Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

10th International Conference; Stockholm, Sweden; 2019

Program by Day for Sunday, September 29, 2019


 

Paper Session #1
Topics in Developmental Disabilities
Sunday, September 29, 2019
8:00 AM–8:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, Meeting Room 24/25
Area: DDA
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Eunhee Paik (Kongju National Univ.)
 
The Effects of Individualized Positive Behavior Support on Classroom Challenging Behaviors and Functional Communication of Students With Intellectual Disabilities in South Korea
Domain: Applied Research
EUNHEE PAIK (Kongju National Univ.), Gyeshin Park (Korean Nazarene University), Surnhee Lee (BK21 Kongju National Univ.)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the individualized positive behavior support on problem behaviors and functional communication of 4 special school students with intellectual disabilities in South Korea. The participants were students with intellectual disabilities who have received special education in an elementary to high school level of Korean special school. The study utilized multiple baseline design across subjects. Functional behavior assessment was conducted using direct observation, interviews with the teacher, and with motivational checklist (MAS) as well as students school records. Student’s personal profiles were analyzed to identify the function of the behavior. The dependent variables were the classroom disruptive behaviors demonstrated by students while they are in the classroom: self-injurious behavior, agressive behavior, screaming, banging the desk, and lying down on the floor. Those behaviors were measured by teachers using DBC-M behavioral monitoring chart. The findings from the study indicated that the individualized positive behavior supports (i.e., antecedent strategies, alternative behavioral strategies, and consequent strategies) were helpful reducing those challenging behaviors and increasing functional communication of 4 students with intellectual disabilities during both intervention and maintenance phase. The implication included the guidelines for future research and limitation.
 
 
 
Panel #2
CE Offered: BACB
A Cultural International Perspective on Interprofessional Collaboration When Working With Individuals Diagnosed With Autism
Sunday, September 29, 2019
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A3/A4
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Lina M. Slim-Topdjian, Ph.D.
Chair: Lina M. Slim-Topdjian (ASAP - A Step Ahead Program, LLC; Seton Hall University)
DAG STRÖMBERG (Autism Center for Young Children, Stockholm)
SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India)
SHARIFA YATEEM (Sharifa Yateem Consultancy)
Abstract:

With increased prevalence of autism combined with its core complex behavioral characteristics (DSM-V), practitioners are more likely to work on interdisciplinary teams to address these challenges (Brodhead, 2015). One effective component that leads to better health and educational client outcome is Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice (IPEC) (WHO, 2016). The WHO presents a framework for action based on four core competency domains to be adopted by health and education systems to improve health outcome. Benefits to collaboration include skill building, shared responsibility in client outcome, brainstorming activities with shared roles and responsibilities, adoption of discipline-specific skills, designing comprehensive interventions that maximize client outcome (Cox, 2012), improved fidelity (Kelly and Tincani, 2013), increased understanding and mutual respect of each profession's value offerings, and building partnerships (Brodhead 2015). Challenges to collaboration include disagreements to treatment selection and plan, the type of skill expertise required, theoretical and cultural differences. Obstacles to collaboration may have negative effects on client progress and may lead to delayed treatment implementation and hence client access to effective treatment. This panel facilitates discussions regarding challenges to collaboration from a cultural international perspective and provides suggestions for effectively resolving these conflicts to improve health and education client outcome.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

All professional disciplines and providers, and educators, at all levels, involved in service delivery for ASD, and parents.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Describe four interprofessional education collaborative competencies 2. Identify challenges and solutions to effective interprofessional collaboration from a cultural international perspective 3. Identify cross-cultural competencies that promote interprofessional collaboration
 
 
Paper Session #3
Telehealth Technologies for Training Parents and Interventionists
Sunday, September 29, 2019
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A2
Area: AUT
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: Emma Craig (Queen's University, Belfast)
 

The Use of Telehealth Technologies to Train Interventionists to Implement Behaviour Analytic Interventions to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Initial Findings

Domain: Applied Research
EMMA CRAIG (Queen's University, Belfast), Katerina Dounavi (Queen's University of Belfast)
Abstract:

Telehealth technology is now becoming more frequently utilised by behaviour analysts working with families living in rural areas, who do not have access to local professionals trained in the science of behaviour analysis. Results from a systematic literature review we conducted indicated that although there is research to support the use of telehealth technologies, there is insufficient evidence on their effectiveness in teaching functional living skills and on training procedures that lead to high procedural fidelity. The present research aimed to investigate the impact of telehealth on the effectiveness of ABA-based interventions by assessing child outcomes, the fidelity of training procedures and changes in the professional’s skills. In our presentation, we will provide data collected through a multiple probe research design during our work using telehealth to train professionals working with children with autism on how to use behaviour analytic methods to teach them functional living skills. Evidence on social validity and feasibility will be discussed in the light of children’s outcomes and implementation fidelity.

 

Training Parents of Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Increase Child Communication Using Naturalistic Teaching Strategies and a Telehealth Delivery Platform: A Discussion of Feasibilityand Initial Data

Domain: Applied Research
JANET FERGUSON (Queens University Belfast), Katerina Dounavi (Queen's University of Belfast)
Abstract:

Research has indicated that interventions based upon the principles of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) are considered best Evidence Based Practice (EBP) in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Due to a shortage of sufficiently qualified professionals, and a lack of funding availability across Europe, alternative delivery models should be explored, one of which is telehealth. Telehealth utilises internet and telecommunications technology to provide remote training and supervision of ABA interventions. Results of a systematic review have indicated that although the use of telehealth is feasible, past research does have several methodological downfalls. The current applied research project has built upon the results of this review, creating a telehealth parent training package using didactic training and ongoing coaching to teach parents to implement incidental teaching strategies to promote communication. In our presentation we will discuss the development process of this package and will present data on its feasibility collected through a multiple probe across participants research design. We will also discuss barriers encountered, ways to increase parents’ fidelity of implementation and child communication outcomes.

 
 
 
Panel #4
CE Offered: BACB
Best Practices in Competency Based Staff Training and Supervision Across Three New York State Provider Agencies
Sunday, September 29, 2019
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C3
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Annmarie Itgen, M.Ed.
Chair: Jamie Arnold (Eden II Programs)
ANNMARIE ITGEN (Eden II Programs)
RANDY I. HOROWITZ (NSSA)
JULIE ROBYN RUSSELL (Brooklyn Autism Center)
Abstract:

Provider agencies are charged with designing, implementing and evaluating staff training programs to meet the unique needs of individuals with autism. The field of service provision for individuals with autism is rapidly changing in New York State, especially with adult services. There is an urgent need for the existing work force to increase their skills and competencies as it pertains to the provision of quality services to individuals with autism and their families. Evidence based strategies for improving staff satisfaction and performance through training, feedback and reinforcement will be described. In addition to a work force of skilled front line staff, retaining quality leadership is also a critical variable in maintaining excellence as providers of applied behavior analytic services. This panel will outline and describe a variety of obstacles and resources for the management, training and supervision of all staff from the direct support level through director and executive level. Creating an enjoyable work environment will be a theme throughout the panel presentation.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Target audience of BCBA and Clinical Supervisors

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation participants will be able to, 1. describe some of the different resources for training a skilled work force.2. Discuss the obstacles NYS service providers have with retention of qualified staff. 3. How to take the obstacles and resources that we are given to create a pleasant working environment for all staff from front line to upper management
Keyword(s): quality leadership, Staff Training, supervision
 
 
Invited Paper Session #5
CE Offered: BACB

Noble Aspirations

Sunday, September 29, 2019
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, A1
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Peter Killeen, Ph.D.
Chair: Maria E. Malott (Association for Behavior Analysis International)
PETER KILLEEN (Arizona State University)

Dr. Peter Killeen is professor emeritus at Arizona State University. He has been a visiting scholar at the University of Texas, Cambridge University, and the Centre for Advanced Study, Oslo. He is a Fellow of the Society of Experimental Psychologists, a Senior Scientist Awardee from NIMH, a president of the Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior (from which he received the Poetry in Science Award), held the APA’s F. J. McGuigan Lectureship on Understanding the Human Mind (!), and received the Ernest and Josephine Hilgard Award for the Best Theoretical Paper on hypnosis (!!). Dr. Killeen has made many innovative and fundamental contributions to the experimental and quantitative analysis of behavior. His major work includes the development of incentive theory, culminating in the mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR; Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1994), the behavioral theory of timing (BeT: Psychological Review, 1988), and a new theory of ADHD (Curr Dir Psyc Sci, 2016). He is the author of over 150 peer-reviewed papers, most of which have been cited; a few ignored; a couple cursed. He has served on the boards of editors of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Behavioural ProcessesJournal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Psychological Review, Brain & Behavioral Functions, and Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews. Dr. Killeen's quantitative and conceptual developments have enriched behavior analysis and the world beyond.

Abstract:

We shall hold this conference in a country that regularly celebrates noble achievements—recognizing them every year with Prizes to individuals in diverse fields who have “conferred the greatest benefit on mankind”. The first year’s laureates included William Röntgen, the discoverer of x-rays; Emil von Behring, developer of an anti-toxin for the deadly disease of diphtheria; and Henri Dunant, founder of the Red Cross Movement and Geneva Convention. None of the ensuing benefits would have materialized if each of these men had not had aspirations and focused their energies on achieving them. What are our aspirations, fellow behavior analysts? How do we marshal our energies? How do we make progress toward achieving them? Each of these laureates provide a model for different kinds of aspiration. Röntgen, the basic scientist, was studying very different phenomena when he made his life-saving discovery. von Behring, the applied scientist, was persistently focused on the problem of one deadly disease. Dunant, the social activist, had a vision of a world of nurturance, peace, and brotherhood. These kinds of themes are not only present in, but proclaimed by the Association for Behavior Analysis International, whose mission is to “contribute to the well-being of society” through basic, translational, and applied research, and practice. I shall draw out examples of such visions relevant to this audience, and shall ask the audience to help me formulate others. I shall describe behaviors that will help to nurture them. It is my goal in this opening lecture that you all leave here with one or more well-articulated aspirations, or the seeds of them; aspirations that prime your attention to the information and interactions in this conference, where you may continue to develop them, and carry them back in your workplace to inform your life’s work.

Target Audience:

All conference attendees.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify various goals of relevance to behavior analysis; (2) formulate aspirational goals for yourself; (3) describe techniques for making steady progress toward them; (4) explain ways to deal with seemingly irremediable obstacles to them; (5) design an environment that supports your aspirations.
 
 
Paper Session #6
Topics in Clinical/Family/Behavioral Medicine
Sunday, September 29, 2019
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C2
Area: CBM
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: T. V. Joe Layng (Generategy, LLC)
 
Coordination of Care for Patients With Complex Medical Needs: An Integrated Treatment Model
Domain: Service Delivery
NICOLE LUKE (Brock University; Surrey Place)
Abstract: Patients with autism in a hospital treatment program in an urban Canadian setting were identified as requiring a variety of different professional services. Seeking to improve outcomes for children and families and to reduce health care costs, an interdisciplinary team was formed with the idea that shared decision making (SDM) could improve behavioral health in children with special health care needs (Cohen, Lacombe-Duncan, Spalding, MacInnis, Nicholas, Narayanan, Gordon, Margolis, & Friedman, 2012). Interprofessional collaboration is seen as essential to patient care in the medical field (Newhouse, 2018). The field of behaviour analysis has much to contribute to this idea of integrated care and its implementation in applied settings. This paper reviews the development of one model, its history of treatment for a small number of clients and discusses several case studies as an illustration of the potential benefits of developing such a plan for integrated care. Case studies include children with autism who were receiving intensive behaviour analytic intervention and required coordination of additional treatment to address their complex needs.
 
ACTonHEALTH Study: Fostering Healthful Lifestyle With Wearable Technology to Promote Psychological Flexibility and Modular Behavioral Change Intervention Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Domain: Applied Research
ROBERTO CATTIVELLI ( Scientific Board CASA GIOIA Post Doc at Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan Clinical Psychology Lab San Giuseppe Hospital - Verbania, Italy I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, ), Nicola Maffini (Scientific Board Casa Gioia Research Centre), Giorgia Varallo (PhD Candidate, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan Clinical Psychology Lab San Giuseppe Hospital - Verbania, Italy I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano), Anna Guerrini (Istituto Auxologico Italiano)
Abstract: Obesity and the state of being overweight are increasing steadily and becoming a global epidemic. Recent research reports 64% of the adult population as overweight in Europe and the USA. The social and economic impacts are increasing, and most of the rehabilitation programs, while effective in the short term, do not produce long-lasting results. An explanatory model from a behavioral perspective can describe the phenomena with the lack of sources of reinforcement related to healthful habits in a daily life context. A feasibility first clinical study combining single-subject studies and group design will be conducted to compare the effect of the current standard in obesity treatment to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and wearable technology. The goal of this project, is to develop an effective intervention, efficient and sustainable, which even after discharge can provide adequate contingencies of reinforcement in the natural environment, integrating systematic measurements, continuous feedback, and individualized, values-based objectives. The intervention is aimed to provide a contingent reinforcement for healthful behaviors instead of reinforcing only the achievement of a significant weight loss. The aim of the project, combining Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Wearable Technology, is to develop an effective, efficient and sustainable intervention able to provide a contingent reinforcement for healthy behaviors. The intervention is aimed to promote adequate healthy behaviors in the natural environment, integrating systematic measurements, continuous feedback and individualized values-based objectives, instead of reinforcing only the achievement of a significant weight loss. Modular implementation of ACT are a promising field, enhancing deep understanding of psychological and behavioral processes implicated in health, and helping to create more efficient interventions. Preliminary results of a modular implementation are discussed, integrating analysis of group and repeated single subject research designs.
 
Was the Next Wave in Behavioral Clinical Intervention Discovered 40 Years Ago?
Domain: Service Delivery
T. V. JOE LAYNG (Generategy, LLC)
Abstract: Over the past several years, evidence-based therapies such as CBT, ACT, FAP, and others, have become increasingly popular. While differing in their procedures, they all share a common characteristic: they largely rely on what may be considered linear analyses and topical interventions. A different approach is described here that has the potential to add to the therapist's analytical tool box. In contrast to the more common therapies, it is derived from nonlinear consequential contingency analysis and offers the possibility of systemic as well as topical interventions. This approach and its developmental history, previously described by Layng (2009), is the result of decades-long research, much of which was conducted at the University of Chicago by Israel Goldiamond, his colleagues, and students over 40 years ago. This paper provides an introductory exploration and explanation of nonlinear contingency analysis illustrated with case studies often found among the most challenging.
 
 
 
Paper Session #7
Topics in Gender
Sunday, September 29, 2019
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C4
Chair: Ally Patterson (George Mason University)
 
Behavior Analysis for Machines: Using Single-Case Experiments to Study Gender Bias in Algorithms
Area: EAB
Domain: Applied Research
ADAM ÅBONDE (Stockholm School of Economics), Lise Bergman Nordgren (Karolinska Institute), Camilla Dahlin-Andersson (Newstag), Richard Wahlund (Stockholm School of Economics)
Abstract: As technology becomes ever more ubiquitous, it is important to be able to understand the “smart” machines around us. But, despite growing concern about the potential prevalence of algorithmic bias, algorithms have proven hard to study due to a number of factors (proprietary code, complex structure, unknown training data, etc.). However, one approach to studying algorithms is by framing the problem in terms of behavior: By feeding the algorithm with different stimuli (i.e., instructions), and observing its corresponding response (i.e., output), inferences can be made about functional relations without having access to its underlying structure. Using this approach, two single-case experiments were conducted, where the ad delivery algorithms of Facebook and Google acted as study subjects. Each algorithm was instructed to spread a set of news videos according to an experimentally manipulated schedule, and the resulting behavior was observed. Results indicate that both algorithms had biased tendencies, distributing content to a disproportionally large share of men, which may be potentially harmful for democracy. This study highlights the need for future research to better understand machine behavior, and provides an example of how to use methods from behavior analysis as a valuable tool to study the algorithms involved in everyday life.
 
Arithmetic Decomposition: Early Intervention for a Behavioral Cusp in Mathematics
Area: EDC
Domain: Applied Research
ALLY PATTERSON (George Mason University)
Abstract: As early as first grade, girls in the United States are more likely than boys to perform arithmetic using inefficient, overt counting strategies. Decomposition strategies, which are used more frequently by boys, involve chains of behaviors that allow difficult problems to be expressed as multiple simpler problems. Children and adults who solve problems using decomposition strategies perform with higher accuracy during complex problem solving and demonstrate more approach-related behaviors related to mathematics. In the present set of experiments, the researcher designed and implemented novel early-intervention programs to teach component and target skills necessary for covert decomposition in addition (Experiment 1) and covert decomposition in subtraction (Experiment 2). First- and second- grade girls who relied on overt counting strategies at baseline were recruited for participation in the experiments. The interventions relied on behavior analytic techniques such as task analysis, chaining, errorless learning, and differential reinforcement. A functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables was determined through analysis of six features for single-subject designs. As a result of intervention procedures, all participants used a decomposition strategy to accurately and efficiently solve complex addition or subtraction problems. Broad implications of this research are relevant to increasing women’s participation in mathematics.
 
Autoshaping Touchscreen Responses in Two Non-Human Primate Species: The Role of Sex and Stimulus Movement
Area: EAB
Domain: Basic Research
TODD M MYERS (United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense), Nathan Rice (USAMRICD), Jennifer Makar (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense)
Abstract: The stimulus-movement effect is a phenomenon in which stimulus discrimination or acquisition of a response is facilitated by moving stimuli. The effect has been found in monkeys, rats, and humans, but the experiments lacked adequate female representation to investigate potential sex differences. The current experiment analyzed acquisition of stimulus touching in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabeus) as a function of sex and stimulus movement. The cynomolgus monkeys were given a fixed order of classical conditioning procedures where stimulus correlation and temporal contiguity to food delivery was increased across conditions. Male cynomolgus monkeys acquired the response faster with a moving stimulus, whereas females acquired the response faster with a stationary stimulus. The African green monkeys were given a traditional autoshaping (positive automaintenance) procedure and males more often failed to acquire the stimulus-directed response than did female monkeys. Additionally, the stimulus-movement effects were less pronounced than in the cynomolgus monkeys. These results demonstrate that the stimulus-movement effect may be differentially affected by both sex and species, while also showing that additional experiments with females are needed to determine how sex interacts with behavioral phenomena discovered and elaborated almost exclusively using males.
 
 
 
Symposium #8
The Effect of Teacher Approval and Disapproval on Students‘ Behaviour: A Comparison Between the UK, Italy, and Iceland
Sunday, September 29, 2019
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C1
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Zuilma Gabriela Sigurdardottir (University of Iceland)
Discussant: Harpa Óskarsdóttir (University of Iceland)
Abstract:

Research of six decades suggest that the nature and quantity of teachers’ feedback, especially the use of praise, affects students’ behaviour. Praise can be systematically deployed by teachers to increase appropriate social behaviours and improve classroom climate. Whilst a huge amount of research has been carried out in English-speaking countries on this issue, very few studies in other European countries than the UK have been published. The results from three studies on teachers’ natural use of feedback and its effects, conducted in the UK, Italy, and Iceland, will be presented for a cross-cultural comparison. Participants were teachers and pupils (age 6-18). The Mixed Interval Classroom Observation schedule was used to collect data about teachers’ feedback and students’ time on-task. The approval:disapproval ratio found outside the UK was more similar to the one found in early investigations than to the pattern found in studies from the 1980s to date in English speaking countries, i.e., teachers gave more disapproval especially for social behaviours and pupils’ on-task behaviour was lower. International comparisons of this kind can help set parameters that are important to those who work with teachers. These data are thus important for professionals working in schools and inform the design of teachers’ pre and in-service training.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): classroom, contingencies, cross-cultural comparison, teachers
 
The Effect of Teacher Approval on Students’ Social and Academic Behaviour: A Review of Studies (1975-2018)
FRANCESCO SULLA (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia; University of Parma)
Abstract: How often do teachers praise their pupils? How often do they tell them off? What effect does the frequency of both these types of verbal feedback have on the pupils’ behaviour? A research literature relating to non-experimentally manipulated or “naturalistic” rates answered those questions. Over the years, there have been a number of investigations that have centered on what might be called naturalistic or existing rates: descriptive studies on the ways in which teachers typically deploy approval in the classroom. Mary White’s work (1975) in the USA is generally considered as the first study to have as its primary focus natural rates of teacher approval and disapproval. White found that teachers gave highest rates of approval for academic behaviour, while for social behaviour the reverse was true. Indeed, teacher approval for social behaviour was almost non-existent. The results of other early investigations, Heller and White (1975) and Thomas, Presland, Grant, and Glynn (1978) tended to support White’s findings. However, in the late 1980s, a shift to more teacher approval than disapproval was recorded. Since then, several studies have been conducted, mainly in English-speaking countries on the same topic supporting the results from ‘80s studies. This review analyses the results of 30 studies.
 

A Large-Scale Quantitative Investigation of Teacher Feedback and Students’ On-Task Behaviour in Academic Lessons in UK Secondary Schools

BRIAN JOHN BISHOP APTER (University of Cardiff)
Abstract:

Systematic observations by 33 psychologist-observers of 228 lessons in 28 UK secondary schools were included in this study. Key findings included: students were significantly less ‘on-task’ than students in UK primary schools; secondary school teachers used low frequencies of positive verbal feedback directed towards academic work and behaviour and much higher frequencies of critical comments directed towards behaviour; teachers’ critical comments directed towards behaviour were significantly associated with lessons where students were less compliant with teachers’ directions; and teachers who used high frequencies of positive comments directed towards academic work and social behaviour were not associated with lessons where students followed teachers’ directions more. The number of secondary teachers who did not use any positive comments about social behaviour was unexpectedly high. Teachers who used verbal feedback were more likely to use more with the younger year groups. Unlike primary students, no evidence was found that secondary students were more engaged with academic work when taught by teachers who used higher levels of verbal teaching behaviour: teachers who talked more. A number of contextual factors were also examined for their association with students’ compliance with teachers’ directions. Findings included: teachers who were more experienced were more likely to be teaching students who followed their directions. Conclusions are drawn about the nature of teachers’ verbal feedback in secondary schools.

 
Natural Rates of Teachers’ Approval and Disapproval in Italian Primary and Secondary Schools Classroom
FRANCESCO SULLA (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia; University of Parma), Dolores Rollo (University of Parma)
Abstract: Despite the huge amount of research in English-speaking countries (Sulla, Perini, Rollo, 2013) the natural rates of approval and disapproval have never been investigated in Italian schools. Therefore, in this study we examined: the proportionality of different types of verbal feedback used by Italian teachers; the relationship between Italian teachers use of verbal feedback and the behaviour of students; the variations in pupils’ conduct due to class size and time of the day. A total of 314 observations were conducted across the country. In both primary and secondary schools, the majority of feedback was of a negative nature and directed in response to pupils’ behaviour. Avarage students’ time on-task was 74.10% in primary schools and 77.20% in secondary schools. Pupils were more likely to be on-task during the morning, in smaller classes where teachers give more approval and less disapproval. This results should encourage teachers to become more positive in their responses to pupils’ behaviour.
 

The Effects of Positive and Negative Feedback on Students‘ On-Task Behavior in One School in Iceland

BIRNA PÁLSDÓTTIR (Miðgarður, Reykjavík), Zuilma Gabriela Sigurdardottir (University of Iceland)
Abstract:

Teachers have played a critical role in shaping the behaviour of students in schools. Positive and negative feedback has been used by teachers to impact student behaviour and research has shown positive feedback to lead to students being more on-task (Apter, Arnold and Swinson, 2010; Harrop and Swinson, 2000; Merrett and Wheldall, 1987). Negative feedback on social behaviour has been shown to decrease on-task behaviour among students (Nafpaktitis et.al, 1985; Sulla, 2015; Wheldall et al., 1989). The goal of this study was to use direct observation to analyse student and teacher behaviour in one Icelandic elementary school, to explore the average on-task rate and the average rate between positive and negative feedback from teacher to student. The main results showed an average on-task rate to be 78,8%. Observations showed that teachers appeared to use more negative feedback than positive to influence students‘ behaviour. Statistical significant differences were found between neutral comments and on-task behaviour with 95% confidence, between positive feedback and on-task behaviour with 99% confidence, and between negative feedback on social behaviour and on-task behaviour with 99% confidence. Results were compared to previous data collected with the same procedures in Italy and Britain.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #9
CE Offered: BACB

Cooperative Animal Care Using Response Contingent Stimulus Presentation

Sunday, September 29, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, A1
Area: AAB; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Eva Bertilsson, M.A.
Chair: Dag Strömberg (Autism Center for Young Children, Stockholm)
EVA BERTILSSON (Carpe Momentum)

Eva Bertilsson has a master’s degree in behavior analysis and a passion for all things related to behavior, learning and animal welfare. Together with business partner Emelie Johnson Vegh, Eva runs their collaboration Carpe Momentum, teaching seminars on the general principles of behavior and learning, and coaching trainers in the art of structuring great training sessions regardless of the venue or the species. Eva is a board member of the Swedish Association for Behavior Analysis, a faculty member of Clicker Expo, and an enthusiastic disseminator of ethical practices based in behavioral science. In addition to her own teaching, she has also been instrumental in introducing TAGteach™ and Fear Free to the Scandinavian audience.

