to educational staff involved in the project. Results indicated that 6/8 participants who were reassessed showed an increase in their score after 6 months and on average, the percentage change in score was 19%. In addition, 13/16 participants who received skills based instruction were able to learn the targeted skill within the field placement time frame. School staff supported the social validity of the project, and requested it be replicated in future years.
42. Effects of Feedback in a Peer Mediated Intervention for Children With Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LUIZ ALEXANDRE BARBOSA DE FREITAS (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso; Universidade Federal do Pará), Carla Cecon (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso), Gabriela Chizzolini (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso), Vinicios Osowski (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso), Ricardo Campos Junior (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso), Julia Zanetti Rocca (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso)
Abstract: Peer-mediated intervention (PMI) is an important approach to improve social interactions of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), although the application as treatment packages hinders its critical variables. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of delivering feedbacks as a PMI to increase interactions between children with ASD and their peers. Participated two children with ASD, MA (9 years) and GU (6 years), with poor social and communication repertoire and six classmates (3 for each individual with ASD), 6-8 years old. A multiple baseline design among participants was used. The intervention was based exclusively on delivering feedback for peer initiation and responding to interactions towards child with ASD. Results indicated that feedback was effective in increasing initiations for all peers in both groups and responding to interactions for children with ASD, but it was not sufficient to maintain those performances. Intervention also changed toys usage frequency during interactions for Group 2. In conclusion, the use of feedback was effective but insufficient for sustain interactions throughout sessions. Future research should investigate effects of feedback with higher functioning children with ASD and also feedback combined with other procedures for lower functioning children with ASD.
43. Instructing Brazilian University Students to Deliver Discrete Trial Teaching With a Self-Instructional Manual
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LUIZ ALEXANDRE BARBOSA DE FREITAS (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso; Universidade Federal do Pará), Andressa da Silva (Seneca College), Mylena Pinheiro (Prisma Psicologia Comportamental), Henrique Pinheiro (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso), Vinicios Osowski (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso), Ricardo Campos Junior (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso)
Abstract: Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is a widely used procedure in applied behavior analysis treatment for individuals with developmental disabilities. Whereas parent and staff training for implementing DTT properly can be costly and time-consuming, previous research have found that self-instructional manuals are quick and low cost method to train. This study aimed to replicate Thiessen et al. (2009) by evaluating the efficiency of a self-instructional manual translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese to train 4 university students to conduct DTT sessions. Participants implemented DTT sessions for three tasks before and after studying the manual and answering writing questions. Sessions were videotaped and their performances were scored with Discrete-Trials Teaching Evaluation Form (Babel et al., 2008). Interobserver agreement averaged 76% (64%-89%) for 33% of sessions. Results indicated that the manual was effective to increase the average performance of all participants from 18% to 58% in all tasks. Analysis by task revealed better performances for pointing to pictures (64%), in comparison with matching pictures (56%) and motor imitation (54%). A refined analysis indicates that performances increased more in components related to re-presenting a trial after an error (52-64 p.p.) and did not increase on developing rapport and fading prompts.
44. Title: A Model of Providing Choices - Including the Problem Behavior as a Reactive Strategy to Reduce the Intensity of Problem Behaviors Reinforced by Escape.
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
Abstract: Escape extinction involves the continuous presentation of non-preferred activities while eliminating the possibility of escape from activity contingent on the problem behavior. This process involves physically guiding individuals for engaging the non-preferred activities and may include a combination of response blocking, functional communication training and providing choices for behavior management strategies. Often therapists work with clients who are heavier and stronger than them and some part of the treatment integrity for some behavior management strategies may be compromised due to it. After presenting the client with an aversive task demand, the client may engage in problem behavior such as crying, biting self or hitting self. In this paper the author will analyze the behavior management strategy; a combination of simplifying demands and providing choices including problem behavior as a technique to manage behaviors reinforced by escape. As for example, providing choices to the client,” Do you want to cry for three minutes or read for two minutes? “after the client begins to cry after being presented with the non- preferred task demand of reading. The participant of the case study will be an 8 year old girl engaging in falling to the floor and crying as an escape reinforced behavior.
45. Improving Flexibility With Demands Through Teaching Young Children With Autism to Tolerate Being Told "No"
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JILLIAN SCHNEIDER (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Hanna Roen (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Mandi Winters (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Julie Tyma (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Amie Roden (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center)
Abstract: Engagement in inflexible problem behaviors can limit a person’s participation in a variety of environments and activities; whereas, engagement in flexible and appropriate behaviors can increase opportunities for social interactions. Research suggests that problem behaviors may be prevented by providing alternative activities after denying access to preferred activities (Mace et al, 2011). Additionally, it is possible to reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors by teaching children to tolerate denials or delays of preferred people, items, or activities (Luczynski & Hanley, 2013). The current study used systematic fading of prompts to increase appropriate responding to being told “no”. Participants included four children with Autism ages 5-7 (2 boys and 2 girls) in a comprehensive home-based program. At baseline, participants were not able to accept being told “no” (e.g., engaging in other activities, waiting for the desired activity) and often engaged in disruptive behaviors. Tolerating being told “no” was targeted in natural opportunities throughout 2.5 hour sessions in the home. Through fading of prompts, beginning with choices, then one alternative option (for three participants), and finally no alternative options, participants were able to tolerate being told “no” to gain access to preferred items or activities.
46. Parental Socialization Practice of Emotions and Social Skills of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NADIA MOUSSA (University of Quebec in Montreal, Catholic University of Louvain ), Nathalie Poirier (University of Quebec in Montreal), Nathalie Nader-Grosbois (Catholic University of Louvain ), Amélie Lampron (Univeristy of Quebec in Montreal)
Abstract: Better practices of parental socialization of emotions could promote the social and emotional development of the child. Empirical studies support the postulate that supportive reactions to the child's negative emotions allow them to learn how to regulate their emotions.The purpose of this study was to explore parental reactions that influence the social adaptation of children with atypical development such as those with ASD. Parental behaviours of forty Quebec parents of children with ASD aged between 2 and 13 years old were assessed through self-report questionnaires about parents' reactions to the child's emotions, which can be 'supportive' or 'unsupportive' (Mazzone and Nader-Grosbois, 2014). According to a preliminary analysis, the results report that fathers of ASD children demonstrate more unsupportive strategies than mothers when their child expresses negative emotions. However, when expressing positive emotions, mothers demonstrate more unsupportive strategies than fathers. This research project aims to analyze several components that must be evaluated and considered to design an intervention supporting the development of such emotional and social skills; this by integrating the parental behaviours favorable to these skills. Keywords : parental socialization, emotion expression, social development, emotional development
47. Differential Reinforcement and Blocking for Non Compliant and Elopement Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DEIDRE EVANS (University of West Florida, Center for Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of implementing Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior (DRO) for noncompliant and eloping behaviors. The participant in this study was a 6 year old boy with autism. This topic is significant because such maladaptive behaviors can potentially have a negative impact on children with developmental disabilities’ availability to receive services benefitting them developmentally and socially. Baseline data were collected until stable, afterwards, using an alternating treatment design, the intervention was implemented for three weeks. Initially, the DRO interval was set at a low level to engage the participant. After the behavior improved at a steady rate, time was increased to a higher level. Increases in interval duration were made throughout the intervention phase to reflect the amount of noncompliant and elopement behavior observed. Blocking was implemented during the intervention anytime the participant attempted to walk or run away from designated area. Results hope to show a decrease in both noncompliant and elopement behavior in the manipulation conditions, and an increase in maladaptive behavior in subsequent baseline conditions, with a high degree of confidence. Limitations of this study and future research recommended in this area are discussed.
48. Comparing Outcomes in Toddlers With ASD/Developmental Delays Receiving Telemedicine vs. In-Person Caregiver Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY VOGEL (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), Kathleen Simcoe (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), Stephanie Kretzer (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), Alacia Stainbrook (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), Zachary Warren (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD))
Abstract: Previous research has shown increasing play and social skills is foundational for increasing communication skills. With the increasing prevalence of ASD, the scarcity of services in rural communities is increasingly significant. This investigative pilot study aimed to compare a telemedicine model and an in-person model of service delivery to provide intervention and consultation services to families of young children evaluated for ASD. We compared improvement in social play and communication skills in young children (18-34 months) recently evaluated for ASD using a manualized caregiver training intervention designed to target social play. Intervention included six 60-minute caregiver training sessions, all of which each family’s state-funded early interventionist (EI) also attended. 12 families participated in the study, 6 received the training via in-home visits and 6 received training via telemedicine. The Communication Skills Behavior Scales Caregiver Questionnaire (CSBS) and a Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI) were both administered prior to and following completion of the intervention. Consultant fidelity in implementing and meeting curriculum objectives was also reported. Preliminary data from the CGI improvement scales suggest that outcomes for services provided remotely vs. in person are comparable, but show mixed rating from consultants and caregivers.

The Effects of Multimodal Procedure Using Differential Reinforcement on the Reduction of Challenging Behavior in a Student with Self Injurious Behavior

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BIANCA ELENA ANDREONE (M. Ed Arizona State University, BCBA), Jade Coubarakis (Masters Candidate Arizona State University ), Kristina Conibear-Mulej (Masters Candidate Arizona State University)

Challenging behaviors in students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) poses a significant barrier to skill acquisition and the success of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) interventions. The current case study observed the effects of a multimodal procedure used to decrease the frequency of challenging behaviors in a student with ASD. Challenging behaviors included self-injurious behavior (SIB), throwing of objects, and tantrums. A functional assessment revealed that the challenging behaviors of both student’s had multiple functions, including attention and escape from demands. This study utilized implementation of a multimodal approach using elements of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) without extinction on a fixed interval schedule, with visual supports, and functional communication training (FCT) to reduce challenging behaviors. Current literature supports the use of differential reinforcement procedures to reduce SIB and other challenging behaviors in students with ASD. The results of the study demonstrate a significant reduction of SIB, throwing and tantrum behaviors immediately after the implementation of the multimodal procedure. This study provides further support for the use and effectiveness of DRO with extinction procedures to reduce SIB and other challenging behaviors such as throwing and tantrums.