Abstract:

Animal welfare is a growing concern in our society, and the principles and procedures from applied behavior analysis are widely used by animal caretakers in their effort to deliver the best possible care. Service providers in the animal care sector are continually evolving their procedures and protocols, with a growing focus on enhancing the non-human individual’s control over its situation. We cannot gain informed consent in its true sense from our animal participants, but we can strive in that direction. Strategies using response contingent stimulus presentation (sometimes referred to as “start button behaviors”) are one example of this effort, allowing the animal to direct the pace and progress of the procedure. This presentation provides variety of examples where response contingent stimulus presentation has been used in settings as diverse as service dog training, noise desensitization and cooperative veterinary care. Training protocols are described, and foundations are provided for further reflections and scientific inquiries.

Target Audience:

Practitioners working with individuals in a dependent situation (both humans and non-humans).

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe examples where “start button behaviors” have been used; (2) discuss how similar protocols can be applied in other contexts; (3) compare different possible protocols for introducing stimuli.
 
 
Symposium #10
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating the Outcomes of Low-Intensity Behavior Interventions
Sunday, September 29, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A2
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Paula Pompa-Craven (Easterseals Southern California)
CE Instructor: Amin Duff Lotfizadeh, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Early intensive behavioral interventions are considered the intervention of choice for treating individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. However, in many instances constraints prevent individuals from receiving intensive behavioral treatments and low-intensity interventions are provided instead. In this symposium, the authors will present outcome of low-intensity behavioral interventions across different sites using a variety of assessment tools, including the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), IQ scores, and other related measures. The reliability of the VB-MAPP is discussed and it is evaluated as an outcome measure.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, clinical outcomes, low-intensity, vb-mapp
Target Audience:

Practitioners and policy-makers who provide ABA interventions or prescribe interventions for autism.

Learning Objectives: 1) Describe outcomes of low-intensity ABA interventions 2) Describe the outcomes of community-based low-intensity ABA interventions 3) Describe the reliability of the VB-MAPP assessment
 
Moderate Effects of Low-Intensity Behavioral Interventions
(Service Delivery)
AMIN DUFF LOTFIZADEH (Easterseals Southern California), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Paula Pompa-Craven (Easterseals Southern California), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: We compared two-year clinical outcomes across two group of individuals who received ABA interventions for an average of 10.6 (n=98) and 5.7 weekly hours (n=73). The more intensive group made greater gains on language skills, social skills, and other areas assessed by the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). We also evaluated gains for a smaller sample of the participants (n=28) using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) but the groups did not differ on this measure after two years. The gains in this study were moderate and provide further support for a dose-response relationship between intervention hours and outcomes.
 
Evaluating the Inter-Rater Reliability of the VB-MAPP
(Applied Research)
KHRYSTLE LAUREN MONTALLANA (Easterseals Southern California), Brendan Michael Gard (Easterseals Southern California ), Amin Duff Lotfizadeh (Easterseals Southern California), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) is a comprehensive assessment tool that takes a functional and topographical approach to assessing language and other skills (e.g., social skills, play skills, math skills). The VB-MAPP has received considerable attention and promise as a clinical assessment tool and was recently used as an outcome measure in a longitudinal study. This study evaluates the inter-rater reliability of the VB-MAPP when administered by trained clinicians who regularly conducted the VB-MAPP as part of their clinical duties. The Milestones assessment had moderate to good reliability, but individual domains within it were less reliable. Caution must be taken when analyzing individual domain scores.
 

Effects of Moderately Intensive Behavioral Intervention Provided Through a Community-Based Service Model

(Service Delivery)
SIGMUND ELDEVIK (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Kristine Berg Titlestad (Oslo Metropolitan University), Hege Aarlie (Norway ABA), Roy Tonnesen (Pedagogisk Psykologisk Tjeneste), Silje Nikolaisen (Norwegian ABA), Astri Valmo (Centre for Early Intervention (STI))
Abstract:

We evaluated outcome of early behavioral intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as it was provided through public service providers in Norway. One group of children received low intensity intervention (11.1 weekly hours), a second group higher intensity intervention (18.1 weekly hours), and a third group received eclectic special education. We compared outcomes on adaptive behavior, ASD severity and intellectual functioning across the groups after one year. Although, both the lower and higher intensity behavioral intervention groups received less hours than what is recommended in the literature, both groups did significantly better than the eclectic comparison group. Furthermore, the higher intensity behavioral group did better than the lower intensity behavioral group. Confirming a dose-response relationship between intensity and gains made. Nevertheless, gains in both behavioral groups were more modest than what is reported for intervention that is more intensive. We discuss the pros and cons of the publicly funded behavioral intervention model.

 
 
Panel #11
Perspectives on the Global Use of Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Sunday, September 29, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A3/A4
Area: AUT/CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Ralph Sperry (Boston Higashi School )
MOLLY OLA PINNEY (Global Autism Project)
NEIL TIMOTHY MARTIN (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract:

The panel will discuss autism assessments, interventions and treatments in various countries including the United Kingdom, Canada, China, the Middle East and Africa. The use of Applied Behavior Analysis in these countries will be discussed. Governmental responses to the rising prevalence of autism and the challenges in providing evidenced based interventions will be explored. The panel will review the most effective strategies for the dissemination of best practices on a global basis.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
 
Symposium #12
Gained in Translation: Contemporary Approaches to Translational Research in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, September 29, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, Meeting Room 24/25
Area: EAB/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: The three talks to be presented in this symposium represent a range of current approaches to translational research in behavior analysis. Each provides a unique illustration of interplay between basic, applied, and conceptual issues in behavior analysis and of the benefits to be gained from a careful marshalling of these interactions. Christine Hughes will discuss a pigeon laboratory model for investigating the aversive characteristics of timeout and its parameters, with attention to implications of her findings for the timeout procedures commonly used across a range of settings and populations. David Maguire will present work with nonhuman primates evaluating the clinical potential of opioid/cannabinoid mixtures to treat pain while simultaneously decreasing or even eliminating the adverse effects that have led to pressing societal concerns over the medical use of opioids. Carol Pilgrim will describe outcomes from two experiments, one of which explores theoretical questions about the contingency-based origins of equivalence relations in the lab and one which translates that laboratory work into effective procedures for establishing English vocabulary skills with Spanish-speaking preschoolers.
Instruction Level: Advanced
 
Translational Timeout Research: Challenges in the Lab
(Basic Research)
CHRISTINE E. HUGHES (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Tiffany Kronenwetter (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Timeout from positive reinforcement is a frequently used and accepted punishment procedure across a wide range of situations and populations. Although extensively used, it is somewhat surprising that empirical basic research is lacking. Lerman and Vorndran (2002) and Hackenberg and DeFulio (2007), lamenting this lack of research, called for more systematic and thorough investigations of punishment contingencies. In this presentation, I will discuss research from our lab with pigeons in which we have examined the aversive characteristics of timeout and manipulated parameters of timeout, such as duration and type of timeout. I also will discuss how timeout procedures are modeled in the lab and discuss procedural considerations for this type of translational research.
 
Preclinical Evaluation of Opioid/Cannabinoid Mixtures for Treating Pain
(Basic Research)
DAVID R. MAGUIRE (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio), Lisa R. Gerak (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio), Charles Patrick France (University of Texas)
Abstract: Opioids are the gold standard for treating many types of pain, but their therapeutic utility is limited by numerous adverse effects, particularly those contributing to abuse and overdose. Cannabinoids such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, increase the potency for opioids to produce antinociceptive effects, suggesting that an opioid could be combined with a cannabinoid to treat pain. However, the therapeutic utility of drug mixtures depends upon whether drugs that enhance the antinociceptive effects of an opioid similarly increase its adverse effects. These studies evaluated the therapeutic potential of opioid/cannabinoid mixtures in nonhuman primates using highly translatable procedures to characterize their antinociceptive and abuse-related effects. Antinociceptive effects were measured using warm-water tail withdrawal, and abuse-related effects were studied using procedures, such as drug self-administration and food/drug choice, that have established predictive validity for different aspects of drug abuse. Results of these studies indicate that while cannabinoids enhance the antinociceptive effects of opioids, they do so without increasing abuse-related effects. Thus, opioid/cannabinoid mixtures could be used to treat pain while decreasing or possibly eliminating adverse effects that currently limit the legitimate medical use of opioids.
 
Does the Laboratory Analysis of Stimulus Equivalence Matter for Application?
(Basic Research)
CAROL PILGRIM (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Brittany Williams (Central Regional Hospital), Astrid La Cruz Montilla (Student)
Abstract: Basic laboratory analyses of equivalence phenomena can often seem esoteric and far-removed from the practicalities of hands-on applications. This paper will argue that attention to such lab findings can nevertheless yield powerful directions for establishing functional skills. Two experiments will be used to provide support for this position. First, a laboratory investigation demonstrated the formation of 8-member equivalence classes in four typically developing children as a function of training three-term contingencies with compound discrimination stimuli and compound class-specific consequences (i.e., selecting A1B1 or C1D1 produced R1r1; selecting A2B2 or C2D2 produced R2r2; and selecting A3B3 or C3D3 produced R3r3) and then D-E and D-F conditional discriminations. Second, the same approach was adapted to teaching English vocabulary to seven Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Simple discriminations were trained with compounds as discriminative stimuli (a written English word and a corresponding picture) and as class-specific reinforcers (a spoken English word and additional pictures). In a multiple-baseline across word-sets design, seven participants showed that printed English words, discriminative pictorial representations, and picture consequences became interchangeable equivalence-class members. Novel picture exemplars also functioned as class members, and five participants demonstrated emergent naming of pictures and printed words.
 
 
Symposium #13
Recent Developments in Behavioral Safety
Sunday, September 29, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C3
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lisa Maria Zeitler (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt)
Abstract:

Behavior Based Safety (BBS) is a well-researched intervention tool for enhancing the safety of employees in many industries. This symposium is about broadening the applicability of behavioral safety interventions to new areas. In the first paper, examples of behavior-based safety interventions in small businesses are provided (a hairdresser’s shop, a dentistry, and a sheltered workshop). Issues and obstacles to BBS interventions in such non-standard situations are discussed. The second paper describes the safeguarding supportive system (SSS) at a tunnel construction site. Tunnel construction is an especially challenging field of application for behavior analytic procedures targeting safety due to the hazardous and frequently changing work environment. Based on a sincere behavioral assessment, changes to the environment resulted in a reduction of risky worker’s behavior. The third paper is about the use of a UWB-3-dimensional position detecting system to track tunnel workers movements and postures. The study provides evidence that this system can be reliably used in the environment of tunnel construction to deliver feedback about worker’s location and poster. The results are promising for including such devices in behavior-based safety interventions.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): BBS, Behavioral Safety, Small Businesses, technical devices
 

Behavioral Safety in Small Businesses: Examples

CHRISTOPH F. BÖRDLEIN (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt), Sophia Memmel (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt), Alexandra Schönleber (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt), Lisa Maria Zeitler (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt)
Abstract:

Behavior-based safety (BBS) has helped workers in thousands of companies worldwide to work safely and probably saved thousands of lives. The typical area of application for behavior-based safety is in bigger companies with at least 100-200 employees. However, most people work in small businesses with only few employees. Many well-tried procedures of behavior-based safety require resources (manpower, finances, organizational prerequisites) that are not available to small businesses. The author will present three examples of adjustments of behavior-based safety to small businesses: in a hairdresser’s shop with only 2 employees, a dental surgery with 7 employees and a workshop for the handicapped with approx. 30 employees. All necessary components of behavior-based safety had been implemented: definitions of safe behaviors, observations procedures, verbal and graphic feedback, goal setting and use of positive reinforcement strategies. Data showed that meaningful changes in employee behavior and general workplace safety were possible, although they couldn’t be maintained in any case after the intervention ended. Aspects of social validity, challenges to implementation in such environments and the critical role of change agents are discussed.

 

Detection of Dangerous Points and Behavioral Modification from Environmental Change by Behavior Analysis Procedure Under the Safeguarding Supportive System at a Tunnel Construction Site

RIEKO HOJO (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health), Kyoko Hamajima (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan), Shigeo Umezaki (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan), Koichi Ono (Komazawa University), Shoken Shimizu (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan)
Abstract:

Accidents at tunnel construction sites in Japan rapidly decreased because of development of construction technology and/or promotion of machinery construction. However, it elicits fatal result if once accident occurs because safety at many tunnel work-sites is still dependent on workers attentiveness. It is important to analyze behavior pattern of workers and to apply some intervention procedure for increasing and decreasing safety and unsafe behavior, respectively. Though our final goal is effective introduction of the Safeguarding Supportive System which was established in our project to tunnel construction site, we videotaped behavior of tunnel worker as a pilot study. We detected dangerous points of tunnel site from the videotape, which were intersection points of workers and/or machines. Then intervention trial, which changed environment using a procedure of behavioral analysis, was applied to tunnel construction site for decreasing dangerous intersections. Results in the present study suggested that the intervention procedure effectively affected behavior change of workers. Also, results showed that it was sometimes possible to change behavior by change of environment, not only direct approach. We concluded that behavioral analysis procedure might be one of the most effective measure to contribute to safety in tunnel construction sites.

 

Experimental Trial of Three-Dimensional Location Detection of Workers Fusing the Safeguarding Supportive System at a Tunnel Construction Site

SHOKEN SHIMIZU (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan), Shigeo Umezaki (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan), Kyoko Hamajima (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan), Koichi Ono (Komazawa University), Rieko Hojo (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan)
Abstract:

We established a safety measure, the Safeguarding Supportive System (SSS) focusing on residual risks, which are left after 3-step method. The SSS counts entry/exit of worker at work-sites, confirms authority and license of worker, controls machine condition, and detects location of workers at real time. In the present study, we developed an UWB-3-dimensional position detecting system in the SSS, and evaluated validity of the system. We examined if the system enabled to monitor the location and the working posture of workers even if they were in a blind spot or in unclear-sighted condition in the tunnel construction site. As judgment indices of posture and condition of workers, angle, acceleration, heights and elapsed time of posture or workers were measured. Those results were integrated and classified into conditions of run, walk, falls down and crouches. We concluded that the UWB-3-dimensional position detecting system established in the present study was useful even if the condition of work-site was not good. We are planning to examine other systems in the SSS in the further study.

 
 
Noteworthy Activity #14
Coffee Break
Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:00 AM–10:30 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, M1

Join us for coffee and pastries.

 
 
Symposium #15
CE Offered: BACB
Toward Expanding Repertoires: Identifying and Training Behaviors Associated With Exemplary ABA Practitioners
Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A2
Area: AUT/TBA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kevin Callahan (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Kevin Callahan, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of ABA therapy for individuals with autism, relatively little research has focused on the characteristics and behaviors that distinguish exemplary client-therapist interactions. This symposium summarizes research to identify and train qualities and corresponding behaviors of effective ABA practitioners: (1) A survey of BCBAs ranked therapist characteristics and qualities, resulting in the development of the Exemplary Behavior Analyst Checklist (EBAC) of 35 essential traits. In a follow-up survey, BCBAs rated the extent to which exemplary practitioners demonstrated each trait, and ranked their Top 10 qualities in order of perceived importance. (2) Characteristics of ABA therapists within the concept of Behavioral Artistry (BA) (a repertoire of interpersonal behaviors including care, attentiveness, and creativity) were investigated. Parents surveyed significantly preferred BA traits. ABA students were determined to have lower levels of BA compared to other helping professions, and autism therapists with lower levels of BA qualities were observed to deliver ABA less effectively. (3) Therapist social interactions were conditioned using an operant discrimination training (ODT) procedure. Sequential analysis of social interactions and positive social responses suggest that client/therapist positive responding to each other’s social initiations increased following ODT. Implications for training and supervising effective ABA practitioners are addressed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism treatment, conditioned reinforcement, social validity, therapist-client relationship
Target Audience:

The target audience for this symposium is behavior analysts currently engaged in delivering therapeutic services and supervising other behavior analysts/staff, as well as researchers and clinical administrators.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe characteristics and corresponding behaviors identified by behavior analysts as essential to being an exemplary ABA practitioner; (2) list a minimum of three interpersonal characteristics associated with the concept of "Behavioral Artistry" as it relates to behavioral practice; (3) describe a clinical intervention designed to increase the effectiveness of behavioral practitioners' social interactions as a reinforcer.
 
Mastering Your Craft: Behavior Analysts’ Perspectives on the Characteristics and Behaviors of Exemplary Practitioners
(Applied Research)
RYAN M. ZAYAC (University of North Alabama), Madison Williams (University of North Alabama), Ashton Geiger (University of North Alabama), Amber Paulk (University of North Alabama), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University), Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Abstract: What makes an individual an exceptional behavior analyst? Given our profession’s focus on objective definition, description, quantification, and experimentation, we should be well-prepared to answer this question. Nonetheless, many of us may struggle to identify what exactly distinguishes an ideal behavior analyst from an average behavior analyst. Phase I of the current study asked BCBAs and BCBA-Ds in the United States to identify their top five qualities and attendant behaviors of those individuals they considered exemplary behavior analysts. Two hundred seventy-four participants completed the survey, resulting in 180 different identified qualities. After consolidating similar qualities (e.g., compassionate, thoughtful, caring) into one category (“Empathetic”), the authors narrowed the list to 35 qualities and corresponding behaviors, which we have named the Exemplary Behavior Analyst Checklist (EBAC). In phase II, 392 BCBAs and BCBA-Ds rated the extent to which exemplary behavior analysts display each quality and corresponding behaviors using a 1 (never exhibits this quality) to 5 (always exhibits this quality) Likert-type scale. Participants also ranked their top 10 qualities in order of importance. A discussion of the EBAC and participants’ ratings will be presented, including implications related to training, study limitations, and future research.
 
Behavioral Artistry: Toward Expanding Repertoires of Effectiveness in the Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment of Autism
(Service Delivery)
KEVIN CALLAHAN (University of North Texas), Richard M. Foxx (Penn State University at Harrisburg), Adam Swierczynski (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Susan Marie Nichols (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Xing Aerts (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Smita Shukla Mehta (University of North Texas), Rachita Sharma (University of North Texas), Andrew Donald (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center)
Abstract: This study investigated interpersonal characteristics associated with Richard Foxx's seminal concept of "Behavioral Artistry," (BA) a repertoire of therapist behaviors including care, attentiveness, creativity, humor, and optimism, among others, hypothetically associated with the high-quality delivery of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) treatment. The results of a U.S. nationwide survey of parents of children with autism (N=86) indicated that respondents preferred Behavioral Artistry traits for ABA therapists over non-Behavioral Artistry traits. A separate survey of 212 university students on a standardized personality assessment (Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire) revealed that students majoring and/or working in the field of ABA had lower levels of Behavioral Artistry than those in other human services professions. Finally, therapists with higher and lower BA scores were observed over multiple Discrete Trial Training and Naturalistic Environment Training therapy sessions using partial interval and frequency recording. Therapists with higher levels of Behavioral Artistry were rated more positively in their delivery of ABA therapy for children with autism. These results suggest there may be a potential benefit for autism therapists to demonstrate humanistic characteristics and behaviors, in addition to technological skills. Implications for screening, hiring, training, and supervising effective ABA therapists within a Behavioral Artistry model will be discussed.
 
A Sequential Analysis of Therapist and Child Social Behavior Following a Conditioned Reinforcement Procedure
(Applied Research)
KAREN A. TOUSSAINT (University of North Texas), Carly Lapin (University of North Texas), Kristi Cortez (University of North Texas)
Abstract: A core characteristic in autism spectrum disorder is that individuals often have deficits in social interactions. To address these deficits within a therapeutic context, we conditioned therapists’ social interactions as a reinforcer for children with autism using an operant discrimination training (ODT) procedure. Participants included three child-therapist dyads at a university-based autism center. Results from a reinforcer evaluation indicate that the value of therapists’ attention increased following ODT. Next, we conducted a sequential analysis to examine the correlation between social initiations and positive social responses that occurred during unstructured play observations for both therapists and children. Results of the sequential analysis suggest that child participants and therapists increased positive responding to each other’s social initiations following operant discrimination training. Findings highlight the reciprocal effects of therapist-child interactions, as well as the effectiveness of establishing social attention as a reinforcer via an operant discrimination training procedure. Implications for training and supervision will be discussed.
 
 
Paper Session #16
ABA Therapy for Down Syndrome and Developmental Delays
Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A3/A4
Area: DDA
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: Christian Sabey (Brigham Young University )
 

CANCELED: Conceptualizing ABA Therapy for Infants With Developmental Delays: Review of Literature and Needs in the Field

Domain: Service Delivery
E AMANDA DIGANGI (Arizona State University), Samuel DiGangi (Arizona State University)
Abstract:

With the growth of Applied Behavior Analysis therapy services for children with autism in the United States, many professionals recognize this type of “therapy” as useful and effective at improving skill development and behavior in this population. The use of ABA therapy beyond autism has received relatively little attention. Further, a number of disabilities and developmental delays are identifiable in infancy (or prior to birth) creating an opportunity for the application of our science to improvement of important skills for infants possible, though with limited empirical support. In this presentation, the authors will review the scant literature on the use of ABA technologies to improve skills for infants (under age 1) with and without developmental disabilities and will examine the needs of the field for more research in this area. Additionally, the authors will discuss a pilot study on the use of ABA therapy with infants with Down syndrome to improve developmental skills and behavioral cusps. We will specifically share issues such as: instructional control, RIRD, prompting, shaping, and preference assessment as well as share common obstacles and ways to overcome them.

 
Behavior Analysis Practice and the Down Syndrome Behavioral Phenotype
Domain: Applied Research
Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University), Kaylee Christensen (Brigham Young University), CHRISTIAN SABEY (Brigham Young University )
Abstract: Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal condition associated with intellectual disability. Although descriptive studies have shown that individuals with Down syndrome engage in fewer challenging behaviors than their peers with other intellectual and/or developmental disorders, there is still substantial need for behavior analytic service delivery in this population. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype and show three studies conducted within this population that address some of the challenges associated with Down syndrome. The first study was on skill acquisition for reading skills. Parents of 17 children with Down syndrome provided instruction on phonological awareness skills (e.g., blending and segmenting words, rhyming), letter-sound correspondences, and word reading. Parents were also trained on strategies for building compliance. The study indicated that children with Down syndrome can benefit from literacy instruction using direct instruction and natural environment procedures for building reading skills and compliance. The second study was a single case example of antecedent controls for increasing compliance (high probability requests, therapist, and contextual modifications) with physical activity in a child with Down syndrome. This study demonstrated that physical activity can increase given appropriate antecedent interventions. The final study is an updated meta-analysis of functional assessment and function-based treatments for individuals with Down syndrome. Applying standards for evidence-based practice, the meta analysis indicated that functional assessment-based treatments are effective for this population. Implications for service delivery in this population will be discussed.
 
 
 
Invited Paper Session #17
CE Offered: BACB

From Basic Research to Large-Scale Dissemination of a Behaviorally Oriented Reading Curriculum

Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, A1
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Deisy De Souza, Ph.D.
Chair: Martha Costa Hubner (University of São Paulo)
DEISY DE SOUZA (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)

Deisy de Souza is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Brazil. She obtained her Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology at University of São Paulo (USP, 1981), and she completed a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (1984-1985), at Charlie Catania's lab. She has conducted research on basic behavioral processes such as choice behavior, avoidance of aversive events, and stimulus control, and participated in pioneering studies applying the stimulus equivalence paradigm to investigate the acquisition of symbolic functions by auditory stimuli in users of cochlear implants. Over the past 30 years de Souza has also participated in the efforts of a research team investigating the acquisition of symbolic relations, developing equivalence-based instruction (EBI) to teach reading and writing skills, and disseminating computerized individualized teaching programs for individuals that benefit little from regular schools (children with protracted histories of school failure, children with intellectual disabilities, illiterate adults, etc.). The use of these programs by public schools gradually grew in scale, reaching progressively larger samples of learners. She is a Fellow of ABAI and a member of the Editorial Board of JEAB.