50. Talking About Talking; the Effect of Music Therapy Upon Language Acquisition for Children on the Autism Spectrum Aged 3-8 Years
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANNETTE M JONES (Point Loma Nazarene University; Northwest Nazarene University)
Abstract: Research indicates the characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder are expected to greatly impact the current medical and educational resources, thus effective intervention for language development is considered crucial. A recently implemented intervention is music therapy. The focus of the research was to collect first hand observations and data from parents and music therapists regarding development of receptive and expressive language ability through the use of music therapy for children diagnosed with Autism, aged 3-8 years. Participants included ten family units and six music therapists living in the western United States. The participants were asked to provide information regarding the language ability of their child/client before and after participating in music therapy. Both parents and music therapists declared remarkable results of the child/client before and after participating in music therapy. Music therapy was noted to increase word utterance, emotional wellbeing, expressive communication in the home and community, and an increase in social skills. The language ability of the children ranged from a nonverbal state to singing songs, from using gestures to speaking three to four word phrases, from using language without pragmatics to making friends, and to regulating their emotions through expressive language.
51. Evaluating Eye Contact Using Wearable Eye Tracker Technology in the Naturalistic Social Interaction for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The effect of Movement-Interaction Teaching (MoIT)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SATORU SEKINE (Keio University), Airi Tsuji (Tsukuba University), Kenji Suzuki (Tsukuba Yuniversity), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract: Sekine and Yamamoto (2017) developed an early movement-based behavioral intervention program (Movement-Interaction Teaching; MoIT) to promote the acquisition of eye contact and social interaction in a naturalistic environment. Eye contact is one of the skills for social engagement and important in a naturalistic intervention (Koegel, et al., 2013). Our program included social plays (e.g. chasing, peek a boo) to facilitate eye contact, touching and social interactions. In this research, we evaluated children's eye contact using wearable eye tracker (Tobii pro glasses 2, Tobii Eye Tracking) and video coding, and examined the effect of MoIT. The participant was a child with autism spectrum disorder (CA : 3 years 4 months). During all sessions, the therapist modeled the play for interaction (e.g. chasing, peek a boo). The therapist, the father and the mother of the child interacted with the child. Dependent variables were the percentage of occurance intervals of eye contact detected by video coding (Fig.1), touching and smiling. We are still collecting data by eye tracker. Intervention of MoIT is going to be applied for the social interactions and be evaluated the effect of the teaching method. This work was supported by JST AIP-PRISM, Japan.
52. Family Quality of Life in Immigrant Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIE MILLAU (Université du Québec à Montréal), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Catherine Mello (The Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Despite evidence that families of children with ASD may experience heightened mental health risks during the early childhood period, relatively few have examined family quality of life (FQOL) during this period. Although the literature highlights the specific challenges faced by immigrant families of children with ASD, to date it lacks systematic comparisons between immigrant and non-immigrant families. However, the FQOL experienced by these families may be impacted by their immigrant status. This poster will presented the results of study which compare the FQOL of 104 parents of children with ASD during the period following the child’s diagnosis. Parents completed a Beach Center FQOL Scale (Hoffman et al., 2006). The reported FQOL levels of parents in both immigrant and Canadian-born families were compared. Results indicated that Canadian-born parents may be more satisfied with the Parenting and Disability-related Support dimensions of FQOL. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of developing programs for immigrant parents.
53. Immigrant Families’ Perception of the Trajectory of Access to the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Around Montreal
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MÉLINA BOULÉ (University of Quebec, Montreal), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Marie Millau (Université du Québec à Montréal), Charlotte Magnan (University of Quebec, Montreal)
Abstract: In Quebec, the trajectory of families to have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis for their child with ASD can be challenging, stressful and time-consuming. This is even more the case for families with an immigrant background who do not necessarily know the functioning of Quebec's public health system. To better understand their needs, it is necessary to draw a portrait of the current trajectory of immigrant families from the first suspicion to a diagnosis of ASD. Twenty-four immigrant families with a child with ASD in the metropolitan area filled a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire evaluating their trajectory and underwent a semi-structured interview about their experience within the public health services. The data shows that the first suspicions are mostly a language delay (92%) and stereotypical behaviors (63%). In average, families wait 1.62 years for a diagnosis evaluation, consult 4.27 professionals before getting it and their child receive a diagnosis for ASD at 2.96 years-old. The information collected help establishing a portrait of the immigrant families’ experience within the public health services and guide future adaptations to help facilitate their access to specialized services for their child.
54. Evaluating Antecedent and Consequence Interventions to Improve Oral Reading Fluency Using a Brief Experimental Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LYNDSAY ANN FAIRCHILD (Mississippi State University ), Emily Seals Mathis (Mississippi State University ), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Oral reading fluency has been identified throughout the literature as a fundamental skill of proficient readers (Eckert et al., 2002). Given its importance, a variety of evidenced based interventions have been identified to improve oral reading fluency in children with reading difficulties. However, information is limited in regard to fluency interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Reisener et al., 2014). The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature and evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based antecedent and consequence intervention for a middle school boy with ASD. A brief experimental analysis was used to evaluate a Repeated Reading intervention (i.e., antecedent intervention), performance feedback with contingent reinforcement (i.e., goal setting; consequence intervention), and a combination of both interventions (i.e., repeated reading with goal setting) on oral reading fluency. Each intervention along with the combination of the two was compared with a control condition (no intervention) in an alternating treatments design. Results demonstrated that pairing the antecedent intervention with the consequence intervention was the most effective at improving oral reading fluency for this participant. Implications for oral-reading fluency interventions for individuals with ASD are discussed.
55. Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondence: Evaluating a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm for Young Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LYNDSAY ANN FAIRCHILD (Mississippi State University), Gianna Claire Gambera (Mississippi State University), Emily Seals Mathis (Mississippi State University ), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Early literacy skills are critical for young children, especially children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Of these early skills, direct instruction in letter-sound correspondence (LSC) has been identified as particularly important for early learners (Benedek-Wood, McNaughton, Light, 2016). While there are various LSC teaching approaches, an area that has been significantly understudied in children with ASD includes utilizing stimulus equivalence technology (Rehfeldt, 2011). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a stimulus equivalence approach to teach LSC to two young boys with ASD. Relations between spoken letters, printed letters, and corresponding letter sounds were tested before and after conditional discrimination training using intraverbal, auditory-visual match to sample, and tact tests. During the training phase, each participant was taught to provide the spoken letter name and the spoken letter sound in the presence of the corresponding printed letter. Following the training, three of the four untrained relations emerged for Participant 1, and two of the three relations for Participant 2. Implications and suggestions for clinical applications of this technology towards early literacy skills are discussed.
56. Using Touch Counting Flashcards to Increase Counting in a Non-Verbal Individual With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RACHAEL A FORMEL (Mississippi State University), Alexander Clarke (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Academic difficulties are a common problem amongst children with autism spectrum disorder. To make circumstances more difficult, children with autism who display with language delays tend to have further difficulties acquiring academic skills. There is a current lack of research examining the effectiveness of interventions with nonverbal children with autism, therefore the primary aim of the present study was to identify an effective academic intervention. The current study explored the effectiveness of using direct instruction to teach a nonverbal child with autism spectrum disorder to accurately count specific numbers of tangible items. The participant in the study was an 8-year-old Asian male with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who was unable to produce vocal speech. A reversal design was used to determine the effectiveness of using direct instruction to teach the participant to accurately count out the numbers one through 10 compared to general practice. Based on the results of this study, the participant demonstrated substantial improvement and stability with this intervention, especially towards the end. Future directions and limitations will also be discussed.
57. Teaching Quantity Discrimination Using Direct Instruction With Manipulatives to a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
GIANNA CLAIRE GAMBERA (Mississippi State University), Anne H Lipscomb (Mississippi State University), Chathuri Illapperuma (Mississippi State University ), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Individuals with disabilities typically exhibit slower progress in mathematic proficiency in comparison to same age peers (Butler, Miller, Crehan, Babbitt, & Pierce, 2003). The use of manipulatives to teach mathematics enables learners to better understand mathematic principles by making connections from physical objects to abstract concepts (Bouck, Satsangi, Doughty, & Courtney, 2014). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using direct instruction with manipulatives to teach quantity discrimination to a first grader with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using an AB design. The participant was presented with two flashcards with a number from 0 to 10 and was instructed to count the correct number of manipulatives (i.e. mini trains) then identify which line contained the larger quantity. Positive praise was delivered for correct responds and immediate corrective feedback was provided for incorrect responds. Analysis of the data revealed the participant acquired the targeted skills during intervention, while progress monitoring demonstrated a gradual increase in mathematic performance. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
58. Increasing Sight-Word Recognition Using Incremental Rehearsal in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXANDRA UTLEY (Mississippi State University ), Anne H Lipscomb (Mississippi State University), Irmarie Cruz-López (Mississippi State University ), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Incremental Rehearsal (IR) is a flashcard intervention used to increase sight-word recognition, or the ability to accurately and quickly read words without hesitation (Mule, Volpe, Fefer, Leslie & Luiselli, 2015). IR incorporates a combination of known and unknown words, and the ratio of known to unknown words may vary depending on the student. Recent literature has investigated the effectiveness of IR for teaching sight word recognition to typically developing students, students with learning disabilities, and students with delays. Limited research has looked at the use of IR in the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) population (Mule et al., 2015). Thus, the current study aimed to expand the literature by examining the effectiveness of IR in increasing sight-word recognition for a 4 year-old child with ASD using AB design. Visual analysis of the data suggested a gradual increase in known sight-words after the introduction of intervention. Limitations, implications for practice and future research are discussed.
59. Culturally Responsive Parent Coaching on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHING-YI LIAO (Texas A&M University), Jennifer Ganz (Texas A&M University), Yi-Fan Li (Texas A&M University), Yan Li (Texas A&M University), Sarah Ura (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: The number of culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional (CLDE) children in the U.S. has increased in recent years; however, professionals' lack of knowledge about different cultures makes meeting the unique needs of this population difficult. Culturally responsive parent coaching, based on multicultural education, was developed to provide parents with the ability to implement interventions with CLDE children that incorporate both family and cultural factors. The purpose of this single case study was to evaluate the effects of using culturally responsive parent coaching with CLDE children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were four culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) parent-child dyads who spoke more than one language and shared more than one culture at home with family members. Child participants ranged in age from 2.5 to 9 years at the time of data collection. A multiple-probe design was used to collect data on parents' implementation of the behavioral strategies and the children's communication behaviors. Baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases were included; generalization data was collected across all three phases. A cultural background survey, three child assessments, and a parent interview were conducted to understand each participants' acculturation, cultural background, and child's social communication abilities for developing an individualized treatment plan. During the intervention phase, twelve individualized parent coaching sessions that included written feedback, verbal instruction, graph explanation, and role play were provided to each parent participant on a weekly basis. The coach conducted the parent coaching sessions by using each parent’s native language and within their cultural context. Parents provided weekly videos of their implementation of learned intervention strategies, which were reviewed by the coach and used to provide feedback on implementation fidelity. Results of parents' implementation and children’s communication outcomes will be reported in the presentation as well as limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for culturally responsive practices.
60. Using Direct Instruction Flashcard Procedures to Increase Math Skills With a Child With PDD-NOS
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN MICHELLE MEYERS (Gradute Student), Irmarie Cruz-López (Student), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Math skills are critical for school aged children as they follow children throughout their school careers and into adulthood (Hoffmann & Schiltz, 2017). Direct instruction flashcard interventions have been widely used in education to increase students’ academic performance. (Glover, McLaughlin, Derby, & Gower 2010). Research has been conducted exploring the effectiveness of direct instruction flashcard intervention procedures with student with several different disabilities (Waco, Cravalho, McLaughlin, & Derby 2014). To date, no research is available exploring the effectiveness of direct instruction flashcard interventions on children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The purpose of the current study was to utilize a direct instruction flashcard intervention with an adolescent with PDD-NOS to increase math skills. A changing criterion design was used to increase child’s math accuracy. The interventionist provided the child with a set of flashcards and a criterion was established, once the child met the goal for three consecutive times, the clinician increased the goal by 5% for the next criterion. Results indicated that the child’s math performance improved across criterion indicating that direct instruction flashcard is an effective technique at improving math skills on a child with PDD-NOS.
61. Differential Effect of Social and Tangible Reinforcers Toward Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Learning Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Sylvie Bernard (Clinic ABA), KATHLEEN CARVAJAL (Université du Québec À Montréal), Jacques Forget (Université du Québec À Montréal), Carolanne Ponton (Université du Québec À Montréal)
Abstract: The behavioral approach has proven to be an effective treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder ([ASD], Smith 1993). One of the specific components of behavioral strategies is the systematic use of reinforcers of various kinds (McCkannaham & Krantz, 1993). The identification of reinforcers may become the major obstacle in treating children with ASD (Ferrari & Harris, 1981). The present study aims to test the use of social reinforcers and tangible reinforcers on the success rate of children with ASD in various learning tasks. The value of social stimuli is compared to tangible rewards (verbalizations, food, toys, verbalizations-food and verbalizations-toys). Six boys aged from three to five years old are participating in this study. Four of them were diagnosed with severe autism and two with mild to moderate autism. The frequencies of the children’s response behavior (success, succeed with help, failure, nonresponse and self-stimulation) are collected through the Bernard grid (2001) using the direct observation technique. The results show that there is no differential effect between the two types of enhancers for five of six children. Thus, we observe an equivalent reinforcing value for social attention and tangible reinforcers in children affected in terms of social response and play skills.
62. Use of Different Visual Markers to Reduce Word Skipping
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KEELY MARIE MCCULLA (Mississippi State University ), Chathuri Illapperuma (Mississippi State University ), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: For a novice reader, it is essential to read a passage through entirely to avoid missing critical information the author is trying to relay. An intervention was constructed to help an 8-year-old female with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder decrease the number of words and sentences she skipped while reading an assigned passage. The clinician used an ABC design for the intervention. The data from the graphs show that the second intervention, using a bookmark, has the largest effect on decreasing the number of words skipped per minute (WSPM). In comparison to baseline’s average of 22 WSPM and the first intervention of 6.89 WSPM, the bookmark intervention had the lowest average of 1.11 WSPM and an incredibly stable trend. The conclusion of this intervention offers an appropriate, effective method in which teachers and practitioners can quickly decrease the number of words and sentences skipped per minute of their students.
63. Implementation of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support to Improve Outcomes for Adults With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELE MOONEY (Anderson Center for Autism), Katelyn Arket (Anderson Center for Autism), Maria Hornbeck (Anderson Center for Autism)
Abstract: Adults with autism frequently engage in problem behavior, such as aggression, self-injurious behavior, and property destruction which can impact their quality of life and limit their ability for participation in the community. Multi-tiered systems of support have been shown to improve outcomes for individuals with autism. The current study investigates the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support in order to improve the outcomes for adults. Participants for this study were 82 adults with autism currently attending a day habilitation program. The individuals range in age from 22 to 53 years of age. Individuals were assessed using the Assessment of Functional Living Skills. Behavior Skills Training was used to train staff in the use of: tier one supports, Aseessment of Functional Living Skills administration, and preference assessments/visual supports. A Tier 1 Support Checklist was administered for baseline data, and follow up assessments were conducted. Tier one supports included: environmental structure, positive behavior supports, communication, socialization, and assessment/curriculum. Restrictive intervention data was tracked to see if a functional relation existed between implementation of multi-tiered systems of support and reduction in problem behavior. Results of this study indicate that implementation of a multi-tiered system of support can reduced the amount of restrictive interventions used for individuals that engage in problem behavior.
64. Stimulus Equivalence: Reviewing the Procedural Variables Contributing to Derived Relations in Individuals With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LESLEY A. SHAWLER (Endicott College), Svea Love (California State University, Sacramento), Karina Zhelezoglo (California State University, Sacramento), Shannon Luoma (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: Stimulus equivalence refers to the establishment of relational stimuli that cannot be attributed to direct training. Equivalence-based instruction is an evidenced based procedure that has demonstrated efficiency in the emergence of untaught relations with both neurotypical individuals and individuals with disabilities. However, some previous research has demonstrated inconsistent formation of equivalence classes with individuals diagnosed with Autism. Currently, the specific variables that contribute to the success of equivalence classes remain unclear. As such, the purpose of this review was to examine the stimulus equivalence literature with individuals diagnosed with autism. Our search yielded 43 articles, which we coded across 28 different categories (e.g., training structure, training protocol, verbal skill levels, errorless training, etc.). Results produced mixed and unclear findings suggesting the need for a more systematic evaluation of variables contributing to the emergence of equivalence classes. Nevertheless, we attempt to highlight effective variables needed for producing equivalence relations, provide guidance to practitioners serving the autism population, and suggest areas for future research.
65. A Comparison of Teaching Environments: Intensive Table Teaching Versus Sports Environnement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTELLE GONDAT (Service d'Accompagnement Comportemental Spécialisé)
Abstract: Sport is an asset for health. Several physiological mechanisms explain this notion. For children with autism, sports environments may have an additional impact. We have tried to show that for three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (10, 9 and 8 years old), different environments do not allow the same learning rhythm. These children are accompagnied by a specialized center in Reunion Island (Service d’Accompagnement Comportemental Spécialisé, aka S.A.C.S.). Compared to a control condition of intensive work at the table, four other sports-related environments were introduced: horseback riding (environment with a strong motivation), the swimming pool, trampoline (environments that became motivating), and a walking sport course (environment with less motivation). The number of probes required to acquire a competency in three skill areas (imitation, intraverbal and receptive language) was counted for each child in each environment. A bar graph shows which environment was most helpful for each of the three children.
66. Using Manipulatives to Increase Simple Subtraction Skills in a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELANIE R ELSENBROEK (Mississippi State University), Margaret Bernheim Powell (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: The following study used an ABAB withdrawal design to investigate the effectiveness of using a manipulatives intervention to increase an individual’s simple subtraction math skills. The participant was a Hispanic male diagnosed with both Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. Prior to implementing intervention, baseline data was collected to assess the participant’s subtraction skills. A manipulatives intervention was then implemented to help increase simple subtraction skills. During intervention, five simple subtraction math problems were presented to the participant. The clinician then prompted the participant to use the manipulatives to help solve the simple subtraction problems. Based on the results of the study, the manipulatives intervention was effective in increasing the participant’s simple subtraction math skills. The current research extends the literature in manipulatives research for individuals with both Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.
67. The Effectiveness of Sight Words Interventions for a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELANIE R ELSENBROEK (Mississippi State University), Margaret Bernheim Powell (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: The following study used an alternating treatment design to investigate the effectiveness between two sight words interventions on increasing an individual’s sight words knowledge. The participant was an African-American male with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based off Dolch Sight Words, the student was observed to be at mastery level for preschool sight words. When assessed for kindergarten, the student was at frustration level. Baseline was collected before any interventions were implemented. Two sight words interventions were then implemented. Folding-In, consisted of using a deck of ten kindergarten sight words flashcards, seven known words and three unknown words. Drill Cards, consisted of using a deck of ten kindergarten sight words flashcards. If the participant got a word wrong, it was then placed two places back and drilled until said correctly. Both interventions were then implemented until the student got 100% accuracy three times in a row, progress monitoring was then done to see if the intervention was helpful in learning sight words. Based off results, it was shown that both interventions were more effective than no intervention. The current study supports past research in using sight words interventions to increase an individual’s sight words knowledge.
68. Stimulus Equivalence and Emergent Verbal Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
CHRISTINA M. KING (RCS Learning Center)
Abstract: Skinner (1957) outlined his behavioral theory of language acquisition and defined verbal behavior as behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of others. Skinner identified the elementary verbal operants and defined each of these by the antecedents and consequences that were evoking and maintaining each. Sidman (1971; 1982) demonstrated that emergent or untaught behavior could be demonstrated following the training of other stimulus-stimulus relations among the stimuli in a class. Although each of the elementary verbal operants are under different sources of control, several studies have demonstrated that operants acquired under one source of control may transfer to a different source without any direct training, adding evidence that each operant does not need to come into contact with direct reinforcement in order to occur, and invoking the need to incorporate Sidman’s equivalence within Skinner’s theory. The purpose of this review was to provide a synthesis of terminology used in these lines of literature as well as identify studies demonstrating emergent verbal behavior across several operants (e.g. tact, intraverbal, mand) and the training structures that were used as this may have an impact on how behavior analytic curriculum is designed for our clients, including those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
69. Teaching Cooking Skills to Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder Via Video Modeling and Self-Monitoring
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH FONTAINE (The Chicago School/ KGH Autism Services ), Erin Bahrt (KGH Autism Services ), Rebecca Kusiak (KGH Autism Services ), Ariana Ronis Boutain Hopstock Hopstock (KGH Autism Services )
Abstract: Many persons diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder have difficulty completing functional daily living tasks and often rely on caregivers to assist with tasks such as dressing, cooking, cleaning, and basic hygiene. Previous research has shown that the use of video modeling can be an effective way to teach daily living skills to individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and developmental disabilities. An area in which research is lacking, however, is whether video modeling can also be used as a tool to facilitate self-monitoring and, in turn, help maintain functional living skills and decrease the reliance on caregiver assistance in completing these tasks. This study examines the effectiveness of a video modeling protocol to teach teens and young adults diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder to complete basic cooking skills using a microwave, stove-top, and counter-top. Furthermore, this study examines the effectiveness of using the videos as a self-monitoring system to increase and maintain higher levels of independence in the kitchen.
70. Using Touch Math to Improve Single-Digit Addition in an Individual With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JORDAN MARIE CREVISTON (Mississippi State University), Chathuri Illapperuma (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: This study looked at the effectiveness of a touch math intervention to increase a student’s accuracy in double-digit addition. The participant in this study was a 12-year-old African American male with a diagnosis of Autism and Marfan’s Syndrome. The participant showed the pre-requisites for double-digit addition but had not been taught this skill before the intervention. The clinician began the intervention after collecting baseline data by providing two teaching sessions where the participant was instructed on how to use the touch math sheet and was prompted through the worksheet. After the teaching phase, the participant was instructed to complete worksheets using the touch math sheet on their own. This was compared to another phase involving touch math combined with a self-error correction procedure where the participant was instructed to review their answers after completing the worksheet and correcting any errors made. Based on the results of the study, it was suggested that by combining the touch math intervention with the self-error correction procedure the participant achieved a higher percentage of accuracy than with the touch math intervention alone. This study supports past research that the touch math technique is effective at teaching new math skills to individuals with Autism.
71. What About the Parents? The Benefits of Parent Coaching in Early Intervention: A Systematic Review of Parent-Mediated Intervention for Toddlers With Developmental Delays
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
TARA ROONEY (Northwestern University; University of California, San Francisco )
Abstract: This poster describes a systematic review examining the effects of coaching on parent behavior for children at risk or with developmental delays. The purpose of this review was to shift the focus from infant and child outcomes to examining coaching effects on parental responsiveness, level of engagement and use of strategies. Given the myriad difficulties associated with developmental delays, we also sought out to explore both parental acceptability of the presented interventions and if coaching targeted a cluster of developmental skills across EI disciplines. Procedure: We analyzed the evidence-base for an understanding of a parents’ role, perceptions and use of responsiveness when participating in intensive, parent-mediated interventions. Using procedures as outlined in the PRISMA statement, a systematic review of randomized control trials, quasi-experimental design, and single-subject studies were conducted. Each study was coded for quantitative measures (e.g., demographics, descriptive variables), intervention and dependent variables. Quality Indicators such the Cochrane Collaboration tool for group designs or the WWC Review for Single Case Design were used to measure bias or systematic error, “meaning that multiple replications of the same study would reach the wrong answer on average” (Assessing Risk of Bias in Included Studies, 2018). Furthermore, to evaluate replicability across any study design, the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist was administered. For randomized controlled trials, the CONSORT 2010 checklist was additionally utilized. Results: We examined ten studies which included 770 participants with toddlers and children between the ages of 13 to 36 months. Seventy percent of the studies reported skewed gender differences with 60 percent reporting male percentages greater than seventy-five percent. Mothers between the ages of 20-40 years old commonly administered the intervention. Socioeconomic status (SES) was variable with more than half of the studies not reporting income level. Families from minority backgrounds were less than 50 percent of the participants across all studies. All intervention and control groups, if applicable, had participants with a variety of disability types. Autism Spectrum Disorder in accordance with the DSM-IV or DSM 5 was the most representative (7 out of 10) while other studies included Developmental Delays, Language Delays, Down Syndrome and At-Risk toddlers. No study included control groups from different clinical populations other than above or compared intervention to typically developing toddlers and children. Much of parent responsiveness has been examined within interventions explicitly targeting toddlers and children on the autism spectrum (Shire, Gulsrud & Kasari, 2016). Our review found evidence of increased parental responsiveness across different coaching programs supporting children with various neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities. Similar positive changes in parental responsiveness were found in parents of children with Down Syndrome, Language Delays, and Developmental Delays or classified as at-risk. There were small to large effect sizes for changes in parental responsiveness due to coaching across the randomized control trials. Our findings were consistent with previous literature, which notes that active and contingent parent style is standard in early intervention models which focus on teaching parents’ strategies to interact with their children (Shire, Gulsrud & Kasari, 2016). Research suggests that supporting a parent’s ability to notice and contingently respond to their child’s behavior can provide additional learning opportunities between a parent and child (Sameroff & Fiese, 2000). We experienced collateral or spillover effects of increased parent responsiveness across the ten studies. In particular, when parents followed their child’s lead and used their interests, our review noted improved warmth between the child and parent, increased positive affect made by the parent, or increased levels of social engagement. These collateral gains may align with the enhanced attainment of additional skills, such as language, as the child is more attuned to their mother’s positive affect. Furthermore, many early intervention programs for children with developmental delays have focused exclusively on child outcomes without much consideration of the parent reactions and perceptions of intervention. Our review further examined the relationship between parent coaching, buy-in, and satisfaction. Our results confirmed that parent coaching improves parental self-efficacy and acceptability, and approval of the targeted intervention. Our finding corroborates with the culture shift from child-centered care to a system based approach incorporating family-centered policies. Finally, given our focus on interventions for children under the age of thirty-six months, we explored the types or constructs targeted in the intervention programs. Early Intervention aims to address any domain in child development. However, our findings were primarily focused on communication compared to gross motor, fine motor, cognitive, adaptive skills, play or social-emotional well-being. Some of the studies embedded multiple components, but in general, communication was a significant focus. Discussing the relationship between high-quality parent coaching and indirect gain in language outcomes is highly relevant to this topic area.
72. Targeting Sight Word Acquisition Through Use of Evidence-Based Interventions for a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AARON CHRISTOPHER WHITE (Mississippi State University ), Matthew Ferrigno (Mississippi State University ), Anne H Lipscomb (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton-Gadke (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Traditional Drill and Practice (TDP) has been recognized as an effective intervention for improving sight word accuracy. There is limited research measuring sight word accuracy using TDP with an escape extinction procedure. Also, there is limited research examining the effectiveness of TDP in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Thus, the purpose of study was to improve sight word accuracy through implementing a multi-phase design with follow ups and evidence-based interventions with a five-year-old male diagnosed with Autism during a four-week summer clinic. First, to gain compliance, an escape extinction procedure was implemented using verbal prompting to keep the participant in his chair. Second, the clinician conducted a traditional drill and practice intervention using multiple sets of sight words. Due to the participant’s expressive language delay, follow up trails were conducted between sight word sets to assess the student's sight word acquisition. Sight word sets were considered mastered once the participant correctly identified all words in the set 100% correctly three consecutive trials. A total of five sight word sets were completed and four follow-up conditions. The use of the escape extinction procedure was successful during all trials, and the participant remained in his seat 100% of the trials.
73. Using Number Cards With Manipulatives to Increase Quantity Discrimination Identification for a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AARON CHRISTOPHER WHITE (Mississippi State University ), Matthew Ferrigno (Mississippi State University ), Anne H Lipscomb (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton-Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: The use of manipulates when implementing quantity discrimination interventions has been recognized as an effective intervention for improving quantity discrimination accuracy. There is limited research examining the effectiveness of quantity discrimination interventions with an escape extinction procedure. Also, there is limited research examining the effectiveness of quantity discrimination interventions using manipulatives for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Thus, the purpose of this study was to improve quantity discrimination accuracy through implementing an AB design using number cards with picture manipulatives for a 5-year-old male diagnosed with Autism during a summer academic clinic. First, to gain compliance throughout the sessions, an escape extinction procedure was implemented using verbal prompting to keep the participant in his chair. AIMSWEB early numercy quantity discrimination probes were used during baseline to assess the participants quantity discrimination accuracy. Following baseline, the clinician implemented the quantity discrimintaion intervention using picture manipulatives. Upon each number card (1-10) the assigned number would be centered in bold. Below the number would lie a picture of a train that corresponded with the number on the sheet. The use of the escape extinction procedure was successful during all trials, and the participant remained in his seat 100% of the trials.
74. Sexual Knowledge Amongst Adults With Autism: A Case Study Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DARRYN ROBINSON (Xcite Steps), Megan Ledoux (Xcite Steps), Emily Cohen (Xcite Steps), Marianne L. Bernaldo (Xcite Steps)
Abstract: Sexual maturity is a natural process of development that presents unique difficulties for individuals with neurological or psychological conditions. Although sexual education can assist adolescents and young adults with navigating the complexities around understanding the physical changes that entail puberty, this area still requires additional research, as the literature lacks empirical data that supports those with autism in understanding issues around sexuality. In this case study, two adults were selected (one male, one female) who are currently navigating sexual education resources in San Diego, CA. The study will incorporate a semi-structured interview as well as a Sexual Knowledge Survey. We project that our case study will reveal challenges around socialization and communication, lack of resources tailored to autism, understanding appropriate sexual behavior, as well as uncertainty around developing a sexual identity as person with a disability. A customized sexual educational plan will be created to better support each client that addresses the unique sexual issues each individual is facing; this educational plan will also incorporate our findings from the Sexual Knowledge Survey to individualize the content to the client's needs.
75. Functions of Behavior Training for Parents of Individuals With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
EMILY COHEN (Xcite Steps), Stephanie Lopez (Xcite Steps), Marianne L. Bernaldo (Xcite Steps, LLC)
Abstract: Literature has found that function-based parent training may lead to more successful parent training outcomes. This study focuses on the efficacy of a functions of behavior training for parents of individuals with autism who currently receive home-based applied behavior analysis (ABA) services. The current study expands upon the findings of Cohen, Lopez, and Bernaldo (2018), who compared the knowledge base of a group of parents who completed a parent training curriculum and those who had not. They found that the lowest scoring area for the parents who had not participated in the training was in their understanding of the functions of behavior. The functions of behavior training was implemented by the ABA program supervisor and involved a pre-test and post-test, overview of the principles of ABA, data collection on target behaviors, and analysis of the function of the observed behaviors. Parents were coached on how to respond to their child’s behavior and parents collaborated with the program supervisor to create a strategy checklist for future use. Comparison between the pre and post-tests and supervisor rating scale demonstrate the parent’s knowledge of the functions of behavior and changes in their own behavior as a result of this training.
76. Supporting Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Schools: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN J. MARTIN (May Institute ), Suzannah J. Iadarola (University of Rochester Medical Center), Whitney L. Kleinert (May Institute), Lizzy Cassell (University of South Florida), Cynthia M. Anderson (May Institute), Rose Iovannone (University of South Florida/Florida Mental Health), Tristram Smith (University of Rochester Medical Center)
Abstract: Students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience deficits in social communication and patterns of restricted or repetitive behavior that often require intensive support in schools. Unfortunately, educators seldom have the requisite training or support to adequately address such concerns. For effective, sustained implementation, school-based interventions must be both feasible within the school environment and flexible enough to accommodate the needs of individual students. Students with Autism Accessing General Education (SAAGE) is a comprehensive, modular intervention that uses a systems approach and active coaching to provide evidence-based interventions grounded in behavior analysis to address student behavioral goals and build school capacity. In this poster presentation, we review the results of a year-long randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared SAAGE to enhanced services-as-usual within public schools across the eastern US. Due to limited power, a group by time analysis did not reveal significant interaction effects. However, students in the SAAGE condition progressed from “moderate” to “slight” impairment on the primary outcome measure over the course of the trial, demonstrating the promise of the SAAGE model. Additionally, teachers were able to implement the modules with adequate fidelity and rated SAAGE as acceptable. Implications for future research are discussed.
77. SIU’s Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Creating Leaders in the Field of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BECKY BARRON (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Natalia Baires (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Valerie Boyer (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Michelle Kibby (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: The Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders (CASD) at Southern Illinois University (SIU) is a multidisciplinary research and training center that provides high quality leadership in the study of autism. Its primary mission is to conduct research promoting evidence-based practices to highlight unique aspects about the diversity, physiology, development, and symptoms of autism. CASD also provides graduate and undergraduate students with experience and training by faculty and doctoral students from SIU’s Behavior Analysis and Therapy, Communication Disorders and Sciences, and Clinical Psychology programs. Finally, CASD provides autism screenings, autism diagnostics, clinical services, community workshops, and consultations to members of the Southern Illinois community. The center serves individuals with autism across the lifespan, ranging from toddlers to adults. Children ages 2-5 receive services from the Speech and Language Clinic, rooted in speech-language pathology. For children ages 3-12, Applied Behavior Analysis therapy is provided from the Language and Cognition Development Clinic, which is home to the PEAK curriculum. Finally, individuals ages 12+ receive services from Club ’57, where Acceptance and Commitment Training and Behavior Skills Training are provided to respectively promote psychological flexibility and social skills. Outcome data from all three clinics will be presented.