Abstract:

This presentation will focus on the results of the joint efforts of a research team in developing instructional procedures, derived from behaviorally oriented basic research, for teaching rudimentary reading and writing skills. Curriculum development was based on the concepts of verbal operants (B. F. Skinner), on the stimulus equivalence paradigm (Murray Sidman), and on the principles of the Personalized System of Instruction (Fred Keller). The procedures and contents were organized in a comprehensive curriculum, currently available online for use in school and therapeutic settings. The research program to validate the curriculum involved basic science to elucidate key, behavioral processes; translational science to study these processes under controlled laboratory conditions; and applied studies in the classroom to verify whether the findings of the translational program would be sustained in less controlled conditions. The delivery of the curriculum through public schools gradually grew in scale, reaching progressively larger samples of learners. Current investigations focus on the logistics to transfer the management of the teaching tools to the school system.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; graduate students; licensed psychologists.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the main behavioral principles that guided the construction of the curriculum to teach reading; (2) point a route for the integration of reading and writing repertoires; (3) accurately describe instructional strategies used to establish arbitrary relations between spoken words, printed words and pictures; (4) explain the role of equivalence classes on the emergence of derived discriminated operants such as tact, textual behavior, transcription, and on reading comprehension.
 
 
Paper Session #18
Students and Self-Monitoring
Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C4
Chair: Konstantinos Rizos (Forest Bridge School)
 

The Effects of a Self-Monitoring System on Social Skills: Two Case Studies

Area: AUT
Domain: Applied Research
KONSTANTINOS RIZOS (Forest Bridge School, Berkshire, UK), Susan E. Tirella (Forest Bridge School), Tugba Yildirim (Forest Bridge School), Athanasios Vostanis (University of Kent, Tizard Centre)
Abstract:

Self-monitoring has been applied successfully on various behaviours (Hoff & DuPaul, 1998). Two case studies examined the effect of a self-monitoring procedure on four social skills. Two male students (15 & 14 years old) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) participated in the studies. Both were working towards academic qualifications in a special education school. Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) was administered to evaluate their social skills. Two skills were selected for each participant. Specifically, (a) contributions to lesson discussions and (b) emitted negative comments for participant A, and (c) non-compliance, and (d) making eye-contact for participant B. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across behaviours design was utilised for each experiment. Procedure fidelity data were collected for 26% of the overall treatment sessions with an overall adherence of 94% across both studies. During the intervention the participants collected data on their target behaviours using datasheets provided by the author. The results demonstrated an improvement for all four behaviours during the self-monitoring phase, whilst skills (a), (b) and (c) were maintained post intervention. The findings suggest that self-monitoring may be an effective tactic for social skills, while more research is warranted on how the treatment affects additional social skills.

 
Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Providing Academic Strategy Instruction While Concurrently Addressing Behavioral Concerns Using Applied Behavior Analysis Principles
Area: EDC
Domain: Applied Research
SARA SANDERS (University of Alabama), Kristine Jolivette (University of Alabama), Robin Parks Ennis (University of Alabama at Birmingham )
Abstract: Internalizing and externalizing behaviors can negatively impact academic performance and can be a reason that many students with behavior problems may be nonresponders to academic interventions. One potential solution is to provide concurrent academic and behavior supports using applied behavior analysis (ABA) principles. Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) is an intervention framework that teaches an academic strategy, such as reading comprehension, as well as self-regulation strategies such as self-monitoring, self-reinforcement, self-instruction, and goal setting. The SRSD framework supports the intersection between behavior principles and academic instruction. This pilot study examined the relationship between academic and behavioral growth, through the lens of ABA principles. Students with behavioral problems were taught a reading comprehension strategy and self-regulation strategies using the SRSD framework. We will report change in student reading comprehension scores, as well as the impact of the self-regulation strategies on student behavior. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research are discussed.
 
 
 
Symposium #19
Many Faces of Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction
Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, Meeting Room 24/25
Area: PCH/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Iver H. Iversen (University of North Florida)
Abstract:

The behavioral effects of reinforcement, punishment, and extinction are the cornerstones of behavior analysis. Yet, critiques of behavior analysis often point to problems with these basic effects even to the extent of stating that “reinforcement doesn’t work” or that the effects are due to other embedded variables (such as intrusion of natural behavior). In reality, the effects are complex and highly dependent on procedural variables. For example, reinforcement can strengthen behavior even at the level of a single reinforcer, yet after several sessions of acquisition, reinforcement no longer strengthens but instead maintains behavior. Effects also depend on levels of analysis, as seen when immediate effects of reinforcement, punishment, and extinction are very different from long-term effects. Stimuli routinely associated with reinforcement, punishment, and extinction can acquire discriminative properties for ongoing behavior with both excitatory and inhibiting effects. The presentations will outline various effects of reinforcement, punishment, and extinction in both laboratory and clinic, using examples from research to illustrate the problems with interpretation and terminology. The overall purpose is to alert behavior analysts that discourse about behavior becomes complex and unproductive when basic terms refer to different effects.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): extinction-definition, punishment-definition, reinforcement-definition
 
The Many Faces of Reinforcement
(Theory)
IVER H. IVERSEN (University of North Florida)
Abstract: That reinforcement strengthens and maintains behavior is well established. Yet, critiques of the strengthening effects of reinforcement rest on the idea that the reinforcer is also an eliciting stimulus for natural behavior other than the operant. Recent views in behavior analysis suggest that reinforcement delivery only serves as a discriminative stimulus. The presentation will outline what reinforcement does to behavior at various levels of analysis. Even a single reinforcer can strengthen behavior. Schedules of reinforcement establish stable patterning of operant behavior, and reinforcers no longer strengthen but instead maintain behavior. Reinforcer delivery serves as an immediate S-delta as it stops the operant promptly as the subject collects the reinforcer. Reinforcer delivery can also have other discriminative properties. Examples of strengthening, maintenance, and discriminative properties of reinforcement will be illustrated with examples from experiments. Contingencies of reinforcement as a controlling variable is often not emphasized outside of behavior analysis. The presentation will emphasize that in discourse about reinforcement and operant behavior, the strengthening, maintaining, and discriminative functions of reinforcers as well as contingencies are often mixed up or not fully articulated. Highlighting just one effect can lead to misunderstandings and a lack of appreciation of additional effects of reinforcement.
 
The Many Faces of Punishment
(Theory)
PER HOLTH (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: The standard definition of reinforcement requires that: (1) responses have consequences, (2) the response rate increases, and (3) the rate increases because of the response—consequence contingency. A standard definition of punishment is similar, except for a reduction in response rate. Response consequences can consist of the presentation or the removal of a stimulus. In either case, the stimulus change can have functions in addition to punishing the preceding response. First, the stimulus change can function as a discriminative stimulus for punishment, predicting punishment and thereby occasioning a reduced rate of responding. Second, the punishing stimulus change can function as a discriminative stimulus, signaling reinforcement and thereby occasioning an increased response rate. Third, the stimulus change may elicit responses that may be similar to, or incompatible with, the punished responses. When elicited responses are incompatible with the punished responses, the response rate may drop more than what is the direct effect of punishment. On the other hand, when elicited responses are similar to the punished responses, the punishment may be misinterpreted as reinforcement. Reducing, suppressing, discriminative, and eliciting effects of stimuli confuse discussions of the effects of punishment. Different definitions of punishment within behavior analysis have added to the confusion.
 
The Many Faces of Extinction
(Theory)
MONICA VANDBAKK (Norwegian Association for Behavior Analysis/Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: The procedure of withholding reinforcement for a previously reinforced response is called extinction. Extinction is customarily demonstrated in laboratory settings but has not been documented clearly in applied settings. This could be because extinction typically produces a gradual reduction in behavior. The extinction procedure can both eliminate and generate behavior. When reinforcement is removed abruptly, numerous unreinforced responses can follow and this is commonly known as an extinction burst. Other generative effects of extinction are extinction-induced variability, extinction-induced responding (aggression and attack), resurgence, and spontaneous recovery. These effects are typically transitory and disappear. However, stimuli associated with extinction become S-delta and can have immediate suppressive effects, that are permanent (turning on an S-delta can stop an operant immediately). Effects of extinction are of great importance in applied settings and should therefore be made more familiar to those who propose and practice extinction-based procedures in their clinical work. Because extinction procedures have different effects on behavior depending on previous history and time window of observation, communications about extinction effects should specify the particular methods and effects being discussed.
 
 
Paper Session #20
Models of ABA in China and Czech Republic
Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C2
Area: TBA
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Sheri Kingsdorf (PENDING)
 
Bridging the Gap in Mainland China: Getting the Practitioners Ready Through Intensive Group Instruction
Domain: Service Delivery
DIANNA HIU YAN YIP (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Tsz Lau (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Yan Long (Private Practice), Yee Tak Lee (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Ziyan Ziyan Chen (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Siqi Xie (Private Practice)
Abstract: As the prevalence of autism increases in Mainland China, there is a huge demand for quality ABA services. Yet, there are less than 30 BCBAs based in Mainland China. In order to support the increasing demand of quality services, training qualified behaviour technicians (BT) is key. Most practitioners in Mainland China have limited access to quality training. Their learning style presents significant differences from the “western” world. Thus, most existing training programs may not be a good fit for them. Through working with a large-scale special education center in Mainland China, an intensive training system is developed. It is a 6-week program covers basic ABA theories with an emphasis on implementation. Elements of behaviour skills training are utilized. Through readings, lectures, role-play, daily implementation with clients, and regular feedback from supervisors, trainees are expected to master skills listed on the RBT competency checklist. An evaluation system is developed for progress monitoring. Trainees must pass a written exam and a direct observation assessment to become a BT. From March 2018 to December 2018, 162 people participated in this training. The results show that the training is effective. Majority of the participants were able to pass the final evaluation.
 
The Impact of an Applied Behavioral Skills Training Workshop Series on the Behavior Analytic Practices of Emerging Practitioners in the Czech Republic
Domain: Applied Research
SHERI KINGSDORF (Masaryk University ), Karel Pancocha (Masaryk University)
Abstract: In the Czech Republic applied behavior analysis (ABA) is in its infancy. There has been movement towards establishing licensure and securing funding for the advancement of the field. While significant strides have been made in terms of availability and quality of ABA services for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families, there is more work to be done. In an effort to close gaps in current ABA practices, a structured curriculum was presented across six behavioral skills training (BST) workshops. Practitioners currently working in the field of ABA, who were also working towards BCBA certification, participated in the workshop series. The BST workshops focused on the typical progression of establishing ABA services; moving through the logistics of the intake process, assessment, behavior plan development, curriculum planning, and parent training. Impact data were collected throughout the series by evaluating the components present in clients’ ABA programming. A multiple probe design, across the components taught, was used to assess the outcomes of the applied BST sessions on the services being provided. Preliminary results indicate that the targeted BST workshops, set-up in an applied format with requirements for case application along the way, were effective in changing practices and outcomes.
 
 
 
Paper Session #21
Topics in Organizational Behavior Management
Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C3
Area: OBM
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Jonathan Krispin (Valdosta State University)
 
Behavioral Systems Analysis and Lean Six Sigma Improvement Methodologies: Points of Commonality and Divergence
Domain: Theory
JONATHAN KRISPIN (Valdosta State University)
Abstract: Hyten (2019) divided Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) interventions into two broad categories, behavior-focused, and results-focused. Behavior-focused interventions developed as an extension of applied behavior analysis, while results-focused interventions developed out of a systems-based perspective of organizations, blended with an understanding of operant responding, and an eye of improving organizational results, not just individual behavioral responding, now largely subsumed under the broad category of Behavioral Systems Analysis (BSA). While results overwhelmingly demonstrate the efficacy of BSA interventions, the widespread adoption of Organizational Behavior Management techniques by organizations has not materialized. However, many organizations have adopted continual improvement methodologies similar to those summarized under the label of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) Methodologies, an approach that has numerous strong similarities to OBM practices, particularly those developed in BSA models. In this paper, the Lean Six Sigma philosophy and approach will be briefly outlined, highlighting key areas of commonality with BSA models proposed by Abernathy (1996; 2008; 2009; 2013), Brethower (2007), Gilbert (1987), and Rummler and Brache (1995; 2010). Recommendations will be made as to how the behavioral interventionist can connect with LSS professionals and interventions in an effort to increase the awareness OBM within organizations and the frequency of the use of OBM methods within organizations.
 
Standard Charting and OBM: Beer and Advanced Analytics
Domain: Applied Research
SALVADOR RUIZ (University of West Florida), Dayna Beddick (University of West Florida), Leasha Barry (University of West Florida), Michelle Nelson (University of West Florida), Sarah Kent (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Business owners rely on metrics to determine current and future revenue. The ability to predict sales results while developing interventions to provide an increase of potential customers eases in selection of marketing tactics. The Standard Celeration Chart (SCC) is a semi-log graph that can quantify data. The SCC is typically used to build fluent behavior in education, but does it demonstrate use for business? By using the standard symbols on the SCC, a brewery located in Florida was able to quantify key metrics. First, number of alcoholic beverages purchased by consumers daily. Second, the number of sales from those consumers. Third, the sale of other goods (e.g. prepackaged snacks, sparkling water, soda, T-shirts, glasses, and yoga mats) to consumers. These data provide baseline data and a variety of marketing tactics (e.g. social media posts) could change rate of sales leading to the identification of effective marketing strategies. Data were tracked using a computer sales tracking software and data charted on a digital Daily SCC. Decision making guidelines were based on the same analytic tactics used by Precision Teachers in the education community. Results may provide a new insight into using the SCC for marketing decisions.
 
How to Use OBM Successfully with Leaders in the Context of Work Analysis
Domain: Applied Research
SIMON ELVNÄS (Division of Ergonomics, Royal Institute of Technology), Malin Håkansson (Division of Ergonomics, Royal Institute of Technology), Ned Carter (SALAR, Stockholm, Sweden)
Abstract: Transforming behavior science into applications that can be useful to real leaders is challenging. There are difficulities in identifying and recording leadership behaviors in field settings, and in describing and measuring changes in dynamic real-life situations . This seminar will present experiences of using OBM and Komaki´s taxonomy of operant leadership (OSTI) in a broader context of work analysis, a context that OBM needs and one that leaders can understand. This is accomplished without abandoning the strategies and tactics of behavioral science that are the hallmarks of OBM. Examples from an eight-year project including 3000 video observations of more than 500 leaders from multiple settings in several different branches of business, in combination with data from time allocation studies for leaders, will be presented. The summary of the results will be shown to contribute to the understanding of OBM in a system perspective. The findings have implications for the design of OBM-oriented leadership interventions.
 
 
 
Symposium #22
Improving Educational Outcomes for Children With Disability in Victorian Schools
Sunday, September 29, 2019
10:30 AM–12:20 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C1
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Erin S. Leif (Monash University )
Discussant: Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (The University of Iowa Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

In 2016, the Victorian Government undertook a comprehensive review of its Program for Students with Disabilities (PSD). The review found that, while the PSD delivers substantial funding to support students with disabilities, there are significant weaknesses in its design, implementation and accountability. Specifically, the review found that (a) Victoria lacks a clear inclusive education policy and framework, (b) inclusion of all students requires a sustained investment in the education workforce’s training and professional learning opportunities, (c) there is a lack of accountability and transparency for funding and outcomes for all students with disabilities, and (d) a more effective approach to identify and support students with disabilities is required (www.education.vic.gov.au). As a result of these findings, The Victorian Department of Education and Training is now delivering an inclusive education agenda to give schools extra resources, support and guidance, with a focus on developing the knowledge and skills of school staff, and giving schools clearer guidance and specialist support to better respond to the needs of students with disabilities. In this symposium, we will present the findings from several current projects designed to directly address the issues highlighted by the Victorian Government in the 2016 review.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Challenging Behaviour, Functional Assessment, Inclusion, Staff Training
 

CANCELED: Improving Educational Outcomes for Children With Disability in Victorian Schools

(Service Delivery)
ELEANOR JENKIN (Monash University; Castan Centre for Human Rights Law), Claire Spivakovsky (Monash University ), Sarah Joseph (Monash University; Castan Centre for Human Rights Law), Marius Smith (Monash University; Castan Centre for Human Rights Law)
Abstract:

This research aims to shed light on current disadvantages facing students with disability by applying a human rights analysis to the experiences of children with disability in the Victorian mainstream government school system. It highlights areas in which progress has been achieved, and those in which children with disability continue to experience discrimination and disadvantage. The report offers recommendations which are intended to strengthen the current reform process, and to assist the Department of Education and Training to protect and fulfil the rights of children with disability. Our findings are based on almost 100 interviews with stakeholders, including former students, school staff (including principals, teachers and support staff), and individuals working to support and represent them. The research also draws on detailed analysis of relevant policies and laws, in particular the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) and state and federal anti-discrimination legislation. Of particular relevance, our research findings highlight the need for additional capacity building supports for classroom teachers, teacher’s aides, and student support service professionals who work directly with children with disability in Victorian schools.

 

Toward Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support in Victorian Schools

(Service Delivery)
RUSSELL FOX (Monash University ), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University), Umesh Sharma (Monash University)
Abstract:

The Government of Victoria has recently launched an inclusive education reform agenda, which has included a considerable boost to funding. As part of this reform agenda, over 300 Victorian government schools have or soon will adopt the School Wide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS) framework to promote student engagement and well-being. SWPBS uses a tiered response-to-intervention framework which invests in prevention (Tier I), identifies and provides targeted, individualised, and small group interventions for students not responding to prevention (Tier II), and utilises function-based, individualised, and intensive interventions for students requiring further support (Tier III). Within the Victorian Department of Education, processes and resources are being established to ensure implementation is sustained at the state-level. In light of this, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify the factors that impede or enhance the successful and sustained implementation of SWPBS. Appropriate resourcing and the presence of an effective SWPBS support team were noted to be the most critical factors enabling the implementation of SWPBS, at both the school and state/district level. In this presentation, we will discuss the strengths and limitations of this body of literature, and propose several best practice recommendations for sustained implementation of SWBPS in Victorian schools.

 
Building the Capacity of Teachers in Inclusive Educational Settings in Victoria
(Service Delivery)
SARAH WOOD (Learning for Life Autism Centre)
Abstract: In this presentation, an innovative school consultancy model based on applied behaviour analysis will be discussed. Learning for Life’s “Inclusion Works” program is a school consultancy program designed to give teachers working in inclusive settings the independent competence to deliver effective behavioural management strategies to their current and future students with autism, strengthening these students’ opportunity for educational success. The multi-component program consisted of (a) an introductory 6-hour, whole-school professional development workshop on reinforcement, behavioural function, and prevention of problem behaviour, (b) functional assessment and development of individualised supports for at-risk students, and (c) behavioural skills training for teachers on the implementation of function-based interventions. To date, the program has been piloted in three schools in Victoria. Initial survey data from 31 teachers suggests that the consultancy program was effective for increasing teacher confidence at managing student behaviour in the classroom and increasing teacher confidence in supporting students’ academic, social and emotional development. Discussion of the benefits and limitations of this model will demonstrate how the principles of applied behaviour analysis can be used to coach teachers to apply function-based interventions with students in inclusive educational settings.
 
Building the Capacity of School Teams: Results of a Government-Funded Pilot Project in Melbourne, Australia (Victoria)
(Applied Research)
LISA KEMMERER (STAR Autism Support), Jesse Arick (STAR Autism Support), Todd Macbeth (Victorian Department of Education and Training), Ian Raymond Cronin (Victorian Department of Education and Training), Charity Crowell (Victorian Department of Education and Training), Rajesh Sharma (Victorian Department of Education and Training), Christine Yam (Victorian Department of Education and Training), Martina Holland (Victorian Department of Education and Training)
Abstract: The Board-Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) Pilot Project was developed to build the capacity of student support service (SSS) professionals and school teams across the state to meet the behavioral and educational needs of students with complex behaviors of concern. Through a variety of training activities (workshops, webinars, case-study meetings, and on-site coaching), led by a Practice Leader (BCBA-D) and four BCBA’s, 17 SSS staff were taught the skills required to conduct a functional behavior assessment (FBA), develop and implement a behavior support plan (BSP), and coach school teams to implement a BSP. Three measures were used to assess the staff’s learning. These included the administration of: a knowledge quiz, fidelity of implementation checklist, and rubrics to assess FBA and BSP reports. Results indicated that all SSS staff improved their knowledge of behavior principles and the skills required to conduct FBAs and develop BSPs. Surveys indicated that the majority of SSS staff and school teams agreed or strongly agreed that they were more confident working with students with challenging behaviors, the school team was better prepared to address student-specific behavioral challenges and collaboration between the school team to address the social, academic, and behavioral needs of students has improved.
 
 
Paper Session #23
Conditioned Reinforcement in Applied Animal Literature
Sunday, September 29, 2019
11:30 AM–11:50 AM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C4
Area: AAB
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Nicole Pfaller-Sadovsky (Queen's University Belfast)
 
Conditioned Reinforcement in Applied Animal Literature
Domain: Theory
NICOLE PFALLER-SADOVSKY (Queen's University Belfast), Susan G. Friedman (Utah State University), Camilo Hurtado Parrado (Troy University & Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria)
Abstract: Conditioned reinforcement occurs when a behavior is strengthened by postcedent events that have acquired reinforcing properties by prior pairing with other reinforcers (Cooper et al., 2007; Pierce & Cheney, 2017). This phenomenon was first described by Skinner (1938), and became popular among animal trainers during the 1980s, and its prominence continues today. Although the use of a conditioned reinforcer (e.g., clicker or whistle) is said to be highly effective in companion animal training, only a few studies support this statement. The current meta-analysis aimed at identifying variables that contribute to conditioned reinforcement’s effectiveness (or lack thereof), identifying variables that explain the variability in authors’ outcomes, and provide quantitative efficacy estimates (i.e., effect sizes). After conducting a systematic search of various databases (e.g., Web of Science), retrieved records were selected by using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA; Moher et al., 2009). Information about publication types, methods and species were extracted from 31 eligible studies. First results show that only 20% (n=6) of all records reported single-case research designs. This indicates a lack of, and great need for, behavior-analytic research of conditioned reinforcement in applied animal settings.
 
 
 
Invited Paper Session #24
CE Offered: BACB

Learning Solutions: Improving Zoo-Animal Welfare With ABA

Sunday, September 29, 2019
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, A1
Area: AAB; Domain: Service Delivery
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Susan Friedman, Ph.D.
Chair: Dag Strömberg (Autism Center for Young Children, Stockholm)
SUSAN FRIEDMAN (Utah State University)
Dr. Susan Friedman is a psychology professor at Utah State University who has pioneered the application of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to captive and companion animals. ABA, with its roots in human learning, offers a scientifically sound teaching technology and ethical standard that can improve the lives of all learners. Students from 22 different countries have participated in Susan's online courses, Living and Learning with Animals for Professionals and Living and Learning with Parrots for Caregivers. She has written chapters on learning and behavior for three veterinary texts (Behavior of Exotic Pets, Clinical Avian Medicine, and Manual of Parrot Behavior), and is a frequent contributor to popular magazines. Her articles appear around the world in eleven languages. Susan has presented seminars for a wide variety of professional organizations around the world such as the Association of Avian Veterinarians, the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, Moorpark College Exotic Animal Training and Management program, and NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. She has been nominated for the Media Award given by the International Association of Behavior Analysis for her efforts to disseminate to pet owners, veterinarians, animal trainers and zookeepers the essential tools they need to empower and enrich the lives of the animals in their care.
Abstract:

ABA principles, procedures and ethical standards are directly relevant to improving the welfare of zoo animals. A basic internet course was developed to improve ABA knowledge and skills of zoo keepers, veterinarians, and other animal professionals. In this presentation, the course and three case-studies of ABA interventions implemented by zoo keepers, will be briefly described: reducing self-injury with an elephant, increasing time in the visitor viewing area with a rhinoceros, and replacing rough handling of a baby orangutan by a surrogate orangutan mother.

Target Audience:

Applied behavior analysts interested in the application of basic principles and procedures to the zoo setting.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define the term “least-intrusive” according to Carter and Wheeler (2005); (2) explain the relevance of the “least intrusive” guidline to selecting behavior-change procedures in the zoo setting; (3) describe at least two programmatic safeguards that can be put in place when using negative reinforcement in animal training; (4) describe two or more obstacles to achieving sufficient experimental control collecting intervention data at the zoo.
 
 
Paper Session #25
Social Skills and Peer Intervention
Sunday, September 29, 2019
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A2
Area: AUT
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: Mark Willer (George Mason University)
 
A Literature Review of Peer and Adult-Mediated Intervention Using Pivotal Response Training on Social Initiations
Domain: Applied Research
MARK WILLER (George Mason University), Theodore A. Hoch (George Mason University)
Abstract: This review looks at Pivotal Response Training (PRT) interventions targeting social initiations and providing instruction of that skill by a trained intervention agent in the natural environment. The data is coded and displayed into adult- and peer-mediated interventions (AMI and PMI). The results of effect size may have future implications on service delivery for learners with autism. The current review suggests AMIs and PMIs targeting social initiations for learners with ASD have the potential to build an important bridge between research and practice. Often social skills are taught by professionals who require extensive or accredited training (e.g., school psychologists, researchers, or Board Certified Behavior Analysts). The review suggests that trained paraprofessionals, parents, and peers produce similar outcomes without hiring additional personnel. Both AMIs and PMIs have been successfully integrated into the school day, social groups, and community environments of the learner with ASD.
 

Effect of Peer-Delivered Social Stories on the Safety Skills of Primary School Students With Developmental Disabilities

Domain: Applied Research
MEHMET BIÇAKCI (Hacettepe University), Seray Gul (Hacettepe University)
Abstract:

In this study, it was aimed to examine the effect of a peer education program developed on the acquisitions of knowledge and skill of writing and implementing social stories by students attending primary school, and the effect of social stories delivered by peers who have completed the program on the acquisition of crossing skills by students with developmental disabilities, maintenance of this skill two weeks after the end of the implementation, and generalization with a different street. In the study, social validity data were collected from peer tutees and peer tutors using a subjective evaluation approach. The study was carried out with a total of six participants consisting of three students aged between 7 and 9 years who attend a primary school in Turkey/Bingöl province, two of whom are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and one of whom is diagnosed with a mild intellectual disability, and these students' peers with normal development. Peer tutees were taught how to write and deliver social stories with one-on-one instruction by following the steps of Powerpoint presentation, modeling, experimenting, and providing feedback. In the study, a multiple probe design with probe conditions across dyads (peer tutor - peer tutees), one of the single subject research models, was used to evaluate the effect of social stories written and delivered by peer tutors on peer tutees' learning crossing skills. Research results showed that peer tutors acquired the social story writing and implementation skill accurately by 100%. After the instruction delivered by the peers who acquired the social story writing and implementation skill, it was observed that peer tutees acquired the crossing skill and could generalize it to a different street, and that two peer tutees with the autism spectrum disorder continued to exhibit this skill they acquired accurately by 100% two weeks after the end of the study. Social validity data collected from peer tutees and peer tutors using a subjective evaluation approach showed that both peer tutees and peer tutors had positive opinions on the target skill, social stories, and research results. These results were discussed within the context of the literature, and suggestions were made to include peer-mediated implementations in teaching different skills with different methods and to make the use of social stories in teaching safety skills by parents, siblings, specialists working in the field and teachers widespread.

 
 
 
Symposium #26
CE Offered: BACB
Concurrent-Operant Choice in Behavior Analysis: Translating Findings from Basic Research to Promote Healthy Change
Sunday, September 29, 2019
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C2
Area: CBM/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Rebecca Kolb (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Rebecca Kolb, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Many applied behavioral interventions are concerned with affecting the choices (i.e., response allocation) of clients. For example, when a behavior analyst treats severe problem behavior, the goal is often conceptualized as decreasing problem behavior choices (e.g., aggression) while increasing choices to engage in appropriate alternatives (e.g., communication). Likewise, an interventionist working with adults on health-related goals may be interested in promoting more time engaged in physical activity. The first presentation in this symposium will present data from a series of human-operant studies demonstrating the effects of variables (e.g., differential reinforcement parameters) on response allocation and will discuss the implications of these basic findings for arrangements in applied settings. The second presentation will provide a systematic review of the choice-based intervention literature from the last 15 years and show clinical data to demonstrate the effects of concurrent-operant arrangements for treating challenging behavior. The third presentation will present a study investigating contingency management and noncontingent reinforcement on adults' allocation of time to physical activity. Together, these talks will show the benefits of bidirectional translational research on the use of concurrent-operant arrangements to help understand and refine choice-based interventions for socially significant problems.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): choice, concurrent-operants, healthy choices, response allocation
Target Audience:

The target audience for this symposium is behavior analysts who are researchers or practitioners and are interested in using concurrent-operant choice interventions in applied settings.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how choice-based behavior goals are relevant to many environments in which behavior analysts work; (2) describe how reinforcement parameters affect response allocation when multiple response options are available (i.e., concurrent-operant situations); (3) summarize the components of at least one research-supported intervention for affecting choice in the promotion of physical activity or treatment of severe problem behavior.
 
Determinents of Choice in a Concurrent-Operants Arrangement
(Basic Research)
KATHRYN M. KESTNER (West Virginia University), Cody McPhail (West Virginia University), Jennifer M Owsiany (West Virginia University), Kacey Renee Finch (West Virginia University )
Abstract: Translational research using human-operant arrangements provides an effective method for studying outcomes of variable manipulations on human behavior. Many goals in applied behavior analysis are directly related to changing the environment to shift response allocation—or in other words—to affect the choices of our clients and participants. We will present data from a series of human-operant studies that model concurrently available response options. We will discuss the data in terms of the way different variables affect response allocation, and we will present data showing the patterns of resurgence observed during relapse probes. We will discuss how these findings may be translated to applied interventions such as those aimed toward promoting health-related choices (e.g., engagement in physical activity, healthy eating), treating severe problem behavior, increasing appropriate alternative behavior (e.g., requests, compliance, and social overtures), as well as the implications for the sustainability of behavior-change affected by choice-based interventions.
 
The State of the Literature: Concurrent-Operant Arrangments as Behavioral Interventions
(Applied Research)
KACEY RENEE FINCH (West Virginia University ), Rebecca Kolb (Western Michigan University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Concurrent-operant arrangements are becoming an increasingly popular intervention method in clinical and educational settings. First, we will present a systematic review of the trends in the applied choice literature published in peer-reviewed journals in the last 15 years. Then, we will present data from clinical cases to demonstrate the application of concurrent-operant arrangements as an intervention for decreasing challenging behavior and shifting response allocation to multiple other alternatives (e.g., task completion, communication). We will identify the current "best practice" recommendations based on the literature and recommend areas for future investigations.
 
Promoting Healthy Choices: Using Technology and Contingency Management for Physical Activity
(Applied Research)
JENNIFER M OWSIANY (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University), Kacey Finch (West Virginia University)
Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that physically inactive adults are at a greater risk of developing noncommunicable diseases (e.g., stroke, cancer, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes) and premature death compared to their physically active peers. Consequently, physical inactivity is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite prominent public-health dissemination of this information by organizations such as the World Health Organization, physical inactivity in adults is common. Competing contingencies likely contribute to even well-meaning adults failing to meet activity recommendations. With response allocation at the center of this problem, behavioral interventions are a promising idea for promoting increased engagement in healthy behavior. In the current study, we randomly assigned participants to one of three groups (i.e., contingency management, noncontingent reinforcement, or self-monitoring). Participants wore Fitbit® Alta HR fitness trackers, which provided data on various indicators of increased physical activity, such as calorie burn, steps, and active minutes. We will discuss the results of this investigation and recommendations for future research and potential avenues for public health initiatives informed by choice technology.
 
 
Symposium #27
CE Offered: BACB
Current Evidence for the Efficacy of Synthesized Contingencies in Assessment and Treatment
Sunday, September 29, 2019
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A3/A4
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: John E. Staubitz (Vanderbilt University Medical Center, TRIAD)
CE Instructor: John E. Staubitz, M.Ed.
Abstract:

Five years ago, Hanley and colleagues (2014) introduced the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA) and the accompanying skill-based treatment (SBT) process as a means to improve the efficiency, safety, and social validity of the functional assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. Since then, a number of applications of IISCA and SBT have been published as demonstrations of a practical functional assessment process. This symposium includes a review of the literature in which state-of-the-art methods for evaluating single case research were applied to evaluate the evidence base for IISCA and SBT for reducing problem behavior and supporting skill acquisition. The symposium also includes two consecutive case series in which the efficacy of variations on the IISCA and SBT approach were evaluated. Specifically, the focus of one case series was an application of the IISCA in which 3-minute sessions were used and total analysis time to inform treatment was as little as 15 minutes. In the second case series, experimenters evaluated the efficacy of SBT in the absence of physical intervention and in the context of an enhanced choice model intended to mitigate the collateral effects of extinction.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): functional assessment, IISCA, skill-based treatment, synthesized contingencies
Target Audience:

Researchers, practicing behavior analysts and graduate students

 

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the IISCA and FCT-TT

BØRGE STRØMGREN (Oslo Metropolitan University), Oda Vister (Oslo Metropolitan University), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract:

Functional analyses (FAs) are frequently being used in treatment of problem behavior. Thus, there is a need to review whether FAs represent an evidence-based practice and should be recommended. We performed a systematic review of a special application of FA, the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA) resulting with Functional Communication Training and Tolerance Training (FCT-TT). A systematic search strategy was performed in relevant data bases for those peer-reviewed articles published between 2014 and 2018 in English or a Scandinavian language, employing a single-case experimental design in which treatment was a combination of IISCA and FCT-TT, the dependent variable was problem behavior, and a line-graph showing results was included. Studies were appraised and results were synthesized through the following methods: Descriptives, methodological quality and evidence base, were assessed. The synthesis included extracting the BC-SMC effect size (equal to Cohen’s d), and Meta-Analysis yielding a combined effect size and forest plot. The methodological quality was low across studies, so IISCA/FCT-TT cannot yet be regarded as an evidence-based practice. The combined ES was -2.82 (95 % CI: -6.98–1.34), (PI: -10.16–4.52). The results were quite heterogenous (I2 = .95), leaving the meta-analysis results largely uninterpretable.

 
Improving Analytic Efficiency: A Consecutive Case Series Evaluation of a Practical Functional Assessment Model
JOSHUA JESSEL (Queens College), Sophia Ma (Queens College), Debra Rosenthal (Queens College), Alisa Dean-McCabe (Queens College), Andrew Ng (Queens College)
Abstract: The functional analysis is an empirically validated tool used to identify environmental variables contributing to problem behavior to improve treatment outcomes. Unfortunately, clinicians overwhelmingly report the sparse use of the functional analysis because of time constraints and safety concerns. The interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) was developed in 2014 as a practical functional assessment model with the intention of addressing the reported concerns from clinicians. We conducted this study with, currently, four consecutive cases of individuals diagnosed with autism who were admitted to our clinic for their severe problem behavior. The IISCA was conducted with each participant using 3-min sessions to determine if the entire analysis could be as brief as 15 min. All IISCAs were differentiated and successfully informed the subsequent skill-based treatments that eliminated problem behavior. These results suggest that analytic efficiency can be improved by using the practical functional assessment model with sessions as brief as 3 min.
 

A Replication of the Enhanced-Choice Model of Skill-Based Treatment Within a Public School Setting

JOHANNA STAUBITZ (Vanderbilt University), John E. Staubitz (Vanderbilt University Medical Center, TRIAD), Michelle Hopton (Vanderbilt University Medical Center- TRIAD), Marney Squires Pollack (Vanderbilt University), Rachel Haws (Vanderbilt University), Caroline Goerke (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Skill-Based Treatment (SBT) uses synthesized contingencies to teach alternative responses that will compete with problem behavior (Hanley et al., 2014). When manual guidance is prohibited, unsafe, or non-preferred by caregivers, the Enhanced Choice Model of SBT (ECM-SBT; Rajaraman et al., 2018) may be employed to mitigate collateral effects of extinction. Within ECM-SBT, trained responses (e.g., functional communicative responses [FCR]) and two additional alternatives to problem behavior operate concurrently. These two alternatives include (a) entering a ‘hangout’ area, in which evocative conditions are suspended and the client may access all preferred items and activities as well as low-quality attention from the therapist and (b) leaving the session entirely. We replicated ECM-SBT procedures with three elementary students in a public special day school for children who engage in severe and persistent problem behavior, in which manual guidance by non-district personnel was prohibited. We present procedures, including methodological deviations from the Rajaraman study, results of Interview-informed Synthesized Contingency Analyses, SBT, and generalization protocols, as well as client response allocation among alternatives within the ECM-SBT model.

 
 
Symposium #28
CE Offered: BACB
Additional Measures in Equivalence Class Formation
Sunday, September 29, 2019
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, Meeting Room 24/25
Area: EAB/EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
CE Instructor: Erik Arntzen, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In the first paper, Arntzen and Bevolden Rustad present an experiment which aimed to study the correspondence between the results on the matching-to-sample test and the sorting test. Twenty-one participants were taught 12 conditional discriminations and tested for the emergence of three 5-member classes. The degree of correspondence in responding on the two types of test formats supports the notion about the usefulness of sorting tests. In second paper, Dunvoll, Arntzen, Elvsåshagen, Hatlestad-Hall, and Malt argue that unrelated stimuli pairs produce a more negative wave line the EEG than the related approximately 400 ms after stimuli presentation (N400 ERP). Five adults with high functioning autism were trained in six conditional discriminations, testing only a third of the trials in a matching to sample (MTS) format. The results show a small negativity in the unrelated stimuli pairs in the frontal and central midline compared to related stimuli pairs. Finally, Aggio, Rezende, Sbrocco, and de Rose argue that the N400 is observed after presentation of two abstract stimuli from different equivalence classes. The authors ask if this effect would be replicated with arbitrary equivalent stimuli in elderly participants. The main findings show that participants had reduced amplitude and longer latency of N400.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): conditional discrimination, EEG, sorting, stimulus equivalence
Target Audience:

students and researchers

Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to know about: sorting tests definition of stimulus equivalence EEG measures
 
On the Robustness of Consistency Between Scoring on Tests for Emergent Relations and Sorting
(Basic Research)
ERIK ARNTZEN (Oslo Metropolitan University), Kristiane Rustad (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: The present experiment aimed to study the correspondence between the results on the matching- to-sample test and the sorting test when employing a Many-to-One (MTO) training structure. The present experiment is a systematic replication of earlier findings from Arntzen, Granmo, and Fields (2017) which showed a high correspondence when using the Linear Series (LS) training structure. Twenty-one participants were taught 12 conditional discriminations and tested for the emergence of three 5-member classes. In Group 1, baseline training was followed by two sorting test, two MTS test blocks and finally two sorting tests. In Group 2, baseline training was followed by two MTS test blocks, two sorting test blocks and finally two MTS test blocks. In Group 1, the initial sorting test showed immediate partitioning of three experimenter-defined classes for 7 participants. Four participants showed other patterns of responding. In Group 2, the initial MTS test blocks showed immediate emergence of three equivalence classes for nine participants. One participant showed another pattern of responding. Twenty of the participants showed emergence of the three experimenter-defined classes on the last test block, independent of test format type. Sorting test data showed a 100% correspondence in performance between test blocks on 28 of 32 presented sorting tests. The degree of correspondence in responding on the two types of test formats supports the notion about the usefulness of sorting tests in testing for emergence and maintenance of stimulus classes. In light of these findings, the definition of emergent stimulus classes in sorting tests was discussed and the application of sorting tests. In conclusion, the present experiment extends the knowledge about the robustness of the correspondence between responding on matching-to-sample tests and sorting tests.
 

N400 in Equivalence Class Formation With Participants With Autism Spectrum

(Basic Research)
GURO DUNVOLL (Oslo and Akershus University Collecge of Applied Sciences), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College), Torbjørn Elvsåshagen (Oslo University Hospital), Christoffer Hatlestad-Hall (CHTD research, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital), Eva Malt (AHUS)
Abstract:

One of the problems often described in individuals with autism spectrum disorder is the lack of ability to generalize skills from one setting to another. One way to measure generalization is through equivalence class formation, training directly trained relations, and testing for emergent relations. Also, N400, a measure with electroencephalography (EEG) where related and unrelated stimulus pairs are tested can be used. Unrelated stimuli pairs produce a more negative wave line the EEG than the related approximately 400 ms after stimuli presentation. In the current experiment, five adults with high functioning autism participated. They were all trained in six conditional discriminations, testing only a third of the trials in a matching to sample (MTS) format. The rest of the possible emergent relations were tested in a priming procedure including EEG measurements. At the end, a full MTS test was conducted. The results show a small negativity (insignificant) in the unrelated stimuli pairs in the frontal and central midline compared to related stimuli pairs. On the other hand, when looking closer at the individual data there are differences between the participants. This might indicate that ASD should be considered a heterogeneous group with respect to the EEG measures.

 
Electrophysiological Correlates of Semantic Relations in the Elderly
(Basic Research)
Natalia Maria Aggio (Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil), Thais Rezende (Federal University of Sao Carlos), Guilherme Sbrocco (Federal University of Sao Carlos), Julio De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), DEISY DE SOUZA (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: The N400 ERP is a negative waveform peaking around 400 ms after presentation of a word incompatible with the semantic context. The N400 is also observed after presentation of two abstract stimuli from different equivalence classes. With words or sentences, studies found reduced amplitude and longer latency of N400 for elderly. The present study sought to determine whether this would be replicated with arbitrary equivalent stimuli. Twenty-six individuals aged 60 to 70, without neurocognitive disorders, participated: 15 in Group 1 and 11 in Group 2. Group 1 formed two five-member equivalence classes, each comprising four abstract pictures and an emotional expression (happiness or anger). ERPs were obtained in a subsequent categorization task: after sequential presentation of a pair of abstract pictures, participants indicated whether they were related or not. Group 2 performed only the semantic categorization task, with pairs of actual words, either semantically related or unrelated. Group 1 showed reduced amplitude and longer latency of N400, as expected, together with a robust P600, attributable to the faces’ emotional valence. Partial results with Group 2 show similar trends in the N400, indicating that results of Group 1 were not due to the nature of the stimuli used.
 
 
Noteworthy Activity #29
Provided Lunch
Sunday, September 29, 2019
12:30 PM–2:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, M1

Join us for a catered lunch.

 
 
Business Meeting #29A
Accreditation and Verified Course Sequences: Recognition of University Training in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, September 29, 2019
12:45 PM–1:45 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A3/A4
Chair: Jenna Mrljak (Association for Behavior Analysis International)

The discipline of behavior analysis is experiencing rapid growth, which is especially noticeable in the recent increase of university programs offering training in behavior analysis. There are currently two mechanisms for university training programs to be recognized by ABAI: accreditation of degree-granting programs and verification of course sequences. This meeting is designed to review and discuss these systems, including their procedures for obtaining and maintaining recognition along with their respective goals. Attendees may include program directors, faculty, coordinators of VCSs and ABAI-accredited programs, and those interested in applying for either system of recognition.

 
 
Symposium #30
CE Offered: BACB
Playing and Pretending: A Behavioral Approach to Teaching Pretend Play
Sunday, September 29, 2019
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A2
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nancy J. Champlin (ACI Learning Centers)
Discussant: Suzanne N. Ward Taylor(adaptABILITY, LLC)
CE Instructor: Nancy J. Champlin, M.S.
Abstract:

Play is an integral part of a child’s typical development and should be an emphasis in early intervention for children diagnosed with autism (Lifter & Bloom, 1989). The use of behavioral interventions can lead to significant increases in play skills (Stahmer, 1995) while simultaneously decreasing inappropriate behaviors including self-stimulatory behaviors (Sani-Bozkurt & Ozen, 2015). The Pretend Play and Language Assessment and Curriculum (PPLAC) is a developmentally-sequenced, behaviorally- based tool designed to establish and expand pretend play in children, ages 2-7. The 5 elements of pretend play (category, agent, object, advanced, and the essential skills to sociodramatic play) are systematically targeted to teach independent and sociodramatic pretend play to children with autism. The studies in this symposium evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing the PPLAC to teach pretend play. The first study analyzes Stage 1: Single Agent to teach children with autism single play actions and vocalizations across 19 different targets. The second study examines Stage 2: Chaining Play to teach a sequence of play actions and corresponding vocalizations to children with autism across 24 different targets. The targets in Stage 1 and Stage 2 are designed to move a child through the progression of play by introducing and expanding on the 5 elements of pretend play.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Pretend Play, Social Skills
Target Audience:

BCBA, BCaBA

Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will identify five elements of pretend play including category, agent, object, advanced play, and the essential skills to sociodramatic play 2) Participants will identify the systematic approach to introducing and chaining targets in Stage 1 3) Participants will label the social expectations for targets in Stage 1: Single Agent from the Pretend Play and Language Assessment and Curriculum 4) Participants will identify effective interventions to chain three pretend play actions and corresponding vocalizations for targets in Stage 2: Chaining Play
 
Teaching the Foundational Components of Pretend Play
MELISSA SCHISSLER (ACI Learning Centers)
Abstract: Pretend play provides critical learning opportunities in the everyday lives of all children (Ozen, Batu, & Birkan, 2012) that serves as the primary context to establish and expand social communicative skills (Mathieson & Banerjee, 2010). Sigman and Ruskin (1999) identified a correlation between play and language development. Deficits in functional speech lead to barriers in participation and inclusion during play opportunities (Boesch, Wendt, Subramanian, & Hsu, 2013). Teaching children diagnosed with autism appropriate play skills requires isolating the individual components of play to acquire, maintain, and generalize the target skill. The purpose of this study was to teach children diagnosed with autism, ages 2-5, play actions and vocalizations across 19 targets in Stage 1: Single Agent from the Pretend Play and Language Assessment and Curriculum. Actions and vocalizations from the familiar category of play were taught across three additional elements of pretend play: agent, object, and essential skills to sociodramatic play. A concurrent multiple baseline across participants was conducted across three to four actions and vocalizations. The outcome of the study demonstrated the efficacy of the steps identified in Stage 1: Single Agent, to teach single play actions with corresponding vocalizations incorporating four of the five elements of pretend play.
 

Teaching a Chain of Play Actions and Corresponding to Children Diagnosed With Autism

NANCY J. CHAMPLIN (ACI Learning Centers)
Abstract:

Play in children with autism is often referred to as stereotypical and lacking in symbolic qualities and flexibility (Lifter, Sulzer-Azaroff, Anderson, & Cowdery, 1993). When utilizing behavioral interventions children with autism are capable of the same level of symbolic play as typically developing children (Charman & Baron-Cohen, 1997). Lifter (2011) emphasized the importance of a developmental sequence of play paired with behavioral interventions. The purpose of this study was to utilize the developmental sequence of play to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching a series of 8 components encompassing the second developmental stage of play, chaining play. Least-to-most prompting was used to teach a chain of 3 play actions and vocalizations to 3 children diagnosed with autism, ages 3-5. All 3 children were taught each chain of play actions across agent of play: self as agent, passive figure, and active figure. Advanced play was targeted in the form of rotating and combining play schemes both independently and with peers. Lastly, the essential skills to sociodramatic play, initiating, responding, and expanding were targeted through the sequence. A multiple baseline across participants was conducted. The outcome of this study demonstrated the efficacy of the 8 teaching components as steps to teach all 4 children a chain of play actions with corresponding vocalizations across all 5 elements of pretend play.

 
 
Panel #31
CE Offered: BACB
The Shared Struggles of Behavior Analysts Across the Globe: Practices of Dissemination in the Czech Republic and Australia
Sunday, September 29, 2019
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A3/A4
Area: AUT/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Sheri Kingsdorf, Ph.D.
Chair: Sheri Kingsdorf (Masaryk University )
LAUREN COWLED (Great Start Behaviour Services)
KAREL PANCOCHA (Masaryk University)
NINA ALEXANDRA ALEXANDRA AHLGREN BERG (ABA for Change)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has been spreading throughout the world over the last few decades. There has been a steady rise in access to ABA coursework, people pursuing certification in the field of ABA, and the availability of ABA services for those in need. However, these overall increases are not without challenges. In regions of the world where ABA is still relatively young, the establishment of behavioral services has often meant unsupported growth. Pioneering practitioners have been met with struggles in promoting the value of ABA, developing a local peer-group in the science, finding professionals for collaboration, and addressing the overwhelming demand of families in need. The Czech Republic and Australia, although on different sides of the globe, have both met with such growing pains. Despite drastically different locations, histories, and cultures, practitioners in both regions have shared experiences with the hardships of ABA practice and dissemination. In this panel we will discuss the barriers that have been faced when working to expand ABA, the measures that have been taken to overcome them, and how the culture of behavior analysis can sometimes bridge worldwide gaps.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Practitioners looking to disseminate behavior analysis in emerging regions.

Learning Objectives: -To identify obstacles of disseminating applied behavior analysis (ABA) in emerging regions. -To identify practices for overcoming obstacles as a practitioner in an area where ABA awareness is scarce. -To identify strategies for successfully providing behavior analytic supports to families in need, where there is a dearth of ABA services.
Keyword(s): Dissemination, Emerging Practices
 
 
Invited Paper Session #32
CE Offered: BACB
An Updated Version of Relational Frame Theory and How it Connects More Directly With the Concerns of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sunday, September 29, 2019
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, A1
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Ph.D.
Chair: Per Holth (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
DERMOT BARNES-HOLMES (Ghent University)

Dr. Dermot Barnes-Holmes graduated from the University of Ulster in 1985 with a B.Sc. in Psychology and in 1990 with a D.Phil. in behavior analysis. His first tenured position was in the Department of Applied Psychology at University College Cork, where he founded and led the Behavior Analysis and Cognitive Science unit. In 1999 he accepted the foundation professorship in psychology and head-of-department position at the National University of Ireland Maynooth. In 2015 he accepted a life-time senior professorship at Ghent University in Belgium. Dr. Barnes-Holmes is known internationally for the analysis of human language and cognition through the development of Relational Frame Theory with Steven C. Hayes, and its application in various psychological settings. He was the world's most prolific author in the experimental analysis of human behavior between the years 1980 and 1999. He was awarded the Don Hake Translational Research Award in 2012 by the American Psychological Association, is a past president and fellow of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science, is a recipient of the Quad-L Lecture Award from the University of New Mexico and most recently became an Odysseus laureate of the Flemish Science Foundation and a fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International.