78. Effectiveness of Relational Training and Traditional Applied Behavior Analysis on Outcomes of Intelligence in Randomized Controlled Trials for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BECKY BARRON (Southern Illinois University), Brandon May (Washington University in St. Louis), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Kwadwo Britwum (Southern Illinois University), Haley Davis (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is one of the most highly recommended treatment options for individuals with autism for decreasing challenging behaviors and increasing functional skills. Many studies using traditional ABA methods such as verbal behavior training have provided evidence for improving language and communication skills. Studies utilizing relational training have shown additional benefits to the acquisition of both language and communication skills, but also in changes of intelligence. The current presentation will evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCT) that utilized both traditional ABA methods and relational training to increase intelligence. Variables within these studies include overall treatment dosage, relational training dosage compared to traditional ABA dosage, and ABA/Relational training treatment compared to a special education treatment as usual protocol. The results of each study indicated positive outcomes in changes of intelligence measures for children with autism. The implications of these studies when taken together suggest value in assessing differences in dosages or treatment types when looking at ABA interventions for skill acquisition. Additionally, the utility of RCT’s in behavior analytic research is also discussed.
79. The Evaluation of a Parent-Coaching Program Based on the Early Start Denver Model
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NADIA ABOUZEID (UQAM), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Zakaria Mestari (Université du Québec à Montréal), Mélina Boulé (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Abstract: Introduction: In Quebec, it is common for families to wait over a year for a diagnostic evaluation. Once a child is diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), families can then wait up to 3 years for early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI), a critical service children are only eligible for before age 5. Interim measures such as parent-mediated interventions have been developed to support families while they are waiting for specialized and intensive services. The See Things my Way Parent coaching services has launched, in 2017, a pilot project to provide parent coaching services based on the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM™) for families with children diagnosed with ASD within one month of diagnosis to support transition to more intensive services. The program aims to provide parents with tools and strategies to help them support their child on early developmental stages. It is expected that offering high quality parent coaching services will increase the child's learning opportunities on a daily basis as well as reduce the impact of the child’s deficits and challenges on the parents’ stress level and family’s quality of life. The ultimate objective is to serve as a model to be replicated in the broader community, in and beyond Quebec. Objectives: To investigate 1. Integrity and social validity of the program; 2. Effects on children’s development and progress; 3. Effects on parental stress, perceived family’s quality of life, parent’s intervention abilities and Parenting Sense of Competence Method : Participants : 32 families (age: 19 to 42 months) Variables/instruments : Objective 1: • Integrity measures • Parent satisfaction questionnaire • Working Alliance- parent scale Objective 2: • Autism symptoms (ADOS-2), • Cognitive functioning: (WPPSI-IV, BSID-III) • Developmental and learning progress: ESDM checklist • Adaptive Skills (ABAS-II/ABAS-3), • Problematic Behaviours: (DBC-4) Objective 3: • Parental Stress: Parental Stress Index (PSI) • Quality of life: Family Quality of life (BEACH-FQOL) • Parent self-efficacy: Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) Analysis : Quantitative Results : Preliminary results indicate that all children made progress between the start and end of the program. Results on self-reported measures of parental self-efficacy reveal improvement. Based on parents’ responses, an increase in their quality of life was also experienced. These findings will support the effects and value of early parent-delivered interventions, based on ESDM.
80. Examination of Effects of Parent Training on Parent-Child Interactions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAREN NOHELTY (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Nicholas Marks (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Christopher Miyake (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Abstract: Parent training has been established as a key element of treatment programs for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, treatment gains noted in the research vary greatly. The current study expanded upon past research on the naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention, Project ImPACT, by modifying procedures to make the program more accessible to parents (e.g. removing homework) and incorporating collaborative practitioner strategies (e.g. asking open ended questions, individualizing examples). Twelve weekly sessions were implemented for several children with ASD and their parents. Each week, the clinician reviewed the target skill(s) with the parent during a 1-hour session and then used behavioral skills training to support the parent in demonstrating the target skill(s) with his/her child during a subsequent 30-minute session. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine parent treatment integrity scored from a video of interaction with the child. Preliminary data indicate an increase over baseline throughout the course of the treatment. These results build upon the research base behind the benefits of parent training. Additionally, this study provides details regarding parental treatment integrity throughout the course of the intervention, allowing for examination of fluctuations in parental engagement of their child.
81. Barriers and Facilitators in the Diagnosis Trajectory of Immigrant Families Having a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHARLOTTE MAGNAN (University of Quebec in Montreal), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), marie millau (University of Quebec in Montréal), Catherine Mello (PennState Berks), Céline Mercier (University of Montreal), Mélina Boulé (University of Quebec in Montreal )
Abstract: Immigrant families who have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to experience greater difficulties in accessing diagnostic services for their child. However, little information exists on how to support immigrant families as they attempt to access services for their children with ASD. Twenty-four families who immigrated to Québec, living in a metropolitan area, and have a child with an ASD diagnosis completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire evaluating their trajectory. They also participated in semi-structured interviews in which they talked about obstacles and facilitators encountered during their trajectory in the health services to obtain a diagnosis for their child. This poster will present results concerning the obstacles and facilitators listed by families. Four categories were identified in parents’ responses about perceived obstacles: 1) services, 2) the family, 3) service providers, and 4) the child. Several subcategories emerged for each type of obstacle. Following the content analysis, three categories of facilitators emerged; these were associated with 1) the family, 2) service providers, and 3) services. These results help us understand which strengths to rely on to facilitate the diagnosis trajectory of immigrant families and which elements are to be improved.
82. Using Power Cards and Skills Streaming to Increase Social Skills in Adolescents With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MATTHEW FERRIGNO (Mississippi State University ), Savannah Trice (Mississippi State University ), Alexander Clarke (Mississippi State University ), Keely Marie McCulla (Mississippi State University), Jordan Marie Creviston (Mississippi State University ), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to teach the participants developmentally appropriate social skills, generalize them into natural settings, and improve overall social functioning within the home, community, and school setting. This study was conducted in a group setting with multiple participants interacting with each other. Two of the participants had a diagnosis of Autism and one had a diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. They all participated in an elementary socials skills group with ages ranging from 8 to 11 years old. The power cards intervention consists of each member of the group selecting a preferred character/superhero. It was followed by a scenario written on the back of the card where the selected character is appropriately engaging in the targeted skills. The skill of starting a conversation was divided into four rules which were taught one at a time. These rules consisted of: choosing the person with whom you want to talk, decide what you want to say, choose a good time and place, and start talking in a friendly way. Overall, each participant displayed an increase in skills that focused on starting a conversation.
84. Evaluation of a Wearable Activity Schedule for Promoting Independent Skills in Young Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BASAK TOPCUOGLU (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), Katherine Haggerty (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Traditionally activity schedules are presented in the form a book or binder that includes pages with pictorial cues depicting a sequence of individual activities to guide the learner to complete predetermined set of tasks and/or complex behavior chains. The goal of activity schedules is for clients to manage their own behaviors with minimal prompt provided by the therapist or primary caregiver. Although activity schedules are useful, their use can be cumbersome and stigmatizing, placing additional barriers for independence and inclusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a wearable activity schedule and determine whether tactual and visual prompts provided by it would be sufficient to support independent completion of play skills by young children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
85. A Mindful Mouth: Utilizing Mindfulness to Reduce Stuttering
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jessica M Hinman (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), RUTH ANNE REHFELDT (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Within the speech- language pathology literature, mindfulness-based treatments are well documented as being an effective technology for reducing stuttering (Plexico & Sandage, 2011; Gupta, 2015; Kordell, 2015; Burnham, 2017). However, within the behavior analytic literature, no studies have used mindfulness as a method of reducing stuttering, and in turn typically utilize technologies such as habit reversal. The current study will utilize a reversal (ABAB) design to evaluate the efficacy of a brief guided mindfulness exercise to reduce stuttering during conversations in adolescents diagnosed with autism. Occurrence of stuttering will be recorded using a partial interval measurement system (10 sec intervals) based on the Lindcombe Behavioral Language Data Scoring of Stuttering (LBDL; Kordell, 2015), which defines different categories of stuttering. Preliminary data suggests that for one participant, stuttering is occurring for up to 70% of intervals. Since mindfulness techniques can be brief and easily self-administered, they can be useful and efficient in reducing a socially significant behavior for adolescents.
86. Methodologies to Establish Conditioned Reinforcers: A Review and Proposal
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
COLLEEN YORLETS (Simmons University; RCS Behavioral & Educational Consulting), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons University), Ronald F. Allen (Simmons University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often have a limited number of stimuli which function as reinforcers for target behavior. Consequently, practitioners often implement a variety of pairing procedures as a way to establish novel reinforcers for their clients. The current literature details several methodologies to establish conditioned reinforcers, which include both response-stimulus pairing and stimulus-pairing methods. Effectiveness of these conditioning procedures has, however, been varied. Additionally, limited applied research exists to support the current findings. One possible extension of this literature is to evaluate whether conditioned reinforcers can be established via the stimulus equivalence paradigm. The demonstrated efficacy of the stimulus equivalence paradigm, suggests that this may provide a viable alternative to more traditional conditioning methods. A review of the literature related to the methods used to establish conditioned reinforcers, as well as a brief review of the relevant stimulus equivalence literature, will be followed by proposed applied research methods to test this novel application.
87. Generalized Equivalence Classes: Stimulus Generalization and Equivalence Based Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
MEGAN BREAULT (RCS Learning Center), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College)
Abstract: Individuals with autism have been noted to have difficulty with generalization and often require explicit training for each skill to be taught. Research has demonstrated that untrained relations can emerge through the use of stimulus equivalence procedures. Stimuli are members of an equivalence class following the demonstration of three properties: reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity. In a traditional account of equivalence, there is typically a finite number of stimuli in the class that are trained and tested. In the natural environment, however, stimuli often vary by multiple dimensions. In the equivalence literature, the extent to which stimulus generalization is demonstrated across novel stimuli is not frequently tested. A generalized equivalence class occurs when stimuli that share physical features with an equivalence class member become substitutable with the other stimuli in the class. Researchers have further classified generalized equivalence classes into three types and have outlined the appropriate tests required to demonstrate their formation. Generalized equivalence classes have been reported with typically developing adults and adults diagnosed with a developmental disability. The findings of these studies are important as they demonstrate that equivalence based procedures can be expanded to include the generalizable results that are desired in applied settings.
88. Effect of Group Staff Training for Behavior Problem of the Children in Kindergartens and Nursery Schools
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MASAHIKO INOUE (Tottori Universisty), NAHO INOUE (Student Support Center Education Support Organization, Tottori University )
Abstract: In this study, a group staff training program based on a functional approach was developed and implemented for all staff members working at a kindergarten and a nursery school. The 25 staff members participated from one nursery school and one kindergarten. Each participant selected a child with behavior problem in their class. One participant did not select because of the managerial position. The total number of children was 24 (males 17, females 7) and the average age was 4:04(2:05~6:03 ). The diagnosis was ASD 11, ADHD 1, ID 4, SUSPECTS 8.The program comprised a total of 10 sessions, including 6 training sessions and 4 case conference, with lectures based on applied behavioral analyses and group work based on "strategy sheets (Inoue 2007)". As a result, the knowledge of ABA of the nursery worker and behavior problem of children were improved. The continuation of these outcomes at both establishments was confirmed in a survey conducted one year later.
89. Using Structured Teaching to Teach Preschool-Aged Children With Developmental Delays Functional Play Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRYSTAL KENNEDY (Tennessee Technological University), Megan Pullum (Tennessee Technological University), Seth King (Tennessee Technological University)
Abstract: Deficits in functional play skills can result in long-term social skill impediments for children with developmental delays. This poster describes a multiple-baseline design study that evaluated the effects of structured teaching on the play skills of six preschool-aged children with developmental delays in the school setting. During baseline, participants received adult-mediated play time. Structured teaching consisted of displaying all tasks for the session and items needed for each task, asking the child to work left to right, using a “finished” bin, and setting up the environment to minimize distractions. Five of the six participants displayed a clear increase in their functional play skills from the intervention. However, gains for all students markedly reversed following the withdrawal of the intervention during maintenance. One child displayed no significant change in his functional play skills after receiving the structured teaching intervention. Teacher prompting did not change considerably between baseline and intervention. Social validity measures indicated that parents recognized a noticeable increase in functional play skills at home and all three interventionists stated they were pleased with the program outcomes for each student. Discussion addresses the need for supports designed to address maintenance and generalization of gains obtained through intervention.
90. Behavior Analysts’ Conceptualization and Implementation of PT: A Mixed-Methods Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DIONDRA STRAITON (Michigan State University), Brooke Ingersoll (Michigan State University), Nicole Rivera Caquias (Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico)
Abstract: Parent training (PT), first pioneered by early behavior analysts, is an evidence-based intervention in which clinicians train parents to work with their child to acquire skills and decrease challenging behavior. Little is known about behavior analysts’ current PT practices in their work with families of children with ASD. This mixed-methods study utilized survey responses from 1,415 behavior analysts to examine a) self-reported frequency of PT; b) definitions of parent training; and c) the degree to which type of certification, level of family-centered care, related training experiences, and endorsed barriers and facilitators predicted reported frequency of use of evidence-based PT strategies. While 87% of participants reported providing at least 1-2 sessions of PT per month for an average client, content analysis indicated that most did not mention key components of PT such as modeling strategies for parents and providing practice opportunities and feedback to parents. These results demonstrate that while most behavior analysts report frequent use of PT, an overwhelming majority do not define PT in the same way as the literature. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that type of certification, degree of family-centered care, related training experiences, and family-, provider-, and organizational-level barriers and facilitators together explained ~ 38% of variance in frequency of PT strategy use. In the final model, family-centered care, related training experiences, family- and provider-level barriers, and family-level facilitators were each unique predictors of PT strategy use. These results highlight the importance of a family-centered philosophy, training, and reduced barriers to PT in promoting the use of PT by behavior analysts.
91. Increasing a Nonverbal Adolescent’s Communication by Using Power Cards and Skills Streaming
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAVANNAH TRICE (Mississippi State University ), Matthew Ferrigno (Mississippi State University), Alexander Clarke (Mississippi State University), Jordan Marie Creviston (Mississippi State University), Keely Marie McCulla (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: This study focused on teaching a nonverbal participant appropriate ways to socialize with others. The goal of this study was to help the participant generalize their social skills across multiple settings. The participant was 10 years old with a diagnosis of Autism. The participant was also nonverbal and only communicated by gesturing. The study was conducted within an elementary social skills group with children between the ages of 8 and 11. This participant was the only nonverbal individual. The social skills group focused on using Skills Steaming to appropriately start a conversation. The skills were separated into four different rules: choose the person with whom you want to talk, decide what you want to say, choose a good time and place, and start talking in a friendly way. To teach the rules of skills steaming, the intervention of Power Cards was used. The Power Cards intervention involved each member of the group to select a desired character/superhero. This is followed by a scenario on the back of the card. Within the scenario, the selected character was appropriately engaging in the targeted skills. During the intervention, the participant showed an increase in using gestures more frequently when initiating a conversation.
92. The Role of Escape Extinction and CMO-R in Reducing Challenging Behaviors: A Review.
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
KELLE WOOD RICH RICH (Central Texas Autism Center, Inc.), Aarti Haresh Thakore (Central Texas Autism Center), Morgan Weldon Stockdale (CTAC), Shea Braumuller (Central Texas Autism Center)
Abstract: The behavior principle of extinction involves termination of reinforcement that is observed to maintain the problem behavior. Extinction is one of the most common procedures used to reduce various problem behaviors in children diagnosed with Developmental Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders. The purpose of this current review is to examine the various applications and publications of escape extinction in behavior analysis. The examiners reviewed all the articles from the last 20 years across four major peer reviewed journals in applied behavior analysis: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA), The Analysis of Verbal Behavior (AVB), Behavior Analysis in Practice (BAP), and Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB). The review is still in progress. The results so far suggest that there are more studies on escape extinction to treat food refusal and food selectivity in young children with and without disabilities. There are also some studies on escape extinction to reduce SIB, but often as a component within a treatment package. Escape extinction as a procedure itself and its application to increase compliance in children with diagnosed with Autism is scarce in the literature. The further review across other journals will help us further evaluate the scope of limitations of escape extinction in managing various problem behaviors in children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