Abstract: The seminal research on equivalence relations by Sidman (1994) and colleagues, which commenced in the early 1970s, led in the mid-1980s to the development of relational frame theory (RFT; Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001). In principle, the theory aimed to provide a modern behavior-analytic account of human language and cognition, but it had a relatively limited impact on language teaching and training programs within applied behavior analysis. Although there are likely many reasons for this lack of impact, I will argue that one of the primary problems was the absence of a readily accessible systematic framework for presenting the key elements of the theory itself. Recently, however, a systematic framework has begun to evolve, which is playing a key role in up-dating RFT. Critically, this framework appears to have the potential to connect the theory more directly to the concerns of applied behavior analysts who are focused on improving the language and cognitive abilities of their client populations. This new systematization of RFT is known as the hyper-dimensional multi-level (HDML) framework. The key elements of the HDML, for the purposes of language/cognitive training, involve 20 intersections between five levels of relational development (mutual entailing; relational framing; relational networking; relating relations; and relating relational networks), which vary along four contextual dimensions (coherence; complexity; derivation; and flexibility). The lecture will describe the HDML framework as a type of ‘periodic table’ for conceptualizing language/cognitive deficits and how to approach their remediation. Relevant concrete examples of recent uses of the HDML in this regard will be provided.
Target Audience:

Applied behavior analysts with an interest in human language and cognition.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the basic units of analysis of RFT as presented in the seminal volume (Hayes, et al., 2001); (2) identify and explain the basic concepts presented in a graphical representation of the HDML framework; (3) provide examples of how the HDML framework may be used to support research and practice in applied behavior analysis in the domains of human language and cognition.
 
 
Symposium #33
Advances in Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction: Recent Research and Conceptual Analyses
Sunday, September 29, 2019
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C4
Area: PCH/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Leif Albright (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

While responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence has been demonstrated across a variety of content areas, questions still remain pertaining to variables that can affect class formation (e.g., topography of class stimuli, nodal distance effects). This symposium will present recent data aimed at addressing some of these potential variables. In the first study, three groups of participants formed classes consisting of stimuli related to Skinner’s verbal operants. Groups were outlined by the format of the stimuli used across classes. These included videos, animated pictorial stimuli, and textual stimuli. The second study, evaluated the combined effects of nodal number and relational type on relatedness of stimuli within equivalence classes. After classes were formed participants were presented with within-class relational preference tests pitting a consistent equivalence relation against increasingly distal transitive relations. In our final study, equivalence-based instruction was used to teach college students to identify functional relations when presented with graphs. Training resulted in the formation of equivalence classes consisting of graphs, functional relation rules, and functional relation statements. A novel EBI training system was used in this study and the impact of computer-based EBI systems in general is discussed.

Instruction Level: Advanced
 

An Empirical Comparison of Stimulus Forms in Equivalence-Based Instruction

Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University), Lesley A. Shawler (Endicott College), Leif Albright (Caldwell University), Daniel M. Ferman (Caldwell University ), PAUL MAHONEY, II (Amego)
Abstract:

While equivalence-based instruction (EBI) has been thoroughly investigated using a variety of stimulus-stimulus relations (e.g., auditory-visual, visual-visual etc.) across settings and participants, direct comparisons of the efficacy of EBI using different compound/complex stimuli during training has not been conducted. In particular, video or animated stimuli have rarely been used in EBI research. Videos and animations are widely used by learners of all ages in training and educational settings, and the widespread availability of devices with high-speed internet access makes an investigation into how to incorporate video-based stimuli into emergent learning protocols socially relevant and necessary. The current study evaluated the use of video and animated vignettes to teach Skinner’s verbal operants to ABA practitioners, and the establishment of six 4-member equivalence classes (the elementary operants) where only two relations in each class were directly trained. Specifically, the purpose of the current study was to assess whether the use of video or animated vignettes as part of an EBI system using selection-based conditional discrimination and match-to-sample training, and topography-based tact training, would be more effective than using written or audio vignettes alone. Initial data suggest that, like other stimulus-stimulus relations, compound/complex auditory-visual stimuli, such as videos of applied vignettes, can be used to form equivalence classes with minimal direct training and a near immediate emergence of derived relational responding. Implications and future research questions will also be discussed.

 
Relatedness of Equivalence Class Members: Combined Effects of Nodality and Relational Type
LEIF ALBRIGHT (Caldwell University), Lanny Fields (Queens College, City University of New York), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University), April N. Kisamore (Hunter College)
Abstract: In equivalence classes, stimulus relatedness is an inverse function of the nodal number for the same type of derived relation. Also, transitive relations are preferred to equivalence relations when the nodal number is held constant. The current study evaluated the combined effects of nodal number and relational type on relatedness of stimuli within equivalence classes. After eight college students formed two 7-node, 9-member equivalence classes, participants were presented with trials during within-class relational preference tests that pitted 1-node equivalence relations against 1–5-node transitive relations. Consistent with prior research, 1-node transitive relations were always preferred to 1-node equivalence relations. For the six participants who formed classes rapidly, preference for the 1-node equivalence relation increased as a direct function of increases in the number of nodes in the competing transitive relation. In addition, the 1-node equivalence relation was equally preferred to an approximately 2-node transitive relation. Because equivalence classes remained intact after preference testing, performances documented the coexistence of equal and differential relatedness of class members. Two participants formed the classes on a delayed basis and produced inverted U-shaped preference functions instead of monotonic preference functions. Because the preference functions differed in terms of speed of emergence, the same nominal equivalence classes were not functionally equivalent to each other with regard to stimulus relatedness.
 

Training the Identification of Functional Relations With Equivalence-Based Instruction Using Web-Based Learning Tools

Bryan J. Blair (Long Island University), PAUL MAHONEY, II (Amego)
Abstract:

Published research has suggested that practicing behavior analysts do not demonstrate consistent agreement when identifying the levels of functional relations depicted in graphs (see Wolfe, Seaman, & Drasgow, 2016). Given this research, it appears that traditional (i.e., didactic) instruction is insufficient to train this applied and analytical skill (Danov & Symons, 2008; Diller, Barry, & Gelino, 2016). More effective teaching methods appear to be necessary to ensure the accuracy and reliability of visual analysis across behavior analysts. Equivalence-Based Instruction (EBI) research has demonstrated that conditional discrimination training is an effective teaching method that also results in the emergence of responses to untrained stimuli. EBI has been shown to be effective across a wide range of learners and skills. The current study used an EBI system consisting of computer-based match-to-sample procedures to teach six college students to identify functional relations when presented with graphs. Training resulted in the formation of equivalence classes consisting of graphs, functional relation rules, and functional relation statements. A novel EBI training system was used in this study and the impact of computer-based EBI systems in general is discussed.

 
 
Paper Session #34
Ethical Considerations for Practitioners for Client Onboarding and Treatment Failures
Sunday, September 29, 2019
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C2
Chair: Rachel Kristine Enright (Gateway Pediatric Therapy)
 
Practical and Ethical Considerations in the Client Onboarding Process
Area: AUT
Domain: Service Delivery
RACHEL KRISTINE ENRIGHT (Gateway Pediatric Therapy)
Abstract: Navigating the onboarding process for new, incoming clients can be a daunting part of any practitioner's operation. It is crucial that each company or practice develop early-on a referral screening process that is driven by ethical considerations as well as is guided by continual monitoring of metrics involving aspects of quality care. Prior to beginning the process for a new client to receive ABA therapy, practitioners will need to have a strong grasp of many different clinical resources, including the scope of competency available for front-line employees as well as Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs). Additionally, logistical and Human Resource factors can often increase confusion through the fluctuation of the number of staff, staff availability, and location. These factors coupled with an increase in the overall number of families interested in receiving Applied Behavior Analysis therapy has resulted in practitioners needing to self-evaluate how to proceed forward with the development of clinically appropriate, accurate, and ethical onboarding systems. Using benchmarks such as clinical scope of competency, logistical considerations, and ethics code guidelines, this discussion can clarify for practitioners how to create, monitor, and evaluate systems to continuously determine if they can accept an incoming client for ongoing therapy services.
 
Detecting and Troubleshooting Treatment Failures: An Important Ethical Obligation for ABA Practitioners
Area: PCH
Domain: Service Delivery
RICHARD WAYNE FUQUA (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a multi-component process in which practitioners select, refine and deliver clinical services based on a) the best available scientific evidence, b) unique client and contextual features, c) training and competence of the practitioner, d) ongoing clinical progress monitoring and decision making and e) early detection and trouble-shooting of treatment “failures." In addition to providing an overview of EBP principles as applied to ABA practice, this presentationwill provide guidance on how to define and detect treatment failures. It will also provide a recommended checklist for ABA practitioners on how to trouble shoot treatment failures.
 
 
 
Symposium #35
Teaching Behavior Analysis in Higher Education
Sunday, September 29, 2019
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C1
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Torunn Lian (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: How to go about to improve the teaching and learning of the principles and applications of behavior analysis is a multifaceted challenge. Some of the questions involved are how to teach, how to practice and how to evaluate the effectiveness of our teaching. At another level, and a core challenge in areas and countries where expertise in behavior analysis is hard to find, is how to organize and provide high quality courses to students who live in such areas. The three papers in the present symposium take different perspectives on some of these issues. The first paper will present a literature review on the efficacy of interteaching in higher education. The second paper will present a study on the effects of equivalence procedures as part of an undergraduate course in applied behavior analysis. The third presentation will present findings from an intercultural graduate level blended learning course in applied behavior analysis with students enrolled in four Nordic-Baltic universities.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): blended learning, higher education, Interteaching, stimulus equivalence
 

Review on the Use of Interteaching: 2014–2018

(Theory)
HANNA STEINUNN STEINGRIMSDOTTIR (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract:

Studies have shown that students tend to favour student active learning such as flipped classroom and peer instruction compared to traditional lectures. Interteaching is a procedure, based on behaviour principles, where the emphasize is on student active learning. In interteaching, students work on study guides, discussing the course material in pairs, and make notes on what they do not understand. The teacher then designs short lectures based on these notes. However, for interteaching to be evaluated as evidence based, studies must verify its efficacy. Sturmey, Dalfen and Fienup (2015) did a literature review in March 2014, identifying 18 articles on interteaching using Google Scholar and PsychINFO. The current study is a replication of Sturmey et al. conducted in December 2018. We limited the search to the period from March 2014 to date, using Google Scholar, PsychINFO, and ERIC. The review lead to identification of 12 articles on interteaching, published in 10 different journals in six different courses (e.g., psychology, physiology and nursing). The studies will be described and discussed.

 

Comparing Two Student Active Formats in Establishing Basic Behavior Analytic Concepts

(Applied Research)
HANNE AUGLAND (Oslo Metropolitan University), Torunn Lian (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract:

This study investigated the relative effects of procedures used in equivalence research and a student active learning format (SALF) in establishing basic behavior principles. Equivalence procedures included matching-to-sample (MTS) training and test and SALF included elements from peer instruction and flipped classroom. All participants, college students, experienced both SALF and MTS. Some experienced MTS in an early phase (MTS–SALF group) and others experienced MTS at the end of the course (SALF–MTS group). A multiple choice test was presented three times (pre-test, post 1 and post 2). The MTS component included a generalization test. The results showed that MTS was equally effective as SALF and no effect of order was obtained. However, participants experiencing MTS in a late phase fulfilled the experiment and they were more positive to the MTS training in a social validity questionnaire than participants who experienced MTS in an early phase. Finally, participants who formed equivalence classes performed better on a generalization test than participants who did not form classes. Despite some limitations, the present results adds to previous findings demonstrating the effect of MTS in higher education and extends these by comparing the outcome of MTS to student active learning format.

 
Blended Learning and Intercultural Considerations; Applied Behaviour Analysis and Higher Education
(Service Delivery)
LISE RENAT ROLL-PETTERSSON (Department of special education), Shahla Susan Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas), Annika Käck (Stockholm University), Kari Hoium (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: Advances have been made globally within Institutes of higher education concerning professional training in the discipline of behavior analysis and autism interventions. However, there are still a limited number of universities with staff having the necessary competencies and qualifications in these areas, leading to discrepancies and low quality interventions affecting the personal well-being of children with autism and their families. Computer mediated technologies, such as blended-learning present opportunities for collaboration between universities and countries lacking competence in applied behaviour analysis. This presentation will describe findings from an intercultural graduate level blended learning course in applied behaviour analysis with an autism focus. Students were enrolled in universities in four Nordic-Baltic countries. Country based focus group interviews and surveys were used to explore student's experiences and perceptions. Results indicate that access to expertise and interacting with other cultures were noted to positively affect learning experience. However, risk for cultural divide due to discrepancies in technology, differing pedagogical traditions, and understanding of English were also reported. Implications, and suggestions for enhancing cross-cultural collaboration in behavior analysis through blended-learning will be presented.
 
 
Paper Session #36
Models of ABA in Latvia and China
Sunday, September 29, 2019
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, Meeting Room 24/25
Chair: Barbara Schwartz-Bechet (Misericordia University)
 
Providing Instruction in ABA at the University of Latvia: A Fulbright Experience
Area: TBA
Domain: Service Delivery
BARBARA SCHWARTZ-BECHET (Misericordia University)
Abstract: Through this Fulbright project, the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) were taught to psychology and pedagogy students, at both the graduate and undergraduate levels, at the University of Riga where there had been no formal program in ABA nor in the field of psychology due to the previous Soviet rule. The university is now poised to begin development of programs and training and this was one of the first attempts to move this forward. The goals of the project were to provide knowledge of ABA to students, deepen the knowledge of ABA with psychologists, teachers, occupational therapists and speech language therapists, and provide supervision for specialists in existing autism schools and programs. The instruction provided followed the basic tenets of behavior as a science (Johnston & Pennypacker, 2008). The areas of active instruction included topic areas of discrimination training, contingency contracting, functional assessment and analysis, chaining, task analysis, and shaping, stimulus control, discrimination and generalization, and ethics of assessing behavior. Understanding how to effectively read and analyze research for use in in vivo practice was also included. The presentation will discuss the techniques used to engage the students in application and analytic processes and procedures and how working across cultures and languages was made accessible and applicable. Generalization of new skills was used across workshops, and case studies were developed by participants for relevancy and reliability. The potential impact is to identify and develop intercultural competencies and practices that identify, teach and maintain the positive use of ABA practices that can be generalized to a populace that has not had this skill in the past.
 
Setting Up a Quality ABA-Based Intervention Service in Mainland China: A Case Study
Area: OBM
Domain: Service Delivery
DIANNA HIU YAN YIP (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Yee Tak Lee (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Tsz Lau (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Siqi Xie (Private Practice), Ziyan Ziyan Chen (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Yan Long (Private Practice)
Abstract: Quality ABA-based Intervention Services for children with Autism is in huge demand across the globe. Yet, there are limited professionals trained with relevant experiences and qualification. This is especially true in Asia. In Mainland China, there are 1.3 billion of people and only 21 BCBAs as of January 2019. Due to the popularity of ABA services, there are thousands of organizations claiming to provide ABA-based intervention services. Most of these organizations do not have any qualified professionals on staff nor have adequate staff training. Working with a new centre in China since summer 2016, we have created a model to provide quality services with limited professional resources. By creating systems to allow checks and balances and regular supervision, we focus on training teachers (aka behaviour technicians) and supervisors. Our goal is to build capacity and allow the centre to use less financial resources to provide quality services for a larger population over time. The preliminary result is positive. We have trained over 150 teachers, 30 supervisors, and 3 BCaBAs in 2 years. The centre is able to replicate the model and start 2 new sites in different cities.
 
 
 
Symposium #37
Trials and Triumphs With Telehealth
Sunday, September 29, 2019
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C3
Area: CSS/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is a widely used and effective function-based treatment for socially-maintained problem behavior. Further, parents can be effective behavior change agents and providing rural caregivers with increased access to behavioral expertise via telehealth is a promising approach. However, challenges do occasionally arise, including lack of high-speed internet in rural areas, providing behavioral coaching internationally, and problem-solving when typically effective procedures prove ineffective. Further, less is known about the utility of FCT for individuals who have no formal communication system but who do not engage in severe destructive behavior, including individuals with Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders. Kristín Guðmundsdóttir will kick off the symposium with the presentation "Caregiver training via telecommunication with rural Icelandic families of children with autism: Experimental findings and social validity," followed by Loukia Tsami who will present "An Application of Delivering Functional Communication Training via Telehealth Internationally." Kelly Schieltz will then present "Single-Case Analysis to Determine Reasons for Failure of Behavioral Treatment via Telehealth" and then Rebecca Kolb will then present on "The effects of functional communication training coached via telehealth for individuals with Rett syndrome." David Wacker will discuss the presentations in terms of methodological, clinical, and conceptual implications of behavioral consultation delivered via telehealth technology.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 

Caregiver Training via Telecommunication With Rural Icelandic Families of Children With Autism: Experimental Findings and Social Validity

(Service Delivery)
KRISTÍN GUDMUNDSDOTTIR (University of Akureyri), Zuilma Gabriela Sigurdardottir (University of Iceland), Shahla Alai-Rosales (University of North Texas), Lise Renat Roll-Pettersson ( Stockholm University)
Abstract:

Parents can be effective behavior change agents and providing rural caregivers with increased access to behavioral expertise via telehealth is a promising approach. This presentation will describe results from two experimental studies of the effects of using telecommunication in training of rural Icelandic caregivers of children with autism. Furthermore, results from evaluation of the social validity of the training will be described. Participants included five caregivers and their preschool children with autism and one child‘s teacher. The intervention, included teaching the caregivers basic naturalistic teaching strategies to increase the frequency of their child’s socio-communicative skills. According to the results experimental control was demonstrated with all families. Measurable progress was displayed for all caregivers and children across all skill areas. Preliminary analysis of the social validity data indicates the caregivers believed the telecommunication training was feasible and viable. Challenges encountered during the studies regarding technical aspects, measurement and training procedures will be discussed. The results extend and confirm previous research on the effectiveness of teaching naturalistic strategies to caregivers via telecommunication. They also indicate that training via telecommunication is a promising alternative for families that have limited access to evidence-based behavioral expertise. However, further development and experimental study is important.

 
An Application of Delivering Functional Communication Training via Telehealth Internationally
(Service Delivery)
LOUKIA TSAMI (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) based on functional analysis (FA) results is highly effective for treating socially maintained problem behavior. When compared to in-vivo in-home models, the FA + FCT package has, recently, been demonstrated to be as effective (M = 97% reduction in problem behavior; M = 76% increase in manding) and acceptable (M = 6.25 on a 7 point scale) when the FA + FCT package is conducted by caregivers in their homes with coaching from a behavior therapist via telehealth (Lindgren et al., 2016). Additionally, the costs to deliver these services has been shown to be significantly reduced when provided via telehealth (Lindgren et al.). Therefore, in this presentation, we will summarize the results of the FA + FCT package on the problem behavior of young children with autism when their caregivers conducted these procedures in their homes, with coaching from a behavior therapist, via telehealth in the United States. We will then present case examples of how the FA + FCT package has been applied via telehealth internationally, in which similar results were obtained (e.g., reductions in child problem behavior, improvements in manding, high levels of parent acceptability).
 
Single-Case Analysis to Determine Reasons for Failure of Behavioral Treatment via Telehealth
(Applied Research)
Kelly Schieltz (University of Iowa), Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus), DAVID WACKER (The University of Iowa), Alyssa N. Suess (Chatter Therapy), Pei Huang (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Scott D. Lindgren (The University of Iowa), Todd G. Kopelman (The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a widely used and effective function-based treatment for problem behavior. The purpose of this presentation is to present two cases in which FCT was unsuccessful in reducing the occurrence of problem behavior displayed by two young children with an autism spectrum disorder. Both children received the same functional analysis plus FCT treatment package via telehealth that had proven to be highly successful for the other participants. The FCT package was conducted within tightly controlled single-case designs for each participant, which permitted subsequent analyses to determine why FCT was unsuccessful. These analyses suggested distinct reasons for the treatment failure for each child. Although the negative results of treatment appeared to be similar for both children, the specific reasons for treatment failure were highly individualistic and identifiable via the single-case analyses conducted. We present findings from both our initial and subsequent analyses and discuss the implications.
 

The Effects of Functional Communication Training Coached via Telehealth for Individuals With Rett Syndrome

(Applied Research)
REBECCA KOLB (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota), Alefyah Shipchandler (University of Minnesota), Emily Katrina Unholz (University of Minnesota), Shawn Girtler (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) based on functional analysis (FA) results is highly effective for treating socially maintained problem behavior of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and ASD. Less is known about the utility of FCT for promoting a formal system of communicative behavior for individuals with Rett syndrome or other related neurodevelopmental disorders. We will describe the assessment and intervention procedures we have used with more than 15 participants with Rett syndrome who used idiosyncratic forms of communication as their primary means to communicate with family members. In addition, we will present illustrative case examples of various formal communication modes (e.g., microswitches operated with hands, eye pointing at picture cards, and eye-gaze activated speech-generating computer system). Challenges, limitations, and future directions will be discussed.

 
 
Paper Session #38
The Shadow of Metaphysics
Sunday, September 29, 2019
3:00 PM–3:20 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, Meeting Room 24/25
Area: PCH
Instruction Level: Advanced
Chair: Marcus Jackson Marr (Georgia Tech)
 
The Shadow of Metaphysics
Domain: Theory
MARCUS JACKSON MARR (Georgia Institute of Technology)
Abstract: What, if any, are the roles of traditional metaphysical concerns in a natural science of behavior? There are questions and issues that seem to frame positions of many calling themselves “behaviorists” such as mind-behavior or mind-brain relations, realism vs. pragmatism, contextualism vs. mechanism, description vs. explanation, and the meaning of “behavior” itself, all and more of which might be assigned to metaphysical arguments. Issues such as these reflect the many different varieties of behaviorisms extant; but, in general, seem to have relatively little influence on, or relevance to, how sciences of behavior are actually conducted—mostly characterized by naturalist-empiricist approaches, as with other sciences worthy of the name. Of course, practices in the natural sciences are not without ontological stances, but the sorts of issues mentioned above largely reflect irresolvable or confused verbal entanglements that, at best, might be addressed by an analysis of verbal behavior (e.g., how and why do we come to talk in these ways?). Aside from such an analysis, the issues themselves, while fun to engage, have little or no empirical or even theoretical content and thus seem divorced from a “thoroughgoing” science of behavior.
 
 
 
Symposium #39
CE Offered: BACB
International Dissemination of an Effective, Data Based, Socially Valid Intervention Model for Individuals With Autism
Sunday, September 29, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A2
Area: AUT/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Laura J. Hall (San Diego State University)
CE Instructor: Laura J. Hall, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Designing effective human service and education systems and organizational models with essential features that are clearly defined, consistently implemented, and result in positive outcomes so that the model can be effectively disseminated has been a challenge in the field. Creating a system of interlocking behavioral contingencies aligned with organizational goals that produce positive outcomes is the approach used by behavior analysts consistent with organization behavior management (OBM) (Glenn & Malott, 2004). This symposium will present: 1) a description of the behavioral model of intervention for individuals with ASD developed by McClannahan and Krantz (1993) that includes a system for training staff, monitoring learner progress, and incorporating feedback from colleagues, parents, and community stakeholders in a yoked accountability system that has been implemented in multiple sites in the USA; 2) the dissemination of this model as the Institute for Child Development (IWRD) in Gdansk, Poland and then to other sites in Poland; and 3) dissemination of the model to other countries in Europe. Data demonstrating that the implementation and effectiveness of the model is maintained across programs will be presented. Effective systems that consistently benefit learners with autism and their families are a priority for use by behavior analysts.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): accountability system, autism intervention, socially valid, staff training
Target Audience:

Board Certified Behavior Analysts who are working in with individuals with disabilities in education or human service settings. The content is particularly relevant for program directors or staff supervisors.