93. Effect of Component Analysis andDiscrimination Training Across Reinforcers on Acquisition of Discriminative Stimulus Control in Children Diagnosed With Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Jessica Quintanilla (Central Texas Autism Center), Morgan Weldon Stockdale (CTAC), ANDREA KELLY (Central Texas Autism Center), Aarti Haresh Thakore (Central Texas Autism Center), Kelle Wood Rich Rich (Central Texas Autism Center, Inc.)
Abstract: Teaching children diagnosed with Autism to discriminate common objects is one of the imperative receptive language skills. Discrimination training helps to establish a discriminative stimulus control across various stimuli. Although there is an ample literature on teaching discrimination using transfer of stimulus control (e.g., matching-to-sample to listener responding), there is a need for different techniques that can be used to teach discrimination to children with limited receptive skills and poor stimulus control. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of 1) teaching the component steps necessary for selecting the discriminative stimulus separately and 2) teaching discrimination across the already established reinforcers using errorless training on the acquisition of discriminative stimulus control. This technique was used to teach discrimination to one boy with Autism and significant language delays. The result suggests that the analysis and training of component steps and teaching discrimination across various edible and tangible reinforcers was effective not only in increasing the discriminative control across the trained reinforcers, but also across untrained common objects.
94. Establishing Relational Responding Skills in Individuals With Autism: Evidence for Relating as a Generalized Operant
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CALEB STANLEY (Southern Illinois University), Kwadwo Britwum (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Haley Davis (Southern Illinois University), Rebecca Seward (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Previous research suggests that teaching relational responding using multiple exemplar training is effective in facilitating the emergence of derived relational responding as a generalized operant (Berens & Hayes, 2007). The current study sought to extend this line of research by establishing derived relational responding skills in 12 individuals with autism, as well as testing for the emergence of more complex relational responses following training. Each participant was exposed to an assessment prior to and following training, which provided a measure of their relational responding abilities. During the relational training phase, each participant was taught a set of 3 different relational skills and were tested for the subsequent emergence of mutually/combinatorially entailed relations. The results suggested that all participants demonstrated low levels of correct responding for their targeted skills, however, following relational training, all participants achieved mastery of their target skills. Additionally, all participants showed increased performance on the relational assessment during post-test. The data suggest that individuals with autism can not only be taught derived relational responding skills, but also that relational training can increase their overall relational responding abilities. These findings provide support for relational responding as a generalized operant.
95. Using Mindfulness and Values Exercises to Increase Positive Interactions of ABA Therapists When Working With Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HALEY DAVIS (Southern Illinois Univeristy), Victoria Booth (Personal Assistance Services of Colorado), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Rebecca Seward (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Social interactions with clients are an important component of rapport building and creating instructional control within the therapeutic environment. Additionally, when working with children with autism, therapists are expected to provide age-appropriate interactions that model appropriate social skills. The current study assessed the use of mindfulness exercises with ABA therapists to increase the number of positive interactions within a therapy session. The current study assessed the use of mindfulness and values exercises with ABA therapists to increase the number of positive interactions within a therapy session. The study was conducted with three undergraduate ABA therapists in a university clinic using a multiple baseline design across subjects. Following baseline, each therapist completed a self-report measure on psychological flexibility before their sessions and then listened to a 5-min guided mindfulness exercise. Positive interactions were recorded at the beginning and end of each session for 15 minutes each using partial interval time sampling. Additionally, fidelity for therapeutic
96. Evaluating the Emergence of the Transformation of Stimulus Function Through Representational Drawing
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KWADWO BRITWUM (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Haley Davis (Southern Illinois University), Rebecca Seward (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The transformation of stimulus function occurs when the functions of a stimulus are altered due to its participation in a derived relation with another stimulus (Dymond & Rehfeldt, 2000). Much of the behavior analytic literature utilizes selection-based responses as a measure of the transformation of stimulus function, however, previous research suggests that other measures, such as representational drawing tasks, may provide an alternative to selection-based responses (Dixon, et al. 2016). The current study aimed to extend the findings of Dixon et al (2016) by evaluating the use of representational drawing as an alternative measure when testing for emergence of combinatorially entailed relations and the transformation of stimulus functions following relational training. In the current study, two participants with autism were exposed to a series of relational training procedures, and were intermittently tested for subsequent transformations of stimulus function by presenting them with representational drawing tasks. Baseline performances suggested that participants demonstrated low levels of correct responding across all stimulus relations. Following relational training, both participants demonstrated an increase in correct responding, as well as increased performance on representational drawing tasks. The data suggest that representational drawing tasks were successful in evaluating the emergence of the transformation of stimulus function.
97. Creating Effective Parent Coaching Sessions to Increase Quality of Life for Families Affected by Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE BATEMAN (University of Virginia, University of Washington), Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
Abstract: As the prevalence of children diagnosed with autism continues to rise, the need for high quality parent coaching practices to ensure generalization of skills targeting in early intervention services is pronounced This mixed methods study investigated the results of implementation of a parent coaching treatment package developed in alignment with adult learning and education theory, seeking to increase quality of life for families affected by autism. Results suggest that this intervention may be an effective and socially valid intervention for parents of children who engage in high rates of challenging behavior at home, and has the ability to increase parent implementation of target behavior skills taught in intervention. Parents identified intervention as having high acceptability and identified parent coaching treatment package as a highly effective intervention. Individual results discussed, as well as implications of this intervention as a whole.
98. An Analysis of Alternative Items and Activities During Schedule Thinning With Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA SIMMONS (Rowan University), Amanda Zangrillo (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Gianna Visceglia (Rowan University)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is commonly used to treat socially-mediated problem behavior (Carr & Durand, 1985). After teaching a functional communication response, clinicians often conduct schedule thinning using multiple or chained schedules (Hanley et al., 2001). Clinicians may add alternative items/activities during SΔ periods to improve outcomes. A consecutive controlled case series was conducted with the last 25 patients (64% with autism spectrum disorder; mean age = 9.76) referred to a severe behavior clinic for destructive behavior to evaluate schedule thinning during FCT. Alternative items/activities were added for 40% of participants, following a mean of 123.71 sessions (range, 0-201). Across participants, a mean of 271.21 sessions (range, 56-945) was conducted to reach the terminal schedule. We evaluated variables that may impact the addition of items/activities (e.g., function, age, diagnosis, communication modality). Preliminary results support the inclusion of alternative items/activities at the onset of schedule thinning as they are generally added after numerous sessions and failed treatment and would improve the social validity of treatment (e.g., toys and attention readily available) or potentially allow clinicians to simultaneously treat multiple functions (e.g., demands presented when tangible items are unavailable). A mean 93.25% reduction in destructive behavior (range, 74%-100%) was observed across participants.
99. Teaching Appropriate Transitions Using Skills Within the Client's Repertoire for Children With a Diagnosis of Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELSEY JEAN SCHIMMEL (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Holland Thompson (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center)
Abstract: Transitions between activities or locations are notably difficult for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and often elicit problem behaviors that lead to social isolation and a lack of learning opportunities (Williams, 2015). Treatment packages to address this skill deficit often include pairing the transition with additional stimuli to reduce the presence of these problem behaviors. The purpose of this on-going study is to set a clear expectation during transitions through the use of visual stimuli in order to decrease irritability, and increase access to reinforcement and learning opportunities. The participants are two three-year-old females with ASD, that were taught to transition between zones when 2D and 3D visuals for the specific location were provided in conjunction with the vocal cue. Results from this suggest that combining known visual stimuli paired with the vocal cue, is an effective approach in teaching appropriate transitions and increasing access to positive reinforcement and learning opportunities, due to a decrease in overall irritability.
100. Supervising BCBA Candidates at a Private Agency Setting: What Exactly Constitutes Effective Indirect and Direct Hours?
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Abstract: The field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is vastly growing with the responsibility of training and supervising BCaBA and BCBA candidates, especially in the private sector. Quality supervision of these candidates is an ongoing reality and discussion for existing BCBA’s and in the field of ABA in general. BCBA’s are required to provide supervision based off the task list on the BACB website and BCaBA and BCBA candidates must accrue indirect hours that are considered “behavior analytic,” as well as accrue direct service hours with a client.  It is the job of the supervising BCBA to provide supervision of these indirect and direct hours and it is the candidate’s responsibility to track these hours on an excel spreadsheet. This study aims to disseminate exactly what “indirect” hours are pertinent to the development of a future BCBA or BCaBA, as well as an examination of the types of clients (ages, developmental levels) each candidate has work with, throughout the course of the supervision process. Three current BCBA’s at a private agency are tracked for one year, in their role as a BCBA and are rated, in terms of ability and preparedness, by their supervising BCBA. Their indirect hours are broken down by percentages in terms of time spent on various tasks and additionally, their direct hours are examined, in terms of how many different clients, along with how many hours were worked with each client, throughout their supervision. The hypothesis is that the wider variety of clients the BCBA candidate has worked with, and in addition, the wider variety of indirect hours completed by the BCBA candidate, becomes the best predictor of preparedness in their future role as a BCBA.
101. A Comparison of Nested and Un-Nested Stimuli to Teach Visual Identity Matching
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH J. PREAS (University of Nebraska Medical Center; Munroe-Meyer Institute; Department of Psychology ), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center; Munroe-Meyer Institute; Department of Psychology )
Abstract: Early intensive behavioral intervention programs often use identity-matching procedures to teach children with autism basic discriminative and relational performances. However, teaching visual discriminations to some children with autism may be challenging when common methods of teaching identity matching have failed. In the current study, we manipulated the tactile features of stimuli to increase the discriminability between identical matching objects for two children with autism. We used an adapted-alternating-treatments design within a concurrent multiple baseline design to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of nested versus un-nested matching stimuli. Nested stimuli were objects in which the participant could place the identical matching stimulus inside the comparison stimulus when presented in an array of two; whereas, the participant placed the identical un-nested matching stimulus next to the comparison stimulus. The overall results showed that participants acquired nested targets in fewer sessions and trials compared to un-nested targets. Findings from this study suggest that tactile manipulation of stimuli may result in the acquisition of identity matching for children with autism with a history of failed attempts to teach matching using common teaching procedures.
102. Natural Language Paradigm for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Play, Happiness, and Social Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAITLYN GUMAER (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract: For children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), deficits in language have predicted poor play and social skills outcomes (Toth et al., 2006). However, the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven to be effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for both children (Koegel et al., 1987) and adults (LeBlanc et al., 2006) with ASD, and has been successfully implemented by parents (Laski et al., 1988) and siblings (Spector & Charlop, 2018). A multiple baseline design across four children with ASD was used to assess the efficacy of NLP on increasing appropriate play, joint attention and happiness behaviors, while decreasing inappropriate play and verbalization behaviors. Measurements of all behaviors were taken during natural play sessions for baseline and follow-up probes, natural play sessions with a parent for generalization probes, and during NLP intervention sessions. Results showed that all participants reached an increase in appropriate verbalizations by 50% across 5 consecutive sessions. Additionally, results indicated increases in appropriate play behaviors, joint attention behaviors, and happiness behaviors, and decreases in inappropriate play behaviors and verbalizations. Furthermore, results demonstrated generalization of these skills across person and setting. Follow-up play probes and generalization probes indicated maintenance of these skills at two-weeks, one-month, and six-months. The current study demonstrates the robustness and resilience of NLP’s effectiveness on the development of language, play, and social skills for children with ASD.
103. The Effects of Goal Difficulty on Exercise Improvements Among Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARGARET DANNEVIK PAVONE (Lindenwood University; Simmons College)
Abstract: In this study, four participants with autism spectrum disorder volunteered for a group exercise program in the community. The purpose of the study was to see whether goal difficulty affected performance on four exercise tasks. Each individual was given a different type of goal for each of the skills. The assignment of goal type to athletic skill was randomized so that each individual was exposed to all four goal types (Do your best goals, easy goals, difficult goals, and arbitrarily set goals) and had a chance to perform all four exercises. Individuals were given the same amount of feedback and positive reinforcement for performing, regardless of performance. For all four skills and four participants, difficult goals produced the largest improvement in performance. This is aligned with findings in the general population from recent studies of goal setting in organizational contexts (Roose & Williams, 2017).
104. Increasing Academic Motivation for Homework Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Parent-Delivered Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA POYSER (University of California, Santa Barbara), Ty Vernon (Koegel Autism Center, University of California, Santa Barbara), Lynn Kern Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara), Robert L. Koegel (Stanford University)
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have an observed lack of motivation for academic work and as a result engage in a number of off-task and disruptive behaviors. This limited motivation can also impact home-based academic tasks, making homework challenging for both the student and parent(s). Although studies have shown that behavioral interventions in the classroom can increase academic performance in students with ASD, few have focused on in-home academic challenges and strategies parents can implement to increase academic motivation. Using a multiple baseline across participants procedure, the current study adapted the motivational techniques of the Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) model to a parent-delivered program focusing on the in-home academic work. Participants were three grade-school students in general education classroom with a current diagnosis of ASD (ages 7, 8, and 9) and their parents (3 mothers, 2 fathers). Behaviorally coded data on homework completion, child affect/interest, social validity and parent treatment fidelity were collected. Preliminary results for the first participant indicate that on-task behavior and child affect/interest increased; while latency to begin work, child off-task intervals, and frequency of adult redirection decreased. Data collection is in progress for the final two participants, but preliminary results are very promising. This research may help inform the development of an intervention package that parents can use to alleviate persistent homework challenges.
105. Restrictedness Embodied in Movement: A Pilot Study on High Functioning Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
ZHONG ZHAO (Institute of Human Factors and Ergonomics, Shenzhen University), Xiaobin Zhang (Institute of Human Factors and Ergonomics, Shenzhen University, China), Xinyao Hu (Institute of Human Factors and Ergonomics, Shenzhen University, China), Xingda Qu (Institute of Human Factors and Ergonomics, Shenzhen University, China)
Abstract: Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is one of the two core symptoms of autism, and it might find its root in the neuropsychological trait of “insistence on sameness”. Conceived from the perspective of embodied psychology, our study aimed to investigate whether “restrictedness” might be embodied in patient's movement. 9 patients with high functioning autism (ASD) and 13 participants of typical development (TD) aged between 6 and 13 years were recruited to perform a horizontal left-right movement with their dominant hand. Instructions were to perform as complex movement as possible by demonstrating various amplitude and velocity. 3 trials were performed and each trial lasted 60s. Entropy of movement amplitude, velocity and acceleration were calculated as indicators of movement “restrictedness”. Linear mixed-effect models demonstrated that autism was a significant predictor of velocity and acceleration entropy (both p < .05). Pairwise comparisons showed that the entropy of both velocity and acceleration was significantly lower in ASD than in TD (both p < .05), indicating a higher level of restrictedness in ASD’s movement. Given the fact that current evaluation of RRB is questionnaire-based, which might be biased by subjective factors of the evaluator, our finding sheds light on potential objective assessment tool for RRB of autism.
106. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children With Autism Using Visually Structured Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PATRICIA A. HAMPSHIRE (Boise State University)
Abstract: Young students with autism typically exhibit lower levels of play behaviors than their typical peers. These play behaviors may be idiosyncratic and/or unusual (e.g., stereotyped or inappropriately repetitive), further inhibiting the possibilities for successful social interactions with classmates. Learners with autism can be systematically taught appropriate toy play behaviors that can then lead to enhanced social opportunities for these students. In this poster, I will describe how teachers can develop and implement systematic instructional strategies incorporating visual structuring to elicit more successful play behaviors in these students. Photographic examples will also be included. Future plans for applied research in this area will also be described.
107. Achieving Self-Initiations: Toilet Training Minimally-Verbal Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHARON T. HYNES (Emory Autism Center, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine), Michael J. Morrier (Emory Autism Center, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Independent toileting skills are crucial for increased opportunities for inclusion, independence, and quality of life. Toilet training minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses significant challenges. Preliminary results showed that using a modified Foxx and Azrin (1971) toilet training program based on operant procedures using antecedent manipulation and positive reinforcement taught 15 children with ASD, between 3.3 and 11.4 years, urinary continence and independent initiations to void in the toilet. Nine non-verbal children with no functional communication and 6 low-verbal children exhibiting limited and/or inconsistent functional communication participated. All families previously attempted to toilet train their child with no success. After participating in a 5-day intensive toilet training program, results indicated significant improvement in overall ability to independently initiate and void in the toilet. After Day 1, participants voided in the toilet an average of 76% while initiating an average of 9%, and after Day 5, 88% and 63% respectively with all but 1 child initiating to use the toilet. In addition, 7 children consistently (70% or more) initiated their need to go. Preliminary results suggest that this modified procedure is an effective way to quickly teach minimally verbal children with ASD independent toileting skills for urinary continence.