Learning Objectives: Participants will identify the essential features of a data based and socially valid model that are required for effective dissemination across states and countries. Participants will describe a yoked system of accountability that results in positive outcomes for individuals with autism Participants will describe a system for staff training that includes inter-observer agreement from multiple supervisors and includes evaluation from colleagues, parents, and consumers
 

An Effective System of Training and Intervention for Individuals With Autism Disseminated From the USA

LAURA J. HALL (San Diego State University), Iwona Ruta-Sominka (Institute for Child Development, Poland), Anna Budzinska (Institute for Child Development in Gdansk)
Abstract:

The critical features of a model based on the principles of behavior analysis developed by McClannahan and Krantz with a focus on the education and training for individuals with autism will be presented. This yoked, or interlocking system, of training and intervention has resulted in consistent progress for individuals with autism maintained for years of intervention, and across programs implemented at multiple sites in the USA. Using data for feedback and decision-making at all levels is a hallmark of this model. Data is collected on learner progress with goals, staff competence with identified skills, including interpersonal communication, and parent and consumer satisfaction. This model incorporates an accountability system that ensures consistent program effectiveness and addresses behavioral drift. Examples of the data collected at all sites using this model will be presented including, graphs of learner progress, summary data that includes inter-observer agreement scores on learner progress with intervention programs, staff training data with inter-observer agreement data from multiple supervisors, and annual evaluation data from colleagues, parents, and consumers.

 
Collaboration for Training and Supervision: Centers Recommended by the Institute for Child Development in Poland
IWONA RUTA-SOMINKA (Institute for Child Development, Poland), Marta Wojcik (Institute for Child Development, Gdansk)
Abstract: There is a huge need for an accountability system in any service delivery model based on the concepts of OBM. The Institute for Child Development (IWRD) is the first and the only institution in Poland, which is the member of Alliance for Scientific Autism Intervention (ASAI). All members of ASAI continue to implement the model developed initially by McClannahan and Krantz (1993). This presentation describes the Institute for Child Development (IWRD) model of training and supervision in educational institutions in Poland designed to achieve positive outcomes for children and teenagers with autism. The essential features of this model include: using teaching techniques, based on the principles of behavior analysis with effectiveness demonstrated by scientific research; data collection to monitor child progress; incorporating individualized motivational systems; collaborating with parents regarding educational programs; annual evaluation for all therapists; and systematic supervisions by specialists from IWRD. Currently, seven special kindergartens and schools in Poland are recommended for certification by IWRD. This presentation will include video showing the children's functioning before and after the introduction of effective learning techniques. We will show also the data and graphs of children progress. We will discuss the evaluation process with summary data for all recommended centers.
 

Expanding the Dissemination of a Science-Based Intervention Model from One Country to Several in Europe

ANNA BUDZINSKA (Institute for Child Development in Gdansk), Iwona Ruta-Sominka (Institute for Child Development, Poland)
Abstract:

The Institute for Child Development (IWRD) is the first and the only institution in Poland, which is the member of Alliance for Scientific Autism Intervention (ASAI). All members of ASAI continue to implement the model developed initially by McClannahan and Krantz (1993). The following presentation will describe the process used to implement the effective science-based intervention model not only in Poland but also in other countries in Europe. Details of the staff training approach used in this model will be presented that includes: workshops on the theory, principles and practices of behavior analysis, practical training at IWRD in Poland, systematic supervision in the workplace in another country and staff evaluation. Staff training in this model requires evaluating therapists’ professional skills at the beginning of the training, after internship in our Institute, and also after one year of independent work under our supervision. Sample data from the professional evaluation demonstrating progress in all needed areas will be presented. Our model of training is also evaluated by all stakeholders or consumers and examples of these data also will be presented.

 
 
Symposium #40
CE Offered: BACB
Parents as Agents: Applications and Cultural Background Considerations of Parent Training Procedures for Behavior Change
Sunday, September 29, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C2
Area: CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
CE Instructor: Andresa De Souza, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Parents and caregivers play an important role in the success and maintenance of gains achieved with behavioral procedures. Therefore, parents should be actively included and engaged in their child's intervention process. In addition, parents can also be the main agent of change and be trained how to implement behavioral interventions to promote socially relevant changes in their child's behavior. This symposium will explore two clinical applications for behavior change in which parents were the implementers. First, Abigail Kennedy will present a study that evaluated the effects of a parent-implemented deferred time-out procedure (i.e., a hands-free method in which the child learns to independently sit in contingent observation time-out) on the reduction of challenging behavior in four children with typical development. Next, Maegan Pisman will discuss the results of a study that implemented behavioral skills training (BST) with two mother-son dyads to train the parent how to implement behavioral strategies to improve child-parent interaction and to teach mands and tacts to their child who had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Finally, Marie-Hélène Konrad will reflect on the importance of considering families' cultural background while designing and implementing parent training procedures in clinical settings.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Caregiver training, Cultural practices, Deferred time-out, Natural-environment teaching
Target Audience:

Clinicians, practitioners, and master students

 

An Evaluation of “Deferred Time-Out:”A Passive Enforcement Procedure for Contingent Observation Time-Out

(Service Delivery)
ABIGAIL KENNEDY (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Shelby Wolf (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jordan David Lill (University of Nebraska - Medical Center), William J. Warzak (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Time-out is one of the most widely disseminated and commonly used behavioral interventions for managing problem behavior in early childhood. Although time-out has been shown to be an effective method for reducing children’s problem behavior, time-out resistance is nonetheless prevalent, and has the potential to increase caregivers' use of more intrusive and effortful implementation methods and negatively affect parental adherence. Deferred time-out (DTO) is a hands-free method for training children to sit in contingent observation time-out, and may provide an alternative to put-backs, back-up rooms, and other more restrictive methods that have been used to enforce the time-out location. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DTO implemented by trained caregivers on time-out resistance. Participants were four children and their caregivers. DTO reduced the latency to comply with the time-out instruction and the duration of time-out trials for three of four participants. Additionally, overall improvements in initial command compliance were observed for all participants, and caregivers generally found DTO to be an acceptable approach for children’s problem behavior. This research contributes to time-out and parent training literature by increasing our understanding regarding DTO as a method for improving compliance with parents' instructions with contingent observation time-out.

 
Increasing Caregiver Play and Teaching Skills Without Decrements in Child Preference
(Service Delivery)
MAEGAN D. PISMAN (STE Consultants), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit clinically-significant deficits and behavioral excesses that may lead to deficits in areas of play and engaging with others, including their caregivers. Our participants were two dyads consisting of two mothers and their sons, ages three and four, who were diagnosed with an ASD. First, we collected data on baseline performance in the home and conducted an initial concurrent-chains schedule in-clinic to identify each child’s baseline preference for playing alone versus playing with their caregiver. We then gathered baseline data in-clinic, followed by sequentially training caregivers to implement parallel play, child-directed interaction, teaching requests (mands), and teaching labels (tacts) using behavioral skills training. We assessed child preference after the caregiver mastered the play skills, followed by a third assessment after the caregiver mastered the teaching skills. Finally, we evaluated generalization and maintenance of the four skills learned in-clinic to the home environment. Both caregivers successfully learned the four skills and were able to generalize and maintain their performance to their home. The children continued to play with the toys throughout the evaluation and acquired the mands and tacts in the clinic and home environments.
 
Considering Family Cultural Practices During Parent Training
(Service Delivery)
MARIE-HELENE KONRAD (Ambulatorium Sonnenschein ), Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract: Parents and caregivers are often responsible for carry-over procedures designed and implemented in clinical settings; therefore, parent training plays a crucial role in the success of behavioral-intervention outcomes. Many clinicians practice in a cross-cultural context with families that may have different values, traditions, habits, and spoken language. It is important for clinicians to be sensitive to the cultural practices of families in order to develop rapport and gain parent collaboration. Some considerations for behavior-analytic service delivery during parent training in a multi-cultural, diverse society are: (a) the importance of adapting clinical interventions carried-over by parents in a way that it is sensitive to differences in cultural practices; (b) the relevance of parent training procedures that are tailored to the family’s cultural background; (c) the need for translation resources provided by service-delivery agencies during parent training; and (d) the value of diversity and cultural preparedness of all behavioral-service providers. We will discuss some avenues to potentially address issues related to cross-cultural service delivery in clinical settings.
 
 
Paper Session #41
Neobehaviorism and Radical Behaviorism
Sunday, September 29, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C4
Area: PCH
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Christoffer K. Eilifsen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
 
Is Applied Behavior Analysis Hullian?
Domain: Theory
CHRISTOFFER K. EILIFSEN (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: In a debate on the use of internal states in behavior analysis, John C. Malone has proposed that the use of terms such as discriminative stimulus and reinforcement in the literature of applied behavior analysis is virtually identical to the use of similar terms by the neobehaviorist Clark L. Hull. As such, applied behavior analysis seem to be influenced as much by Hull as by B. F. Skinner. A contrasting, and likely more common view is that Skinner has wielded great influence on modern behavior analysis, including its applied domain, while Clark Hull’s take on behaviorism has virtually been completely replaced or submerged by cognitive psychology. The current paper will present characteristics of Hull’s work, contrast it with the work of B. F. Skinner, and discuss what happened to Hull’s behaviorism during and following the so-called cognitive revolution. Finally, the paper will look at methods used today in behavior analytic interventions for persons with autism and developmental disabilities in the context of the behaviorism of both Hull and Skinner.
 
An Important Chapter in the Story of Behaviorism
Domain: Theory
JAY MOORE (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Abstract: Classical S => R behaviorism developed in the first quarter of the 20th century. However, by early in the second quarter of the 20th century this form of behaviorism was judged to be inadequate. Traditional researchers and theorists then postulated a neobehaviorism to replace classical behaviorism. According to neobehaviorism, organismic variables intervened between stimulus and response. These organismic variables were typically assumed to be mental in character. They were then cast as theoretical terms, specifically as hypothetical constructs, to serve as proxies for the mental variables. An interpretation of operationism that admitted “surplus meaning” was claimed to make this whole approach scientifically respectable. As an aside, we note that this same interpretation continues in contemporary cognitive psychology. Skinner’s radical behaviorism challenges the traditional, neobehaviorist approach to theorizing in psychology by arguing that it is merely a methodological behaviorism because of its disguised commitment to ineffective mental variables. The heart of the radical behaviorist challenge begins with an operant, behavioral approach to verbal behavior rather than a mentalistic approach, regardless of whether that verbal behavior is concerned with a scientific or lay subject matter.
 
 
 
Symposium #42
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating Training Needs of Educators for Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavioral Interventions
Sunday, September 29, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C1
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Anuradha Dutt (Nanyang Technological University)
CE Instructor: Anuradha Dutt, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral interventions in the management of challenging behavior within the school systems, has gained empirical support over the last few decades. FBA is grounded in the discipline of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and it aims to understand the underlying function of behavior to inform behavioral intervention planning. In this symposium, three teams will discuss their process of training educational staff in various FBA and behavioral intervention technologies. The first two papers will address methods that help to guide steps that ABA consultants take when working in public schools. Specifically, Peterson et al. describe a tool for evaluating the classroom environment that can guide whether a consultant should focus on an individual student or on the effective teaching and classroom management. Bassingthwaite et al. will discuss a method of reviewing functional behavior assessments that can guide decisions made related to developing assessment skills in FBA. Finally, Staubitz et al. presents a training model that has helped to improve the assessment practices of educators that they have worked with in Tennessee public schools. Together, these papers will serve to provide guidance for creating systems change in public school settings through evaluation and training.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Behavior Interventions, Classroom Management, FBA, Teacher Training
Target Audience:

The event is aimed towards professionals and educators in the field.

 
Considerations of Baseline Classroom Conditions in Conducting Functional Behavior Assessments in School Settings
STEPHANIE M. PETERSON (Western Michigan University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University), Rebecca Renee Eldridge (Western Michigan University), Lloyd D. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Research has shown that environmental classroom variables affect academic performance and student behavior, and appropriate behavior is often related to the presence of effective teaching practices and classroom management. For behavior analysts consulting in elementary education, some referrals for assessment and treatment of individual student behavior can be resolved by helping teachers establish effective class-wide practices. For this reason, some researchers suggest that behavior analysts should assess baseline classroom conditions as part of a functional behavior assessment. Through a literature review on effective classroom practices, we identified four specific classroom variables that have large effects on both learning outcomes and student behavior; we suggest consultants consider these four variables in baseline classroom assessments: (1) rates of active student responding, (2) appropriateness of the curriculum, (3) feedback and reinforcement, and (4) effective instructions and transitions. In this paper, we will discuss each of these variables, describe how they can affect classroom behavior, and provide recommended targets from the research literature. We also provide a data-collection form for practitioners to use in their assessments of baseline classroom ecology, and for situations when these practices are not in place, we suggest potential resources for antecedent- and consequence-based interventions to decrease challenging classroom behavior.
 
Evaluating Rigor of Assessment in Functional Behavior Assessments to Guide Training Decisions
BRENDA J. BASSINGTHWAITE (The University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Tory J. Christensen (University of Iowa), Jayme Mews (University of Iowa), Julie St. John (University of Iowa), Brooke Natchev (University of Iowa)
Abstract: The Iowa Department of Education has been contracting with behavior analysts from the Center for Disabilities and Development at the University of Iowa to increase the skills of school-based behavior teams. One goal of the contract was to create school-based behavior teams who were able to perform experimental analyses and other assessments for planning behavioral interventions. Over the past 10 years, 19 behavior teams received training. Graduates of the training reported using the targeted skills frequently in practice, passed a knowledge exam, and demonstrated independent implementation of target skills on two occasions. Forty-five individuals met criteria for completing the training. These team members also devised training for other staff within their agency and school district to support advances in behavior assessment practice in the state. Since the beginning of the training initiative, the number of functional behavior assessments (FBAs) conducted in the state has grown from approximately 7,000 to 16,000. Trainers developed a rubric to evaluate the rigor of assessment in FBAs, and found it useful in highlighting areas for additional training needs. This presentation will focus on discussion of the rubric and the data that it provides.
 

Intensive Partnership for Behavior Intervention: Connecting Consultant Actions With Trainee and Target Student Outcomes

JOHN E. STAUBITZ (Vanderbilt University Medical Center, TRIAD), Michelle Mahoney Hopton (Vanderbilt University - Nashville, TN), Aislynn Kiser (Vanderbilt University Medical Center - TRIAD), Lauren A. Weaver (Vanderbilt University Medical Center TRIAD), Will Martin (Vanderbilt University Medical Center- TRIAD), Becky Shafer (Vanderbilt University Medical Center- TRIAD), Kathleen Simcoe (Vanderbilt University Medical Center- TRIAD), Lauren Shibley (Vanderbilt University Medical Center- TRIAD)
Abstract:

Few educators who serve students with disabilities report having adequate training to apply tertiary interventions for students who present with challenging behavior. One difficulty related to pre-service training and professional development on this topic are the idiosyncratic resources and needs at the tertiary level across students, educators, and schools. Funded by a contract with the Tennessee Department of Education, we train 12 school-based teams per year (50 educators annually) through our Intensive Partnership for Behavior Intervention (IPBI) program. Over the course of 5 to 9 months, BCBA consultants deliver training through workshops and online learning platforms, as well as through on-campus and remote assessment, coaching, and consultation sessions. Our BCBAs deliver a customized training program designed to improve each school-based team’s capacity to assess, decision-make, and deliver tertiary-level behavioral interventions. Throughout the program, the BCBA serves as a consultant to the team as they address the school-based team’s self-selected goals, and the needs of 1 to 3 targeted students per school. Data generated over the last two years allows for an analysis of team participant roles and goals, target student profiles, trainee implementation and student behavioral improvement as a product of the specific quantities and types of consultant effort invested.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #43
CE Offered: BACB

How Children Develop Naming and How This Development Sets Life’s Prognosis

Sunday, September 29, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, A1
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: R. Greer, Ph.D.
Chair: Peter R. Killeen (Arizona State University)
R. GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Greer is Professor of Psychology and Education at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Teachers College of Columbia University where he directs the MA and Ph.D. programs in education as behavior science. He has served on the editorial boards of 10 journals, published over 200 research and theoretical articles in more than 20 journals and is the author of 14 books in behavior analysis. Two of his most recent books are translated into Korean, Spanish, and Italian. Greer has sponsored 236 doctoral dissertations, taught over 2,000 teachers and psychologists, originated the CABASÒ model of schooling used in the USA, Ireland, Italy, England, founded the Fred S. Keller School, and established general education classroom models for elementary and preschool education in public education based entirely on behavior science (www.cabasschools.org). He has done basic and applied experimental research in schools with students, teachers, parents, and supervisors as well as pediatric patients in medical settings. He and his colleagues and students have identified controlling stimuli for verbal and social behavior developmental cusps and protocols to establish them when they are missing in children, as well as, a strategic science of teaching for general and special education. He is a recipient of the Fred S. Keller Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education from the American Psychology Association, Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, May 5 as the R. Douglas Day in Westchester County, International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis from the Association for Behavior Analysis International and the Jack Michael Award for Contributions to Verbal Behavior. He has served as guest professor and lecturer at universities in China, Spain, Wales, England, Japan, Korea, India, Ireland, Italy, USA, and Nigeria.
Abstract:

Bidirectional naming (BiN) developmental research has advanced our understanding about how children come to learn the names of things incidentally from experiences and how this leads to continuous expansion of new controlling stimuli. Interventions are available that allow the instantiation of BiN when children are missing the relevant stimulus control (i.e., children with autism, those raised in dis-enfranchised environments, and second language learners). Several types have been identified including the simultaneous acquisition of: actions, additional sounds, learning under exclusion conditions, and different effects of familiar and nonfamiliar novel visual stimuli. We are leaning how BiN in one language affects: bilingual children’s responses in each language, monolingual children and adult response to tests of BiN in an unfamiliar language, and the role of echoic precision in derived naming in an unfamiliar language. Moreover, the types of BiN that are part of children’s verbal developmental repertoire, at any given point in stimulus control development, determine what can be taught/not taught, what can be learned/not learned from observation, the types of learn unit presentations that are most effective, and the relations between BiN and other relational responding.

Target Audience:

Intermediate to advanced.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how bidirectional naming (BiN) results in incidental leaning of names of things as both listener (unidirectional naming) and speaker without direct instruction; (2) describe the different types of BiN (i.e., exclusion, actions, additional sounds, familiar and unfamiliar novel stimuli; (3) describe how bidirectional and unidirectional naming change the use of antecedents and consequences in instructional presentations (i.e., learn from antecedents or only consequences in direct or observed instruction); (4) differentiate programs of research in BiN as a cusp and programs of research focused on the role of BiN in derived intraverbal relation; (5) discuss how BiN leads to leaning multiple operants (i.e., speaker, reader, writer) and respondents from instruction in experience or from observation alone?
 
 
Paper Session #44
Topics in Autism
Sunday, September 29, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A3/A4
Area: AUT
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: Jessica R. Everett (Melmark New England)
 
A Review of Autism-Related Catatonia and Applied Behavior Analysis: Intervening Effectively
Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA R. EVERETT (Melmark New England), Barbara O'Malley Cannon (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Catatonia is marked by behavioral features involving disturbances in speech and movement (APA, 2013). Similarly, autism spectrum disorders are defined by behavioral deficits in social interaction and restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests (APA, 2013). Autism Related Catatonia is marked by increased slowness, difficulty initiating and completing actions, increased reliance on prompting, passivity, and an increase in repetitive and ritualistic behavior (Wing & Shah, 2000). Many individuals with autism related catatonia are noted to present with posturing, freezing, and to exhibit agitated movements. Current estimates suggest that autism related catatonia is present in 12-18% of individuals with an existing autism spectrum diagnosis (DeJong, Bunton, & Hare, 2014). Empirical literature supporting evidence-based treatment for autism related catatonia is limited and includes use of medication, electroconvulsive shock therapy, and behavioral treatments (DeJong et al., 2014). The current proposal describes the effective treatment of behavioral features of autism related catatonia using applied behavior analysis. Treatment includes the modification of a self-monitoring protocol (Everett & Dennis, 2009) that was implemented with a 19 year old male with autism related catatonia to reduce motor stereotypy. The protocol included a discrimination procedure to identify motor stereotypy, establishing stimulus control, self-recording, and shaping of the absence of behavior. A multiple-baseline design was used to assess the generalization of the treatment protocol across staff. Data demonstrates a reduction in motor stereotypy intervals within treatment sessions across multiple providers. Additional techniques used to reduce the behavioral features of autism related catatonia include shaping of movement using reinforcement; functional communication training, and compliance training. Instructional procedures and data will be presented for each technique that is reviewed. Issues in identifying and diagnosing autism related catatonia will be discussed in light of developing evidence-based and clinically appropriate intervention.
 
Using Essential for Living to Determine the Efficacy of Selection-Based Communication Systems Among Learners Without Alternative Methods of Speaking
Domain: Applied Research
EMILY BEAL WILKINSON (Victory Academy), Kristina Vera Montgomery (Victory Academy), Danielle Vernon (Victory Academy), Anna DeMots (Victory Academy), Katie Anderson (Victory Academy)
Abstract: Typically, behavior analysts assess the need for augmentative or alternative communication systems by analyzing a client’s vocal-verbal behavior, fine and gross motor skills, visual discrimination and selection skills, and behavioral barriers (Valentino, et al., 2018; Sundberg, 1993). However, little research exists that establishes criteria for specific device selection, once the need has been determined, and few guidelines are given for creating a decision protocol to abandon one device for another, potentially more appropriate system. The Essential for Living (EFL) curriculum and assessment is a “comprehensive functional, life skills curriculum, assessment, and skill-tracking instrument designed for learners with moderate to severe disabilities and limited skill repertoires” (McGreevy, Fry, & Cornwall, 2014, p. 1). The assessment initiates a vocal-verbal intake of the client and provides clear categories of vocal profiles and speaker behavior to assess the need for alternative or augmentative communication systems. We used the EFL to specifically categorize the verbal skills of 21 students, across three life-skills classrooms, and found that, of the 12 students who were eligible for or using devices, seven did not meet criteria for an effective method of speaking. Those students were then given novel communication devices, or their devices were traded for systems that lowered the response effort needed to request specific items, by initially eliminating the need for a two-hit response to access preferred items. The results, measured in session data and an EFL posttest, demonstrated increased acceptance, engagement, and accuracy with the novel systems.
 

CANCELED: The Effectiveness of an Intervention Program in Enhancing Sensory Processing and Reducing Stereotyped Behavior of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Study From Oman

Domain: Applied Research
MAHMOUD MOHAMED EMAM (Sultan Qaboos University, The Sultanate of Oman)
Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication skill, along with a restricted repetitive and stereotyped pattern of behavior. In addition to these core features of autism, researchers have reported that children and adolescents with ASD respond to sensory experiences differently from peers without disabilities. These sensory processing disorders are well documented in the basic science literature clinical literature and first-person accounts of living with autism. In fact, the initial appearance of these sensory processing findings often predates. The current study aimed to examine the effect of training children with ASD on body awareness exercises on reducing stereotyped behaviour and improving sensory processing. A two group experimental design was used to test the effectiveness of the training program. A sample of16 children aged 5 to 7 years were purposefully selected from the and were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The training program continued for three months. In addition children’s response was assessed using Short Sensory Profile, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Based on the use of nonparametric analyses of Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, findings showed that the training program was effective in reducing the stereotyped behavior and improved the sensory processing of the experimental group as compared to the control group.

 
The University of California at Los Angeles Young Autism Project: A Systematic Review of Replication Studies of the Model
Domain: Applied Research
MICHAEL NICOLOSI (Queen's University Belfast; Voce nel Silenzio Onlus.)
Abstract: University of California at Los Angeles - Young Autism Project (UCLA-YAP) provided one of the best known and most researched applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based intervention models for young children with autism. The present study is a systematic literature review of replication studies over more than 30 years to assess the impact that the UCLA-YAP model has on cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviour of children with autism. The data show that UCLA-YAP model can be highly beneficial for children with autism in both domains, while low-intensity ABA-based interventions and eclectic treatments have less or no impact. Findings suggest that highly structured and systematic ABA-based approaches, such as UCLA-YAP model, can be considered powerful interventions to address cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior development of children with autism. The study concludes that while more research is always welcome, the influence of the UCLA-YAP model on autism interventions is justified by over 30 years of evidence.
 
 
 
Symposium #46
Increasing Functional Life Skills and Health-Related Behaviors in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Sunday, September 29, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 6, A2
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorders may exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior such as functional living skills and health-related behaviors. A strong repertoire of adaptive behaviors may be closely linked to positive long-term outcomes (Carothers & Taylor, 2004) and quality of life (Kuhlthau et al., 2010) for children with autism spectrum disorders. Despite the success that behavior analysts have had teaching adaptive skills to this population, there are still many areas in which evidence-based teaching strategies are lacking. This symposium will focus on strategies aimed at increasing adaptive behaviors in children with autism. The first presenter used a progressive treatment model to teach children with autism to tolerate having their fingernails cut. The second presenter used activity schedules to promote sustained engagement in physical activity with three children with autism. The third presenter used video modeling and multiple exemplars to teach teenagers with autism to use a debit card in the natural environment. Taken together, these studies add to the growing pool of evidence-based strategies available to practitioners working with children with autism spectrum disorders on health behaviors and functional living skills.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Adaptive behavior, Health behavior, Life skills
 

Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders to Tolerate Fingernail Cutting: A Progressive Treatment Model

MEGHAN DESHAIS (Caldwell University), Lisa Guerrero (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brandon C. Perez (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Many individuals with developmental disabilities exhibit uncooperative behavior during hygiene routines with caregivers (e.g., Schumacher & Rapp, 2011). Uncooperative behavior may hinder or prevent caregivers from completing these routines and may put these individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Although a limited number of studies have assessed the function of uncooperative behavior during hygiene routines, it is assumed that these behaviors are maintained by escape from and avoidance of these routines. Despite the well-documented effectiveness of escape extinction as a treatment for escape maintained problem behavior, the nature of many hygiene routines could render escape extinction a dangerous and risky treatment option. A number of treatment studies have successfully treated uncooperative behavior during hygiene routines without escape extinction. We sought to extend this line of research by addressing a number of the limitations of previous studies. More specifically, the purpose of the current study was to: (1) replicate and extend the procedures described by Shabani and Fisher (2006) to routine nail cutting, (2) present a progressive treatment model, (3) provide a comprehensive account of caregiver training, and (4) measure and report behavioral indicators of participant distress.

 
Using Pictorial Activity Schedules to Increase Physical Activity in Children With Autism
M. ALICE SHILLINGSBURG (May Institute), Brittany Lee Bartlett (Marcus Autism Center), Taylor Thompson (Marcus Autism Center), Kristen K Criado (Marcus Autism Center & Emory University)
Abstract: Children with autism are 40% more likely to be overweight and obese compared to their typically developed peers. Although evidenced-based interventions for weight management exist for other pediatric populations, these approaches may require adaptation for children with ASD. A key component of existing interventions is to increase time in physical activity. Individuals with developmental disabilities often require specific interventions to remain on task or complete activities with extended durations. Activity Schedules have been shown to be effective with this population in increasing time on task. The current study extended the use of Activity Schedules to promote sustained engagement in physical activities with 3 children diagnosed with autism using a multiple baseline across participants design. All three participants showed increases in total time spent engaged in physical activities following intervention; however, engagement reduced to baseline levels when the Activity Schedule was removed. Thus, Activity Schedules appear to be an appropriate method of increasing physical activity in children with autism but more research on fading out the schedules is needed.
 

Teaching Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder a Generalized Repertoire of Using a Debit Card

EILEEN MARY MILATA (Caldwell University), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate deficits in performing generalized responses that occur in natural environments and vary in stimulus conditions. Previous research has discussed the importance of teaching adaptive skills to adolescents with ASD that generalize to the natural environment to increase independence throughout adulthood. To address such deficits, Horner and colleagues (1982) recommended using general-case analysis strategies to identify the full range of stimulus variations and required responses; then creating multiple teaching exemplars that facilitate for generalization of the target skill. To date, general-case analysis and multiple exemplar training have not been used to teach individuals with ASD to use a chip debit card. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to contribute to the general-case analysis literature while addressing limitations of previous studies that did not implement generalization strategies to teach adolescents with ASD adaptive skills. A multiple-probe design was used to demonstrate skill acquisition across teaching and generalization probe exemplars for three adolescents with ASD. Pre- and posttest probes were conducted at stores in the natural environment to assess generalized responding. Results suggest that all participants acquired the target skill following video modeling and multiple exemplar training, and demonstrated maintenance during a four-week posttest probe.

 
 
Symposium #47
CE Offered: BACB
Considerations for Conducting Functional Behavior Assessments: Recent Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment in the Treatment of Challenging Behavior
Sunday, September 29, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C2
Area: CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Bethany P. Contreras Young(Middle Tennessee State University )
CE Instructor: Bethany P. Contreras Young, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Best practice in the treatment of problem behavior is for the clinician to begin the process with a functional behavior assessment (FBA) to identify possible variables that are contributing to and maintaining the problem behavior. In this symposium, we will present recent research regarding the use of FBA in the treatment of problem behavior. Stefania Dögg Johannesdottir will discuss an analysis of the agreement between mothers and their children on responses to FBA interviews. Bethany Contreras will present the results of systematic literature review that compared the outcomes for descriptive assessments and experimental functional analyses. Anna-Lind Petursdottir will end the symposium by presenting data from an application of function-based behavior support plans to improving challenging and appropriate behavior of six children in a typical pre-school setting. Each presentation will include a discussion of the implications of the data and considerations for enhancing the success of FBA in the treatment of problem behavior.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): behavior assessment, functional assessment, problem behavior
Target Audience:

Clinicians who use functional behavior assessments.

Learning Objectives: 1.) Attendees will learn about administering functional behavior assessment questionnaires to both the target individual and caregivers, and how this information can be used in the context of treating problem behaviors. 2.) Attendees will learn about the process of using functional behavior assessment to develop function based treatments, and how this process is implemented in a typical preschool setting. 3.) Attendees will learn about the distinctions between descriptive assessments and functional analyses, and considerations regarding the accuracy of each type of assessment for identifying functions of problem behavior.
 

Analysis of Child and Mother Agreement on the Influencing Factors and Function of Children’s Problem Behavior

(Applied Research)
Stefanía Dögg Jóhannesdóttir (Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Department of the National University Hospital of Iceland), ANNA-LIND PETURSDOTTIR (University of Iceland)
Abstract:

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) interviews are convenient tools for discussing and identifying influencing factors of behavior problems. Findings from FBAs serve as an important foundation for effective interventions to reduce challenging behaviors of children with severe emotional and behavioral difficulties. Including these children as informants in the process can have important benefits for the FBA and intervention process. The present study compared information gathered from children with persistent behavior problems and their mothers. Participants were six patients at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Department of the National University Hospital of Iceland, (4 male and 2 female) with severe emotional and behavioral problems, aged 7 to 13 years, and their mothers. Results showed high agreement between the children and their mothers regarding the definition of target behavior, antecedents and consequences of problem behavior, medium agreement on function of the problem behavior and low agreement on setting events. Participants found the interview to be useful for better understanding the cause and function of the problem behavior. Findings indicate the importance of exploring different views of children and parents of behavior problems and their influencing factors.

 
Use of Descriptive Assessment and Correspondence to Functional Analysis: A Systematic Review
(Theory)
BETHANY P. CONTRERAS YOUNG (Middle Tennessee State University ), Savannah Tate (University of Missouri Thompson Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Researchers and clinicians use assessment to identify the function of problem behavior in an effort to develop effective treatments. Two types of direct assessment are often used to identify function of problem behavior: descriptive assessment (DA) and functional analysis (FA). Some researchers have suggested that DA is not as accurate as FA (Thompson & Iwata, 2007), yet many practitioners continue to use DA as a primary method for identifying variables maintaining problem behavior (Roscoe et al., 2015). We are conducting a systematic literature review to identify the use of DA and the correspondence between results of DA and FA. We conducted a thorough search of the existing literature and included any articles that reported the methods and results of a DA for problem behavior. For articles that included both a DA and FA, we calculated agreement in function between the two assessments per participant. Data analysis is still underway, but thus far we have found that the results of DA corresponded with results of FA in 59% of cases. In 22% of cases, results of DA yielded completely different results than FA. We will conduct additional analyses, including Cohen’s Kappa, to further analyze the correspondence between DA and FA.
 

Function-Based Behavior Support to Improve Preschoolers´ Engagement, Behavior, and Well-Being

(Service Delivery)
ANNA-LIND PETURSDOTTIR (University of Iceland), Dadey Sigthorsdottir (University of Iceland), Erla Sveinbjornsdottir (University of Iceland )
Abstract:

Effective early intervention is crucial to reduce persistent behavior problems of preschoolers and improve their engagment and well-being. This study evaluated the effects of function-based behavior support plans (BSPs) on the long-lasting problem behavior and lack of engagement of five children in preschool activities. Participants were five boys, aged three to six years, in public preschools in the capital region of Iceland. One participant had been diagnosed with speech impediment and one was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Single-subject multiple baseline designs across participants showed that function-based BSPs reduced the frequency of disruptive behavior (on average by 95,3%) and increased active participation (on average by 175%). Improvements in behavior and engagement were maintained when token systems were faded. Teacher ratings of participants behavior on the Pre-School Behavior Checklist improved significantly. Also, participants´ self-assessment of their well-being showed that they were feeling much better in different activities in preschool. Semi-structured interviews conducted with teachers and parents revealed high social validity of the procedures. Findings support the effectiveness of function-based behavior support to reduce persistent behavior problems of preschoolers and improve their school adjustment and well-being.

 
 
Paper Session #48
Working With Teachers to Help Students
Sunday, September 29, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C1
Area: EDC
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: Shannon Urquhart (Washoe County School District)
 

Using Applied Behavior Analysis Strategies for Inclusion Opportunities: Being Strategic Brings Success for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Domain: Service Delivery
SHANNON URQUHART (Washoe County School District)
Abstract:

This session will examine typical school schedules and discuss the plethora of inclusionary opportunities available to students with Autism Spectrum Disorders of various functioning levels. The planning process and necessary steps to take to ensure success will be discussed. Areas of the Individual Education Plan (IEP) that address inclusionary time, and possible language will be presented. The importance of inclusion for school-aged people with Autism Spectrum Disorders cannot be overstated! People are an adult in the social world longer than they are a student. Preparation for the outside world is imperative and we need to get better transitioning. Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Support is the foundation I work from. We will look at creative scheduling techniques for maximum appropriate inclusion. Such an eclectic schedule can be accomplished with teamwork and collaboration with others. Strategies and examples of forward and backward chaining, task analysis, environment exposure, sensory regulation, social stories, and video modeling will be presented. Staff and student safety "outside" the classroom will be addressed. Discussion of opportunities for peer exemplars is all around with proper proactive "training" and procedures. Data driven planning with the social and academic team members is crucial for success. These are all topics that will be open for discussion, examples given, and video of particular sections will be presented during this session. These programs can provide students with Autism Spectrum Disorders increased, productive, and effective peer interactions.

 
Improving Teachers' Performance Through an Interdependent Group Contingency
Domain: Applied Research
AISLING COLLINS (Jigsaw CABASⓇ School)
Abstract: Group contingencies have proven efficacy in improving the behaviour of students with disabilities, though few applications exist to teachers of this population. This research employed an alternating treatments design to investigate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency for increasing the number of instructional trials presented, the percentage of priority and session-specific programmes run, and the variety of other programmes run. Five teachers in a Comprehensive Application of Behaviour Analysis to Schooling? school for children on the autism spectrum participated. There were three alternated conditions, which were mystery, low, and high preference stimuli. Participants received an individual reinforcer contingent on the group meeting their programmes target and an additional group prize if sufficient instructional trials were run too. The results for the former were undifferentiated across conditions, though showed a significant improvement from baseline. The data for instructional trials were differentiated across conditions, though results are limited in consideration of baseline trends and confounding variables. These results suggest that an interdependent group contingency is an effective means of improving teaching practices and that the degree of preference for stimuli may be less relevant compared to the existence of a contingency itself and potential for avoiding social disapproval from peers.
 
 
 
Symposium #49
CE Offered: BACB
OBM in Practice: Using Performance Metrics to Improve Organizational Performance
Sunday, September 29, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 2, C3
Area: OBM/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Helena L. Maguire (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Helena L. Maguire, M.S.
Abstract:

As behavior analysts, working in applied service settings, having the ability to measure efficacy and analyze results is the cornerstone of all behavior analytic interventions. In an effort to improve organizational performance across multiple domain areas of concern to staff and consumers, it is essential to identify, measure and analyze the essential measures of healthy organization performance. Areas of focus for evaluating organizational performance include consumer progress on goals, staff performance management data relative to reduction of work related injuries, reduction in use of physical restraints, and accurate implementation of clinical protocols. Ensuring achieving transparency with an organizations’ board of directors can be achieved by using performance metrics to indicate organizational health. The purpose of the present symposium is to share findings from three service domain areas that have been measured and evaluated for successful outcomes in the delivery of critical services and interventions to consumers and staff. Each presentation will cover measures used and current performance data that demonstrate overall organizational success and performances.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): behavioral safety, organizational health, performance metrics;
Target Audience:

Intermediate learners BCBA's in applied settings who direct or develop service models

Learning Objectives: N/A
 
Why Using Performance Metrics Should Matter to Your Organizational Health
RITA M. GARDNER (Melmark New England)
Abstract: As behavior analysts, working in applied service settings, having the ability to measure efficacy and analyze results is the cornerstone of all behavior analytic interventions. In an effort to improve organizational performance across multiple domain areas of concern to staff and consumers, it is essential to identify, measure and analyze the essential measures of healthy organization performance. Areas of focus for evaluating organizational performance include consumer progress on goals, staff performance management data relative to reduction of work related injuries, reduction in use of physical restraints, and accurate implementation of clinical protocols. Ensuring achieving transparency with an organizations’ board of directors can be achieved by using performance metrics to indicate organizational health. This presentation will focus on some key organizational performance indicators that were identified for use in a human service agency to assist board of directors in evaluating efficacy of services and overall organizational health. This presentation will identify those key measures and demonstrate successful organizational performance over a 2 year period.
 

Ensuring Behavioral Safety in Organizations through Performance Metrics Review and Management

Frank Bird (Melmark New England), JILL HARPER (Melmark New England)
Abstract:

This presentation will present data relative to behavioral safety concerns in the areas of application of restraint and staff injuries resulting in workman’s compensation claims and lost work time. Data will demonstrate a successful decrease in restraints and decrease in workman’s compensation claims and lost work time through the application of performance measures, evaluation and intervention strategies to produce safe work behaviors.

 

Achieving Goals in the Delivery of Behavior Analytical Services: Why Staff Performance Management Systems Promote Success for Consumers

HELENA L. MAGUIRE (Melmark New England)
Abstract:

This presentation will highlight specific staff performance management systems essential to producing success with consumer’s making progress on goals and benefitting from the clinical interventions identified as needed for effective treatment. Data presented will show the specific performance management procedures used with staff. This data will show successfully staff performance on clinical protocols, identify training and supervision systems essential for staff success and link staff performances to consumer successes in the meeting of goals.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #50
CE Offered: BACB

The Relevance of Metaphysics to Behavior Analysis

Sunday, September 29, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, A1
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Julian Leslie, Ph.D.
Chair: Per Holth (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
JULIAN LESLIE (Ulster University)

Julian Leslie has been publishing in psychology, behaviour analysis and related fields since 1972, and now has more than 150 publications. He obtained his doctorate from Oxford University in 1974 since when he has been in academic posts in Northern Ireland. he published textbooks in 1979, 1996, 2000, 2002 (the 1996 volume was reprinted until 2008 and remains in print, and the 2002 text also remains in print). As well as teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses, he has successfully supervised 48 students who have obtained PhDs in fields including, experimental analysis of behaviour, applied behaviour analysis, psychopharmacology, behavioural neuroscience, experimental psychology, applied psychology. Three recent PhDs are concerned with behavioural strategies to address environmental issues. In 1977 he was co-founder of the group, Behaviour Analysis in Ireland which became a chapter of ABAI. In 2004, the group became the Division of Behaviour Analysis of the Psychological Society of Ireland, and he is currently the Division chair. He organised the Third European Meeting for the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour in Dublin, Ireland 1999, and has co-organised 13 annual conferences of the Division of Behaviour Analysis from 2007 to 2019. He was a keynote speaker at the European Association for Behaviour Analysis in Milan in 2006, and in Crete, Greece in 2010, and was a keynote speaker on behavioural strategies to address environmental issues at the Brazilian Association for Behaviour Analysis, Salvador 2011. From 1984 to 1994 he was head of the Ulster University Psychology Department, and from 2008 to 2015 was head of the Research Graduate School, Faculty of Life & Health Sciences, Ulster University. In 2013, he was a member of an international committee reviewing research in the Systems Biology Centre, University of Skovde, Sweden. In 2014, he was awarded a Doctorate of Science by Ulster University for career research on the experimental analysis of behaviour. From 2014 to 2019, he has given a series of papers on behavioural accounts of consciousness and the metaphysics of behaviour analysis. In 2018, he was made a Fellow of the Association of Behavior Analysis international, and was an invited speaker at the Sixth Sarasota Symposium on Behavior Analysis, an invited international speaker at the ABAI Convention, and an invited speaker at the 30th International Conference of the Spanish Society for Comparative Psychology.

Abstract:

Behavior analysis takes a natural science approach to human and animal behavior. Some basic tenets are widely agreed in the field but, arguably, some other assumptions are implicit in our approach and, if unexamined, may impair progress. Some of these are in the realm of metaphysics, that which is known a priori, and what can be deduced from what is so known. There is a strong Western philosophical tradition of naturalism and realism since the time of David Hume and these principles are embedded in the metaphysics of science and thus have been imported into behavior analysis. However, 20th-century American philosopher, Rorty suggests that these are not necessary truths but conventions of that philosophical tradition. Alternatively, we can adopt metaphysical assumptions that do not entail the familiar problems of dualism. Additionally, we have been constrained by some assumptions made by Skinner about the operant conditioning process which again are not necessary and may need to be discarded. Revising our metaphysical and theoretical assumptions, while retaining core principles which define behavior analysis, may enable us not only to resolve debates about private events, but also to provide accounts of interesting findings on animal cognition which otherwise pose problems for behavior analysis.

Target Audience:

All those interested in the conceptual basis of behavior analysis and other sciences.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss how metaphysics relates to science; (2) discuss the usually unstated metaphysics of behaviour analysis; (3) reflect on how some of Skinner’s presuppositions are usually unchallenged; (4) consider whether some of behaviour analysis’s long-standing problems may be resolved by considering metaphysics.
 
 
Noteworthy Activity #50A
Coffee Break
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:00 PM–5:30 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, M1

Join us for coffee and pastries.

 
 
Poster Session #52
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
1. Habitual Coffee Drinkers Receive Strong Conditioned Responses From Caffeine-Related Stimuli
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MINA FUKUDA (Doshisha University), Kenjiro Aoyama (Doshisha University)
Abstract: In the present study, an experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the smell and sight of coffee on coffee drinkers with high and low consumption. Decaffeinated coffee can induce a shortened simple reaction time effect, and if classical conditioning causes this effect, it can be predicted that the degree of the effect of the caffeine-related stimuli would depend on the degree of acquisition of classical conditioning. That is, in high-consumption coffee drinkers, the degree of acquisition would be high. Sixty-six undergraduate students were randomly allocated to either a coffee or water presentation group and they completed a simple reaction time task. In the analysis, participants were divided into two groups (high and low) based on the degree of coffee consumption. In the results for the reaction time and subjective arousal, the coffee consumption effect was not detected when the degree of consumption was categorically divided into two groups. However, when the degree of consumption was examined continuously, it was found that the higher the consumption, the stronger the caffeine-like effect (shortened reaction time) in the coffee-presentation group. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that classical conditioning causes the effect of caffeine-related stimuli.
 
2. Behavioral Treatment of Stereotypy in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparative Analysis
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Vicki Spector (Claremont Graduate University), SABINE SCOTT (Pomona College), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Jenna Gilder (Claremont Graduate University), Benjamin R. Thomas (Claremont Graduate University), Caitlyn Gumaer (Claremont Graduate University), Alanna Dantona (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract: Stereotypy is one of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition). The current study used a multiple baseline design across participants with a multi-element design to compare the two most highly effective interventions for stereotypy, matched stimulation (MS) and response interruption and redirection (RIRD). Results showed that for five of the six participants, stereotypy decreased from baseline levels as a function of the MS intervention, and MS was a more effective intervention than RIRD for all but one participant. Evidence of generalization across setting and maintenance of treatment effects was limited. The importance of conducting comparative analyses and the implications of this study in an applied setting are discussed.
 
3. Social Discounting and Reciprocity: A Comparison of Monetary Discounting and Allocation Tasks
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NATALIE BUDDIGA (University of Nevada, Reno), Samantha Hemphill (University of Nevada, Reno), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Discount functions indicate how the value of a reward decreases with changes in some other variable. In the case of probability discounting, value decreases with decreases in the probability of receiving the reward. Whereas with social discounting, value decreases with increases in the social distance of the person receiving that reward. A weak correlation has been found between probability and social discounting – potentially due to how increases in social distance track decreases in the probability of reciprocation (from that socially distant individual). The current study aimed to better explore this relationship through comparing performance on three questionnaires: standard social and probability discounting questionnaires and a novel reciprocal social discounting questionnaire. The reciprocal social discounting questionnaire asks the participant to infer what monetary amounts they believe an individual at a particular social distance would forgo for them, the participant (e.g. “Which would Person 1 prefer: $75 for themselves OR $75 for you?). Results from 35 participants indicate a closer correspondence between reciprocal and standard social discounting than either other pair of discounting questionnaires. These results inform a potential relationship between measures of perceived reciprocation and an individual’s social discount rate.
 
4. Differential Reinforcement of Relational Discriminative Behavior in Pigeons Using Stimuli Pairs Differing Sizes and Colors
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NAOYA KUBO (Komazawa University)
Abstract: This study investigated whether the performance of pigeons can simultaneously be differentiated into size and color-based relative discriminative behavior. During training in conditional discrimination tasks, three pairs of green crosses, ones of orange stars, and ones of blue clouds were presented. Each of the three pairs differed in size and color strength. Responses to larger and darker (or lighter) stimuli than other stimuli (3-4+, 3-5+, 4-5+) were reinforced under one conditional stimulus, and responses to smaller and lighter (or darker) stimuli than other stimuli (3+4-, 3+5-, 4+5-) were reinforced under other conditional stimulus (the digits denote level of stimulus size and color strength). After training, tests were conducted to examine whether size and color relational discrimination were established. Each test presented test pairs (1/2, 1/3, 2/3, 5/6, 6/7, 5/7) of the crosses, the stars, and the clouds. The size test pairs only differed in stimulus size, the color test pairs only differed in color strength. The test showed that the birds responded to stimuli based on the similarity of size or color strength of S+ stimulus during the training. These results suggested that stimulus control by size and color was established, but it was difficult to establish pigeons’ relational discrimination.
 
5. Effects of Amount of Reward on the Rate of Cognitive and Physical Effort Discounting
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAWEL OSTASZEWSKI (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities), Wojciech Bialaszek (Faculty of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities)
Abstract: The majority of research on discounting has focused on delay and probability, with little systematic research on the effect of amount of reward on the rate of effort (cognitive and physical) discounting. The current work consisted of two studies, in each of which reward was varied across five amounts: 30, 270, 2,500, 22,000, and 200,000 PLN (new Polish zlotys). For the Cognitive Effort discounting task (N=89), participants had to imagine crossing out the digits 6 and 9 on 5, 30, 90, and 200 pages, each containing 20 rows of random numbers. For the Physical Effort discounting task (N=88), participants had to imagine squeezing a hand grip device 25, 100, 400, and 1,000 times. The data were analyzed at the molecular (indifference points) and molar (Area under the Curve) levels. There were significant amount effects for both discounting tasks: Cognitive Effort (F(2;204)=240.396; p<.001; ?2=.734); Physical Effort (F(2;190)=35.083; p<.001; ?2= .295). For the Cognitive Effort task, degree of discounting decreased monotonically with amount, whereas for the Physical Effort task, degree of discounting leveled off at the three largest payoff amounts.
 
6. Local Analysis of the Effects of Changeover Delay on Choice in Concurrent Variable Interval Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TAKAYUKI TANNO (Meisei University), Tomotaka Orihara (Meisei University)
Abstract: The local effects of changeover delay (COD) and reinforcer presentations on choice performance were examined. Food-deprived eight pigeons were exposed to a multiple (dependent-type) concurrent variable interval (VI) VI schedules of reinforcement. The overall VI value was fixed at 120-s and relative reinforcers to one alternative were changed to 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 for each component. The COD value was 0-s in one condition and 2-s for another condition, each of which lasted for 30 sessions. The results showed (1) the matching law between relative reinforcers and relative responses, (2) higher local response rates and lower changeover rates during COD, and (3) preference pulse for the just reinforced alternative. These results indicate the discriminative properties of changeovers and reinforcer presentations on choice behavior (Cowie & Davison, 2016). A combined model of this discriminative property with the shaping property of reinforcement (i.e., the copyist model, Tanno & Silberberg, 2012) was discussed.
 
7.