Joke Telling and Humor Comprehension in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MIRANDA MARIE DRAKE (Therapeutic Pathways)

The Behavior Analytic literature provides a theoretical account of verbal behavior outside of the elementary verbal operants. This includes language that is described as sarcasm, deception, metaphors, and humor. By considering the theoretical underpinnings of humor based verbal behavior and utilizing empirically validated instruction methods like Behavioral Skills Training (BST) and Multiple Exemplar Training (MET) individuals with language deficits, like those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may acquire these advanced verbal skills. Subsequently, these individuals are given access to a richer, verbal community. Instruction in these skills could be further enhanced through the application of strategies to encourage observational learning, a strategy currently underutilized when teaching these types of advanced verbal skills. Results indicated that BST increased joke-telling skills while mixed results were observed with humor comprehension.

109. Educational Outcomes of Children With Autism Who Received Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ADELE F. DIMIAN (University of Minnesota), Frank J. Symons (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: The Centers for Disease Control report a 15% increase in diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) since 2014. Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI) are an applied behavior analytic approach that can be effective for teaching skill acquisition for individuals with ASD. Few studies, however, have followed children with ASD who received EIBI into the academic setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the educational outcomes over five years of follow up of those children that received EIBI. Medicaid records were utilized to create a cross-systems administrative dataset of 3 to 5 year olds with ASD (2008 -2010). This cohort was matched with records from 2010-2014 academic years (94.5% match rate, n=607). Educational outcomes (e.g., instructional placement, standardized test scores) were examined with descriptive and statistical analyses. Over 94% of the sample qualified for special education services, and about 40% of the students received a general education placement whereas approximately 5% were placed in a restrictive setting. About half of the children participated in the standardized testing. The outcomes were relatively stable across follow-up and those who were diagnosed younger had better educational outcomes overall. More research is needed on how children with ASD are performing academically.
110. A Comparison Between Two Discrimination Training Procedures to Teach Receptive Labelling to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTANY MARIE DISANTI (Oslo Metropolitan University ), Svein Eikeseth (Oslo Metropolitan University), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo Metropolitan University), Jenna M Conrad (The Achievement Center ), Kortnie Cotter Fisher (The Achievement Center)
Abstract: This study compared two different discrimination training procedures for teaching receptive labeling to 4 boys with autism spectrum disorder. Participants ranged in age from 3-years to 10-years old. Primary communication for all participants was through an Augmentative and Alternative Communication device or Picture Exchange Communication System. All participants were exposed to two sessions a day of the Structured Mix before Counterbalanced Random Rotation procedure and Counterbalanced Random Rotation procedure. The Structured Mix procedure followed seven-steps involving mass trials and intermixing of stimuli before Random Rotation. The Random Rotation procedure involved training all stimuli randomly at the start. The receptive targets trained across all participants included nouns. Two participants acquired the receptive labels in the Structured Mix condition, one participant acquired the receptive labels in the Random Rotation condition, and two participants did not acquire the receptive labels in either of the two conditions. The Structured Mix condition was associated with fewer errors and required less prompting as compared to the Random Rotation condition. Results for the present study indicate that the Structured Mix was more effective for learners with limited receptive repertoires.
111. Examining Potential Treatment Targets for an Intervention Targeting Online Social Skills for Adults With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAINA M TAGAVI (University of California, Santa Barbara), Anthony Osuna (University of California, Santa Barbara), Celina You (University of California, Santa Barbara), Ty Vernon (Koegel Autism Center, University of California, Santa Barbara)
Abstract: Although social communication has been frequently studied in individuals with ASD, it is currently unknown how they engage with others online. Previous research highlights that individuals with ASD may feel more comfortable communicating online than in person (Goby, 2006) and that social media use may increase friendship quality and decrease loneliness and social anxiety (Mazurek, 2013). The present study analyzed baseline levels of Internet usage, anxiety, and in-person social skills as part of a larger study aimed at improving social and vocational skills for adults with ASD. Prior to intervention, 17 adults with ASD completed questionnaires assessing their anxiety and social media usage. In-person social skills were evaluated using video recorded conversations with typically developing peers. Results suggest that anxiety levels and Internet usage were inversely correlated, r(14) = -.560, p = .024, demonstrating that more time spent online is associated with decreased anxiety severity. There was no significant relationship between time spent online and in-person social skills. These results suggest that anxiety is a critical variable in understanding the online and in-person social experience for adults with ASD and suggest a need for an intervention that specifically targets online social skills.
112. Identifying Symptomatic Infants and Intervening Early: A Community-Based Application
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXIS N. BOGLIO (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Amy Kenzer (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center)
Abstract: With efforts to lower the age of diagnosis and identify symptoms of autism in infants and young toddlers there is need to identify effective applications and interventions. We piloted a community based program that included parent education, consistent monitoring, and a very early intervention option for infants and young toddlers demonstrating early symptoms indicative of autism spectrum disorder. Two groups were enrolled in the program, low risk and high risk infants. At present, 18 high risk infants have been enrolled as early as 6 months of age into parent education and consistent monitoring appointments. Monitoring appointments resulted in a clinical recommendation to 1) continue parent education and monitoring, 2) continue parent education and enroll into a 12-week low-intensity treatment, 3) continue parent education, enroll into a 12-week low-intensity treatment and pursue a diagnostic evaluation. A clinical best estimate was evaluated at 18 months and high-risk infants who received treatment demonstrated gains and parents acquired behavioral strategies to support their infants learning by first increasing infant attention and then targeting individualized goals. Outcomes indicate that we are successful in enrolling symptomatic infants with promising impact in developmental domains and trajectories for all infants and decreasing symptomatic scores for some infants.

Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis of Safety Skills Instruction to Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
ELIF TEKIN-IFTAR (Anadolu University), Seray Olcay Gul (Hacettepe University, Ankara), Nursinem Sirin (Anadolu University), Hatice Bilmez (European University of Lefke), Hatice Deniz Degirmenci (Anadolu University)

“Safety skills” is an important umbrella term used to cover a variety of skills. Many individuals are at risk of safety threatening occasions. Individuals with autism face two to three times the risk of injury or abuse compared with their same age peers. Unless systematically taught, children with ASD can’t acquire safety skills and behave appropriately or protect themselves against to safety threats. Although safety skills are important skills, researchers and practitioners have not yet shown their closer attention. Teaching these skills are usually neglected. There is paucity in research investigating safety skills instruction. Although they are limited, the findings of these studies are promising. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the research studies, which are designed by single-subject research designs in teaching safety skills. These analyses were conducted (a) to examine whether they meet the quality indicators proposed by Kratochwill et al. (2013), (b) to provide comprehensive descriptive analyses, (c) to calculate the effect size of the interventions, and (d) to recommend whether these interventions should be considered as evidence-based practices. Thirty-two studies were reviewed and analyzed. Behavioral skill training found to be evidence-based practice in teaching safety skills.

114. Efficacy of Social Stories and Video Modelling in Teaching Safety Skills to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HATICE DENIZ DEGIRMENCI (Anadolu University), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The present study aims to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Social Stories and video modelling in teaching safety skills to children with autism. In addition to that parent’s opinions were considered as social validity in the study. Three preschool children 4 to 7 years old participated to this study. An adapted alternating treatments design was utilized in the study. Dependent variables of the study were staying safe in the presence of battery, safe walking the presence of wet floor sign, and reporting parents/adults the presence of a medicine when coming across. Each participant was taught two target behaviors among them. One target behavior was planned to be taught via Social Stories and the other one was planned to be taught via video modelling. Naturalistic probe trials were conducted to test acquisition in the study. The intervention sessions were conducted in the participants’ classrooms whereas probe sessions were conducted in various settings where the children naturally were there. Results showed that Social Stories and video modelling procedures were almost equally effective and efficient in teaching safety skills to children with autism. In addition to that parent’s opinions were highly positive about the aims, procedures and outcomes of the present study.
115. Teaching Community Signs to Children With Autism: A Comparison of Traditional Versus Embedded Teaching Format
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERIFE SAHIN (Anadolu University), Arzu Ozen (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and efficiency between presenting constant time delay intervention (CTDI) at a table in a structured environment and presenting CTDI within embedded play activities on teaching community alert signs to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study was conducted with four children with ASD. Participants’ age range was 36-74 months. An adapted alternating treatments design was used in the study. The study consisted of baseline, intervention, generalization and maintenance phases. The results of the present study showed that using presenting CTDI traditionally at a table and presenting CTDI embedded within play activity with intermittent trials did not show a difference in their effectiveness and had an equal level of effectiveness on teaching naming community alert signs for three participants. Whereas for one participant, presenting CTDI traditionally at a table was found to be more effective on the acquisition of his targeted skill. No significant differences were obtained in terms of generalization and follow up data has been seen between traditionally presentation of CTDI and present CTDI with embedded on teaching community alert signs for all participants.
116. Teaching Academic Skills to Children With Autism During Small Group Instruction With Typical Development Peers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERAP DOGAN (Anadolu University), Arzu Ozen (Anadolu University)
Abstract: In this study, children with autism in the preschool period were taught to answer verbally to five different questions about professions through the constant time delay procedure when presented in a heterogeneous group setting. Also observed that what kind of social interaction behaviors that children with autism learned from their peers with typical development during the teaching of the targeted academic skills. The participants of the study were three pre-school children diagnosed with autism and six of their peers with typical development. A multiple probe design with probe trials was utilized in the study. Results showed that all participants learned target skills, generalized these skills to different settings and materials, and maintained the acquired skills 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the study finished. Observational learning data showed that children with autism acquired skills from their peers with various accuracy. As social validity data collected through social comparison showed that the children with autism reached the same level of the performance with their peers. Social validity data collected from parents and teachers show that the study are positive as well.
117. Synthesized Analysis and Functional Communication Training: A Replication & Extension
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DONNA HENIG (Autism Spectrum Therapies ), Kristen M Treulich (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Tino LoVullo (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty (2014) demonstrated an effective methodology for analysis and treatment of challenging behavior. The methodology has provided behavior analysts with systematic treatment protocol to decrease challenging behavior by increasing functional communication, tolerance, and compliance. The innovative components of the treatment include increasing complexity of the FCR, shaping delays to accessing reinforcers, and chaining difficult responses during denial and delay-tolerance training. The current treatment analysis extends this line of research by 1.) evaluating modifications to the materials 2.) using direct care staff to implement treatment 3.) using treatment to decrease challenging behavior of a 9-year old female who is deaf and diagnosed with autism and Waardenburg syndrome. Treatment analysis included a natural withdrawal as the participant’s family interrupted service delivery for a three-week period. The dependent variable included rates of self-injury and functional communication response. Direct care staff members were trained to implement the compliance and tolerance response components of the protocol using color-coded index cards. American sign language was used as the primary mode of communication. Results suggest that the treatment package was effective and the natural withdrawal impacted treatment effectiveness. Discussion points include generalization of the communication response and fading of treatment.
118. Creative Interventions to Improve ABA Treatment Availability for Young Children With a Provisional Diagnosis of Autism in High-Risk Communities
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LORI A. DOTSON (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis), Elena Huerta (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis Fielding Graduate Institute), Janelle Aguilar (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: Infant Development Program services are home-based supports provided to children under the age of three who have identified developmental delays or are considered at high risk for developmental delays and/or who present with characteristics that lead to a provisional diagnosis of Autism. Utilizing single case studies, this poster aims to present creative solutions to common barriers to ABA treatment availability for such families participating in Infant Development Program services in high risk communities. Barriers include but are not limited to homelessness, housing insecurity, food insecurity, parental mental health and substance use challenges, immigration status stress, and a host of weather related challenges, including fire evacuations. Coordination with other providers such as Child Protective Services, Behavioral Health Services, Foster Care, School District and Disability Services organizations will also be discussed. Ecological and mediator analyses with associated interventions for children and their families will be presented and recommendations for staff retention and self-care will be provided.
119. Determining the Learning Preferences of Children With Autism: A Social Validity Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ARZU OZEN (Anadolu University), Serife Sahin (Anadolu University)
Abstract: This study was designed to determine learning preferences of the children with autism when two different teaching contexts, structured teaching environment and embedded play activities, were presented during teaching via time delay. Study was conducted with four children with autism, aged between 36-74 month. An AB design was used in the study. Determining the which teaching method do the participants with autism prefer to learn with, the study was consisted of the following two phases; (a) teaching to make choice, and (b) conducting teaching with the participant’s preferred teaching method training. During first phase, visual prompt was provided to the participant in order to determine the preference of him regarding the two teaching methods used in the study and make them refresh the two methods in their minds was targeted. After completing the choice making training sessions with the participants, new training sessions were conducted with a teaching set that was not used before. At the beginning of each training session the participants were asked which teaching method they would prefer and the training was conducted accordingly. Findings show that two of the subjects preferred to learn structured environments and the others preferred to learn via embedded play activities.
120. Diversifying Pretend Play Behaviors of Children With Autism Through Least-To-Most Prompting Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GIZEM ERGIN (Anadolu University), Arzu Ozen (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness of least to most prompting procedure teaching strategy in diversifying pretend play behaviors of children with autism. In this study nontarget information presentation related to naming of the actions including verbal expression of targeted play behaviors in pre-determined play-theme was carried out and multiple samples were used in generalization sessions of these actions. The study was designed in multiple probe across subjects. Three boys, with autism spectrum disorder, the age of whom ranges from 3 to 6 attended the study. Results showed that all the participants gained pretend play behaviors which were targeted in play-theme, generalized these behaviors among different equipment and maintained these behaviors about 1, 2 and 3 weeks after training. Besides, increase in nontargeted information acquisition level of participants was observed and they generalized the acquisition to multiple sampling. Social validity data gathered from parents of the participants revealed that the study is strong from social perspective.

Intraverbal Generalization With Children Diagnosed With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARCIO FELIPE TARDEM (University Center Filadélfia-UniFil, Londrina-PR), Victor Delefrati (University Center Filadélfia-UniFil, Londrina-PR), Karina Cinel (State University of Londrina), João Juliani (University of São Paulo), Dayanne Conceição (PUCPR Londrina)

Autism is characterized by: 1) persistent deficit in communication and social interaction in multiple contexts; and 2) repetitive patterns of behavior and interest or restricted activities with significant impairments in social life. Behavior Analysis research shows that the person diagnosed with autism presents difficulties in generalizing behaviors learned in teaching environments to other contexts. The objective of this research was to analyze the variables involved in the generalization process of the intraverbal operants taught in a structured situation with people diagnosed with autism. Three children, aged between 6 and 8 years, with a diagnosis of autism participated in the study. The participants were trained regarding the intraverbal teaching of geometric forms and, through the antecedent stimuli, an echoic prompt was offered and delayed according to the correct answers without it. The data showed after 6-7 sessions the three participants, who previously did not present the intraverbal behavior, intraverbalized without the echoic prompt. In addition, the generalization test showed that all of the participants presented the intraverbal in 100% of the attempts in other contexts. This result was different from what some authors previously affirmed, in which structured teaching does not facilitate the generalization of learned behaviors.

122. Autism and Criminal Behavior: A Review of the Literature on the Subject Criminal Behavior and Those on the Autism Spectrum
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Abstract: A review from several sources regarding autism, crime and how the modern criminal justice system is challenged with adjudicating such cases. The case of Darius McCollum in New York City illustrates the unique nature of criminal cases involving defendants diagnosed with autism. McCollum has admitted to illegally operating subways and buses on over one hundred different instances over several decades. The documentary "Off the Rails" (2016) details his unusual story and the controversy surrounding how modern society should contend with criminal cases where defendants have special needs. In addition the literature presented will provide information on the rate of violent crime among those with autism, as well as property and other instances of delinquency. The likelihood that those with autism will be prosecuted, as well as other options (such as pre-trial diversion) are also examined. The number of articles over several years are presented in graph form to emphasize study of this subject matter and to demonstrate the need for future research.
123. Effectiveness of Immediate vs. Delayed Feedback on Therapist Skills in Implementing Discrete Trial Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUKIE KURUMIYA (The Chicago School of Professional Pyschology), Patty Weigand (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The current study was conducted to 1) compare and evaluate the effectiveness of feedback at two different temporal locations (immediately after the performance versus immediately prior to the next performance opportunity), 2) investigate what behavior functions(s) that feedback could serve, and 3) identify whether preference of timing corresponded to performance improvement. Three experienced behavior therapists with different baseline levels participated in this study. Their performance in discrete trial training was evaluated in an alternating treatment design. Results indicated that both delayed feedback and immediate feedback were effective in improving discrete trial teaching implementation to the mastery level across all participants with no significant differences across all participants. A correlation between preference for feedback timing and performance was observed with two out of three participants. However, the findings suggest that, regardless of the personal preference of performers, feedback may primarily function as an EO for performers with a higher level of skill acquisition; whereas, feedback may primarily function as reinforcement for performers with a lower level of skill acquisition.
124. Implementing Group-Based Early Start Denver Model at School to Foster Inclusive Teaching
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
EMANUELA ZAPPALA' (University of Salerno), Filomena Agrillo (University of Salerno), Irene Russo (University of Salerno; Early Days Autism Center), Cynthia Zierhut (Early Days Autism Center), Paola Aiello (University of Salerno)
Abstract: Translating evidence-based-practices (EBPs) for young children with autism into community settings has been recently become a high priority for all stakeholders: policymakers, education, health industry, third sector organization and research. Preschool seems one of the settings where it can be natural to implement EBPs and Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention (NDBI), and a consistent body of literature is currently growing on qualitative and quantitates studies in such a setting. The Group-Based Early Start Denver Model (G-ESDM) is one the EBPs which has been shown to be an effective approach for the youngest children with ASD in mainstream preschools in Australia (Eapen, Crncec and Walter, 2013; Fulton, Eapen, Crncec, Walter and Rogers, 2014; Vivanti, Duncan, Dawson, Rogers, 2017; Vivanti, Paynter, Duncan, Fothrgill, Dissanayake, Rogers, Victorian ASELCC, 2014). However, in these studies not teachers but highly skilled Early Start Denver Model therapists have implemented the G-ESDM, which can still be a barrier to implementation and dissemination of this EBPs models. The purpose of this study is to describe the work underway between two institutions, Early Days Autism Center, Sacramento, CA and University of Salerno, Italy) in developing a model of the G-ESDM teachers’ training for the US and Italy. We will examine the Fixsen and colleague (2005) framework to implementation science of EBPs in preschool settings, in order to propose a procedural implementation model for the G-ESDM teachers training and proposing future research directions.
125. Implementation and Teacher Training of Group-Based Early Start Denver Model
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
IRENE RUSSO (University of Salerno; Early Days Autism Center), Cynthia Zierhut (Early Days Autism Center), Filomena Agrillo (University of Salerno), Maurizio Sibilio (University of Salerno)
Abstract: The growing number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has created the urgency of implementing evidence-based-interventions (EBIs) in a more sustainable way. Although EBIs have been tested and showed efficacy in research centers, only a few of them have been implemented and tested in mainstream preschools, which can be the primary setting in which children with ASD receive Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention (NDBI). One of those is the Group-Based Early Start Denver Model (G-ESDM), which has been shown to be an effective approach for the youngest children with ASD in mainstream preschools in Australia (Eapen, Crncec and Walter, 2013; Fulton, Eapen, Crncec, Walter and Rogers, 2014; Vivanti, Duncan, Dawson, Rogers, 2017; Vivanti, Paynter, Duncan, Fothrgill, Dissanayake, Rogers, Victorian ASELCC, 2014). The quality framework in Australia for early education is however markedly different to the standards in the United States. Using and implementation science framework, this project aims to adopt the G-ESDM in the United States and to investigate best approaches toward teacher training in how to implement EBIs in mainstream preschools. In the first year of this pilot study, the aim is to examine the extent to which early education teachers and trained ESDM instructional assistants (Teacher N =7; IA N= 9), have learned to implement the G-ESDM for students with ASD using the fidelity of implementation tools, and to understand individual factors like teacher attitudes towards students with ASD and inclusion, knowledge of ASD and teacher self-efficacy are associated with teachers’ fidelity and progress. The results of this study will provide an understanding of the factors that influence the successful learning of the G-ESDM by early teachers and trained instructional assistants, and inform potential implementation targets and tailoring of strategies that will help future teacher training.

Verbs and Nouns: Vintage Research, Current Application

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AMY M PRINCE (The TALK Team; California Speech Language Hearing Association), Amber Ladd (The TALK Team )

The purpose of the proposed poster presentation is to share a methodology of early verbal behavior intervention based on Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development (1973) and the Bloom and Lahey Model (1978) utilized in our speech therapy private practice. This model holds that teaching rich, flexible verbs that extend beyond the typical "want", in effective pairing with salient nouns, results in individuals with more robust vocabularies, even if their mean length of utterance remains limited. In practical application, this method has shown promise in children with Autism based on data collected and progress towards goals collected from children in our practice. Generalization and expansion have been seen in children whose speech therapy intervention has included this model of intervention.

128. Using Behavioral Skills Training to Shape Job Skills in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
VALERIE BROOKE SMITH (University of Rochester Medical Center)
Abstract: Research indicates that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a 58% rate of employment, the lowest compared to peers with other disabilities (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2015). The University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities in Rochester, New York facilitated a job club to provide a network for social and technical support and promote the development of skills necessary for finding and maintaining employment. Participants were 5 unemployed adults with ASD, who were not deemed eligible for services provided by the state’s intellectual/developmental disabilities (I/DD) agency, and would benefit from ongoing support more robust than what the state’s Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) agency provides. Job Club sessions were conducted bi-weekly for one hour in a classroom. Skill repertoire was identified using self-assessments and parent/guardian and counselor feedback, when applicable. Skills included the preparation of resumes, cover letters, and applications, as well as interviewing, email/phone etiquette, networking, time management, advocacy, and disclosure. Instruction was delivered using Behavioral Skills Training, incorporating modeling and rehearsal of skills, provision of feedback, and generalization across community settings. Prompts were faded as skills developed. 4 out of 5 job club members have obtained employment at least part-time after 1 year of participation in the program.
129. Social Interventions for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Research
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
LAUREN WEISS (University of New Mexico)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face a variety of barriers in social, communicative, and behavioral functioning. In particular, children with ASD have deficits in social behavior that decrease opportunities to socialize and develop peer relationships (Kroeger, Schultz, & Newsom, 2006). A child’s early development of social skills has been linked to successful school adjustment and academic achievement while preschoolers with poor social behavior experience peer rejection, low academic achievement, and behavior problems (McClelland & Morrison, 2003). I conducted a systematic review of research on interventions that provided positive social outcomes for young children with ASD. Results from this study exposed common research designs (i.e., multiple baseline, randomized control trial), topics (e.g., joint attention, imitation), and practices (e.g., pivotal response training, peer mediation) applied to teaching social skills to this population. Research is limited on social interventions that do not include behaviorally-based techniques, which could reveal additional components of effective social skills interventions. Rigorous and well-designed research studies are needed to determine the most efficient and effective dosage of established scientifically-based practices, as well as measures of social validity, which was lacking in many of the studies reviewed. A discussion regarding targeting pivotal skills in early intervention is included in this review.
130. Using Daily Behavior Report Cards During Extended School Year Services for Young Students With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DORIS ADAMS HILL (Auburn University College of Education), Jonte Taylor (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRCs) have shown to be a successful intervention for improving classroom behavior for students considered to display challenging behaviors. DBRCs have been used for students with emotional/ behavioral disorder in an effort to improve academic and social outcomes. Few studies have examined the use of DBRCs for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Even fewer studies have examined the intersection of young (i.e., early childhood) students with IDD in extended school year settings (ESY). The authors examined the effectiveness of DBRCs for young students with IDD in ESY settings. The research questions were: 1. Are DBRCs an effective intervention for improving behavior during ESY services for young students with IDD? 2. Can teachers of young students with IDD effectively implement DBRCs as a behavior intervention during ESY services?



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