Equivalence and Momentum: Evaluating Whether Persistence-Enhancing Effects of Reinforcement can be Transferred to Novel Stimuli

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Joseph Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Courtney Colton (Vanderbilt University), CASSANDRA STANDISH (Appalachian State University)
Abstract:

Stimulus equivalence is a special case of generalization in which stimuli acquire novel functions due to histories of reinforcement which have indirectly related them to other, topographically distinct, stimuli. Although work on this topic has typically focused on transfers of operant functions (e.g., conditional discriminations), some research demonstrated that Pavlovian (stimulus-stimulus) functions can also be transferred to novel stimuli through the same process (e.g., skin conductance can be elicited by stimuli which participate in frames of equivalence with shock). However, little is known about the parameters across which the transfer of Pavlovian functions is possible. For example, Behavioral-Momentum Theory (BMT) explains that context-specific operant response persistence is the product of a Pavlovian conditioning process involving reinforcement but it is unclear whether this effect can be transferred to novel stimuli via stimulus equivalence. Three college students completed a three-part experiment to explore this possibility. All demonstrated equivalence during Experiment 1. One of three demonstrated patterns of persistence consistent with BMT during Experiment 2. Persistence did not transfer to novel stimuli during extinction in Experiment 3 (IOA and fidelity scores fell above acceptable ranges for all experiments). These results suggest equivalence may not always facilitate the transfer of all stimulus functions.

 
8. Conflicting Relations Paradigm: The Effects of A Stimulus Equivalence-Based Approach to Changing Bias
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Robert Henery (University of Minnesota), JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: The stimulus equivalence paradigm has been used in a small number of studies to examine attitudes and responding towards socially relevant stimuli. The present study was a systemic replication of the training and testing protocol from Mizael, de Almeida, Silveira, & de Rose (2016) with a novel study population that included 8 East African and 7 Native American elementary age children. The school that these children attended reported frequent and hostile interactions between these groups of students. All 15 children learned relations during matching tasks demonstrated symmetry and transitivity been outgroup faces and positive stimuli. Fourteen of the 15 children demonstrated equivalence class formation, successfully replicating the results of the Mizael et al. (2016) study. All 15 children also completed an array of stereotyping and prejudice measures before and after delayed match-to-sample training (DMTS) and testing to detect any generalization of the DMTS training effects beyond the experimental context. Participant performance on those measures suggested little, if any, generalization of training effects. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of the stimulus equivalence paradigm for addressing the challenges related to stereotyping and prejudice.
 
9. Detection of Dangerous Points and Behavioral Modification From Environmental Change by Behavior Analysis Procedure Under the Safeguarding Supportive Systemat a Tunnel Construction Site
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
RIEKO HOJO (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan), Kyoko Hamajima (National Institution of Occupational Safety and Helath, Japan), Shigeo Umezaki (National Institution of Occupational Safety and Helath, Japan), Koichi Ono (Komazawa University), Shoken Shimizu (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan)
Abstract: Accidents at tunnel construction sites in Japan rapidly decreased because of development of construction technology and/or promotion of machinery construction. However, it elicits fatal result if once accident occurs because safety at many tunnel work-sites is still dependent on workers attentiveness. It is important to analyze behavior pattern of workers and to apply some intervention procedure for increasing and decreasing safety and unsafe behavior, respectively. Though our final goal is effective introduction of the Safeguarding Supportive System which was established in our project to tunnel construction site, we videotaped behavior of tunnel worker as a pilot study. We detected dangerous points of tunnel site from the videotape, which were intersection points of workers and/or machines. Then intervention trial, which changed environment using a procedure of behavioral analysis, was applied to tunnel construction site for decreasing dangerous intersections. Results in the present study suggested that the intervention procedure effectively affected behavior change of workers. Also, results showed that it was sometimes possible to change behavior by change of environment, not only direct approach. We concluded that behavioral analysis procedure might be one of the most effective measure to contribute to safety in tunnel construction sites.
 
10.

Discounting of Reward Value by Dedicated Effort

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HIROKO SUGIWAKA (Doshisha University), Hiroto Okouchi (Osaka Kyoiku University)
Abstract:

Effort discounting refers to the decrease in subjective value of a reward as a function of effort for the reward. In previous experiments of effort discounting, the reward recipients were exclusively the participants themselves. Sometimes, however, people may dedicate more effort not for themselves, but for someone else, for instance, significant others. In the present experiment, discounting of hyperbolic monetary reward by a job, handing out various number of advertising packs of tissues, was measured for each of 23 undergraduates when the recipient was the first dearest person (the #1 condition), the 20th dearest person (the #20 condition), a mere acquaintance (the #100 condition), or her/himself (the self-reward condition). Effort discounting rates for all four conditions were well described by hyperbolic functions (see Figure attached). The more social distance decreased, the shallower the effort discounting was. Interestingly, the steepness of effort discounting in the #1 condition was not significantly different from that in the self-reward condition, suggesting that people make effort for their intimates as they do for themselves.

 
11. Does Baseline Reinforcement History Mediate Sequence and Magnitude of Resurgence During Extinction? A Translational Investigation
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
CASSANDRA STANDISH (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Holly G Pericozzi (Vanderbilt University ), Eugenia Perry (Vanderbilt University )
Abstract: Resurgence occurs when a previously reinforced behavior reemerges after an alternative behavior is placed on extinction. Resurgence of problem behavior may occur if an effective treatment is not implemented with fidelity. Recent research shows that incorporating multiple-mand instruction into a serial training format can produce both a recency effect and a primacy effect. The recency effect was demonstrated in a translation study, whereas the primacy effect was demonstrated with socially significant behaviors via applied research. One reason for this discrepancy might be a difference in reinforcement exposure during baseline sessions. In this translational study, we tested whether differential exposure to baseline schedules of reinforcement could mediate within-subject primacy and recency effects via two-component multiple schedules of reinforcement across three participants. Our first participant demonstrated a recency effect in both conditions. However, response persistence and magnitudes were considerably greater in the long-baseline condition, relative to the short-baseline condition. This outcome appears to align more with predictions made by Behavioral-Momentum Theory than those made by a Resurgence-as-Choice interpretation. Interobserver agreement and procedural fidelity scores fell within acceptable ranges for all participants across all phases of this study.
 
12. Activity-Based Anorexia Effects on Food Motivation as Measured by a Progressive Ratio Schedule
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Ana de Paz (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), Pedro Vidal (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), RICARDO PELLON (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia)
Abstract: Restricted food to a single period a day and free access to a running wheel are key conditions for developing activity-based anorexia (ABA) in laboratory rats, characterized by a progressive lost in weight and an eventual reduction in food intake. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon suggests that activity acquires reinforcing properties that interfere with food intake by reducing it. Effects of ABA on the reinforcing value of food were assessed in forty female Wistar rats through a progressive ratio schedule and the parameters derived from Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement models. Rats were assigned to an ABA group or one of the four following controls: same food exposition but without access to the running wheel (FC), yoked in terms of weight by food restriction (WC), running without diet (AC), “ad libitum” without running (AL). Results do not seem to indicate a decrease in the effectiveness of food as a reinforcer during ABA development.
 
13. Remembering of Relatives in a Man With Alzheimer´s Disease With the use of Conditional Discrimination Training
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ANETTE BROGÅRD ANTONSEN (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: In this study participated a 72-year-old man with Alzheimer´s disease and a Mini Mental Status (MMS) score of 27. The participant was presented for conditional discrimination procedures in which the stimuli were pictures of close family members, their names and family relationships. The purpose of the study was to identify stimulus control issues related to remembering his relatives and reestablish stimulus control. The results showed how the participant did systematical incorrect responding to some of the relatives stimuli. In addition, did the results show how systematical changes of the conditional discrimination procedure reestablished correct stimulus control.
 
14. Ability of the Surrogate Conditioned Motivating Operation to Influence Eating Behavior in Pigeons
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRISTA MCDIFFETT (California State University, Stanislaus), Leilani McCalley (California State University, Stanislaus), Eric Gorenflo (California State University, Stanislaus), Shannon Audrain Bianchi (California State University, Stanislaus), William F. Potter (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract: Successful demonstrations of the surrogate conditioned motivating operation (S-CMO) have been elusive in psychological literature throughout the years. Of the previous studies that have demonstrated the presence of an S-CMO, replications of these studies have often failed to find the same results. The present study is the third in a series of three experiments, the first of which successfully demonstrated an S-CMO effect, the second of which showed no difference in eating behavior, and the last of which is currently being conducted. After pairing an external stimulus package with increasing levels of deprivation, testing was conducted to determine if eating behavior was influenced by the stimulus package. Results of the first experiment supported the presence of an S-CMO, while results of the second experiment showed no difference in eating behavior. The final experiment is being conducted as a close replication of the initial experiment, in an attempt to determine relevant features that contributed to the difference in results between the first two experiments. This series of experiments hopes to identify the important factors that result in establishing an S-CMO effect.
 
15. See-Do Correspondence in a Pigeon
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
VIRGINIA JEAN MILLESON (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Abstract: This study investigated stimulus control of one pigeon’s behavior by that of another pigeon. Three responses of the model pigeon first were trained - stand on a platform, key peck, and nudge a box - in the presence of three different light colors. A second, observer, pigeon was taught, in an adjacent chamber, the same three responses, but not in the presence of the lights. When both pigeons respond appropriately, they will be put in their respective chambers, separated by clear plastic, with the lights visible only to the model. Both pigeons can receive a reinforcer for the response signaled to the model pigeon. The question is whether the model’s behavior would serve as discriminative stimulus for the observer’s response. Both pigeons are trained on the three responses; this link shows one such response by both pigeons: https://vimeo.com/315185852 and this link shows the model’s responses 65% under light control: https://www.dropbox.com/s/9sobi5jqa7yee06/M2U00113.MPG?dl=0 When training is complete, with the model’s behavior >90% under the control of the lights, as shown in the supporting video. We will have data on the observational learning tests by the end of March.
 
16.

Examining the “Work Ethic Effect” in Pigeons: Using Reinforcement Schedules Manipulating Distance Between Operanda

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MASANORI KONO (Meisei University; Teikyo University)
Abstract:

Animals choose stimuli that precede preferred events to those that precede less preferred events. In contrast, stimuli that follow less preferred events are more preferable to those that follow more preferred events. The “work ethic effect” has been investigated in many studies, but some have failed to replicate it. It is possible that an important factor of the effect is to expose subjects to a strenuous schedule that results in energy expenditure. This study employed a reinforcement schedule in which the distance between operanda was manipulated as a response effort (Kono, The Psychological Record, in printing). In training, a simple simultaneous discrimination followed shorter response distance in an initial stimulus and a different simple simultaneous discrimination followed long response distance in the initial stimulus. During test trials, pigeons exhibited preference for stimuli that followed low effort schedules. The results were hence contrary to the predictions based on the work ethic effect.

 
 
 
Poster Session #53
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
17.

On Operant Selection of Verbal Behavior and Its Relation to Natural Selection

Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
CARSTA SIMON (University of Agder, Norway)
Abstract:

Speech is a natural event that comes down to sounds that affect the behavior of conspecifics. How may Darwinian selection aid our understanding of the selection of behavior during ontogeny? To identify what constitutes ontologically and epistemologically sound units of analysis, I investigate verbal behavior in conversations through a selectionist lens. The poster explores how Baum’s (2013, 2016) multi-scale approach may be applied to verbal behavior. This implies treating larger verbal episodes as wholes, induced by a context and correlating with consequences. Thus, the poster, first, debates theoretical reasons to place verbal behavior in an evolutionary framework by viewing it as shaped by its consequences, through a person’s lifetime and through interactions with the environment across many generations of natural selection. Second, the poster exemplifies experimental procedures treating verbal behavior as allocation of time.

 
18. Aversive Control: Do We Need More research?
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
SIGRIDUR SOFFIA SIGURJONSDOTTIR (Oslo Metropolitan University )
Abstract: In behavior analysis, positive reinforcement is usually considered most effective to influence behavior (Daniels & Bailey, 2014). Furthermore, negative reinforcement, and positive/negative punishment are labeled as aversive and warned against. However, there are some that criticize this “aversive control phobia” that results in small amount of research on aversive control as well as erroneous interpretations of available research (Malott, 2001). In addition, some claim that a distinction between positive and negative reinforcement is unnecessary, and should be abandoned (Michael, 1975/2004: Baron and Galizio, 2005). This poster aims at a) sparking discussions on aversive control and, b) suggests a research approach to contribute to its literature. The research is inspired by Magoon, Critchfield, Merrill, Newland, and Schneider (2017) work on concurrent schedules of positive and negative reinforcement. Their results suggested that they are functionally independent processes. Here it will be argued that their approach should be elaborated and more data gathered. The focuses is on the rationale of the experiments, and how it relates to the conceptual discussions on reinforcement and punishment.
 
 
 
Poster Session #54
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
19. How Do We Observe the Stimuli in Learning Stimulus Relations via Sequential Stimulus Pairing Training?
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MIKIMASA OMORI (Showa Women's University)
Abstract: Individuals with learning difficulties (LD) often fail to learn stimulus relations. Our previous findings showed that sequential stimulus pairing (SSP) training was effective to acquire stimulus relations in reading and writing. However, we still do not know how long or how often s/he needs to observe the simultaneously and sequentially presented visual stimulus pairs. In this study, the author examined a Japanese individual with LD could learn Spanish word writing skills and stimulus relations via SSP training. The participant instructed to observe the presented stimulus pairs of Spanish word, English word, and corresponding picture and their eye-movements during SSP training were recorded on the eye-tracker. The results showed that the participant learned to spell six Spanish words when corresponding English words or pictures were presented. In eye-movements analyses, the participant was necessary to look at the presented stimuli around 60% of stimulus presentation duration accompanied with 20% or more fixation duration. The results suggested that observing with adequate amount and the length of stimulus observation per presentation were keys to facilitate the acquisition of stimulus relations through SSP training for individuals with LD.
 
20. Replication Research: Closing the Research-to-Practice Gap in Teacher Education
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BARBARA MALLETTE (SUNY Fredonia--Retired), Lawrence J. Maheady (SUNY Buffalo State), Cindy McMillen (Dunkirk City School District), Cynthia Smith (State University of New York at Fredonia), Michael Jabot (State University of New York Fredonia)
Abstract: Makel and Plucker (2014) noted that educational research has focused heavily on experimental design but not on replicating important results. Their analysis of the top 100 education journals found that only 0.13% of articles were replications. Replication is critical because it (a) assures important findings are reliable and valid; (b) examines the generality of effects and role(s) extraneous variables may play; and (c) reduces the research-to-practice gap in education when conducted in P-12 settings (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). This session describes a 6-credit, graduate research sequence devoted to the design and implementation of partial research replications and results from five inter-related investigations. All studies (a) addressed a common educational problem (i.e., homework completion and accuracy); (b) used a similar intervention (i.e., dependent and interdependent group contingencies with randomized components); (c) collected comparable outcome data (i.e., percentage of students and assigned work completed, accuracy of completed work, and social validity ratings by teachers and students); (d) provided clear and replicable descriptions of interventions and outcomes; and (e) used single case research designs to establish functional control. Three opaque jars containing marked paper slips were used to randomize contingency components (i.e., target students, behaviors, criteria, and consequences). One jar labeled “What” randomized target behaviors & criteria (e.g., homework completion = 85%); a second, “Who” randomized students (e.g., “whole class”, “row 1”, and/or “Destiny”); and a third, “Wow” randomized group consequences. Collectively, three jars produced immediate and educationally important increases across all outcomes and received high positive ratings from teachers and students. References Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd. Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Makel, M. C., & Plucker, J. A. (2014). Facts are more important than novelty: Replication in the education sciences. Educational Researcher, 43, 304-316.
 
21. A Comparison of Least-to-Most Prompting and Video Modeling for Teaching Pretend Play Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BURCU ULKE KURKCUOGLU (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare effectiveness and efficiency of least-to-most prompting and video modeling for teaching pretend play skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. The adapted alternating treatment model, a single-subject design, was used in the study. Three students, one girl and two boys, between the ages of 5-6 participated in the study. The effectiveness results of the study showed that there is no marked difference between least-to-most prompting and video modeling for teaching pretend play skills to children with autism spectrum disorder in terms of acquisition, maintenance, and generalization. However, when these two teaching processes are compared in terms of efficiency parameters, it was observed that teaching with least-to-most prompting is more efficient in comparison to video modeling for two subjects. The social validity findings of the study showed that the mothers of the subjects and the graduate students who studied and had already taken certain courses for their master’s degree in the Applied Behavior Analysis Program expressed positive opinions about the study. Findings obtained from the study were discussed and suggestions were given for further studies.
 
22. Improving Basic Math Fluency Using a Modified Taped Problems Procedure
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL LEE (University of Detroit Mercy), Sharla N. Fasko (University of Detroit Mercy), Lauren Sundstrom (University of Detroit Mercy)
Abstract: Failing to develop basic mathematical fluency places children at risk for later difficulties with higher order mathematical skills. Thus, it is essential that educators are familiar with evidence-based, efficient strategies to assist in building mathematical fluency. The Taped Problems procedure is intended to build fluency through appropriate pacing. The current study was designed to extend prior studies examining the effects of a modified Taped Problems procedure for basic math fluency. The participant included a 7-year old, male student identified as at-risk for academic failure, and previously retained in kindergarten. An ABAB treatment design was used to measure the effects of the modified Taped Problems intervention. Preliminary findings are promising and show improvement compared to baseline. Final results of this study will be delivered in conjunction with an intervention script to provide educators with strategies to modify the Taped Problems intervention to meet their needs. Limitations, social validity, implications for educators, and additional resources will be provided.
 
23. Reading Instruction Using Direct Instruction and Fluency Training in Special Education in 4th to 7th Grade in Iceland
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HARPA ÓSKARSDÓTTIR (University of Iceland), Zuilma Gabriela Sigurdardottir (University of Iceland)
Abstract: Direct Instruction (DI) is an evidence-based and empirically tested teaching method that has been found to be very effective in English-speaking countries. DI has been especially effective when combined with fluency training methods. These methods are not generally in use in Iceland although dozens of single-case experiments have indicated that they are very effective when psychology students have used them with special ed students. In this project, a group comparison was undertaken to study the effects of trained teachers using DI and fluency building in reading instruction on the reading performance of students in special ed over 2,5 school years. Participants were in total 16 students in 4th-7th grade in three comparable elementary schools in Iceland, one had the experimental group, the other two schools had the comparison group. Performance in reading was evaluated and comparisons were made within the experimental and comparison groups at the beginning and end of each school year and between the experimental and comparison groups. Results show that students in the experimental group had better outcome on every variable tested at the end of the study, they read faster, made fewer errors, were more accurate, and scored higher in reading comprehension than the comparison group.
 
24. European ABA
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
ERIK ARNTZEN (Oslo Metropolitan University), Hanna Steinunn Steingrimsdottir (Oslo Metropolitan University), Ricardo Pellon (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia), Christoph F. Bördlein (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt), Christos Nikopoulos (Autism Consultancy Services, London), Zuilma Gabriela Sigurdardottir (University of Iceland)
Abstract: European ABA is an umbrella organization for national organizations of behavior analysis in Europe. http://www.europeanaba.org/ Our mission is 1. To provide an international forum within Europe for the study and discussion of matters relevant to behavior analysis. 2. To encourage high quality education and professional certification throughout Europe. 3. To organize congresses/conferences in experimental and applied behavior analysis. 4. To establish and maintain relations between behavior analysis organizations inside and outside Europe. 5. To maintain web pages/bulletin boards to facilitate communication. For more information about EABA contact us by email to info@europeanaba.org
 
25. Time Series Analysis of Students’ Notetaking Behavior in Relation to Teacher’s Use of Whiteboard and Handouts in University Class
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MASAKO YOSHIOKA (Aichi University), Ken'ichi Fuji (Ritsumeikan University)
Abstract: TThe purpose of this study was to collect real-time data of students’ notetaking and analyze the relation between the behavior and teacher’s use of whiteboard and handouts. Participants were 25 undergraduate students of a Japanese middle-size university. They were divided into four classes and attended a lecture. Every lecture given by the second author treated same contents on internal validity. For the two of the classes, whiteboard and handouts were used. For the other two, only whiteboard was used. The note-taking responses by each student were simultaneously recorded using a pen device, in which a mechanical switch was inserted, developed by us (Yoshioka and Fuji, 2019). According to the maximum absolute cross-correlation between each student’s notetaking and teacher’s writing on whiteboard, 64% of the students showed significant positive correlation at negative lag. In the class where the teacher wrote the maximum number of words on whiteboard, the students’ notes contained the highest rate of psychological terms. There were no clear difference between the classes with and without handouts. Those results provide a quantitative clue for the presence of mild to strong relation between students’ notetaking and teacher’s use of whiteboard.
 
26. Implementation of Pivotal Response Training in a Swedish Special Needs School: A Single Case Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
OSCAR STRÖMBERG (Stockholm university)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that video feedback is an effective method for teaching trainers to implement pivotal response training (PRT). This study showed that a trainer increased their use of PRT in a Swedish special school after video feedback. The study also showed that a child with autism increased their verbal behaviors after PRT was implemented. The social validity of PRT and for video feedback was interpreted as good. Future research could have multiple baseline design, additional measurement opportunities and more accurate measurement methods to scientifically evaluate the most effective way to implement PRT in Swedish special needs schools.
 
27.

Using Scripting to Increase Classroom Communication in an Adolescent Student With Language Disorder

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Katrin Dahlbäck (Stockholm University), Dag Strömberg (Autism Center for Young Children, Stockholm), LARS KLINTWALL (Stockholm University)
Abstract:

Children and adolescents with language disorders have difficulties learning, understanding and using language, and these difficulties can have a negative impact on both social interactions and academic achievements (Wright, Pring & Ebbels, 2018). Scripting has previously been shown to be a successful intervention to increase communication in academic settings for children with autism, for example requesting help (Dotto-Fujot et al., 2011). In this study, scripting was used to teach a partially verbal adolescent student, with an expressive language disorder, to answer questions in class; stating that she was in need of assistance and to describe what she needed help with. A multiple-baseline design across situations was used, in order to assess the effects of scripting procedures across two different school subjects. Written scripts proved not to be successful in increasing verbal responses, and audio recorded scripts were therefore introduced as a second intervention. Although audio recorded scripts were not initially successful, later occurrences of scripted answers indicate that they did have some effect. After implementing audio recorded scripts in the first setting, scripted answers occurred in the second setting, indicating generalization across settings. Unscripted responses also occurred in the second setting, indicating further generalization.

 
28.

Evaluating the Effects of the Pyramid Model Training on Educators Attitudes Towards Inclusion

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Alexandra Rothstein Small (Université du Québec a Montréal), MÉLINA RIVARD (University of Quebec, Montreal)
Abstract:

During the past decade, a substantial increase of children enrolled in daycare or preschool settings as more than 71% of mothers work outside their home (Institut de la Statistique du Québec; ISQ, 2014). A population survey across Quebec revealed that 26% of Quebec families live with a child with special needs (e.g., developmental disabilities (DD) or mental health problems), which represents a potential of one in four families that receives daycare services (ISQ, 2013). Young children with DD exhibiting challenging behaviors is estimated between 40% to 64%, which is two to four times higher than rates of typically developing children (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine; NRCIM, 2009). The management of these challenging behaviors and adapting the activities to meet the needs of these children demands specialized trainings. There has been growing evidence on the effectiveness of the Pyramid Model (PM) for promoting young children’s social-emotional competence and reducing challenging behaviors. The current study involves 2 parts; study 1, a 2-day training on PM for 40 daycare educators and study 2, a live coaching in the classroom to 12 educators on how to implement the PM strategies in the classroom, using the BST model of coaching. The effects of the training on educator’s knowledge of PM practices and attitudes towards inclusion (study 1) will be evaluated using a pre-post design and results will presented.

 
 
 
Poster Session #55
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
29.

Replication of the Behavior Technician Training Program

Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
LAURENT KESER (BA-eService), Alexandra Lecestre (BA-eService)
Abstract:

The behavior technicians who work with persons with autism are the personnel on the front-line during intervention sessions in the Home-Based programs. The behavior technician must have a minimum theoretical knowledge for a well understanding of the program written by the behavior analyst - supervisor, he must have the capacity to record the data correctly with great accuracy for a good analysis of the results, he must have fluency in the necessary skills for the application of the programs and he must give maximum opportunities of learning for the person during his/her sessions. The quality of their training is one of the keys for an efficient application of programs developed by the behavior analyst - supervisor. We repeated the utilization of the Behavior Technician Training Program (BTTP), previously presented in Paris during the poster session of the international conference of ABAI in November 2017, to train our new staff. We used BTTP with two new technicians have not received any prior training. The results show that both technicians meet the criteria before the 150 hours of the program.

 
30.

The Use of a Supervision Curriculum for Improving Behavior Technician Performance

Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
LAURENT KESER (BA-eService), Alexandra Lecestre (BA-eService)
Abstract:

The training of behavior-technicians is a priority for ABA-based home-service delivery. If the acquisition of technical competencies and theoretical knowledge is important, their maintenance and their daily practical use have predominant importance. The supervision of behavior-technicians by the behavior analyst-supervisor is therefore essential. However, it’s necessary that the behavior analyst-supervisor be able to rely on a clear reference framework of observable and measurable behaviors to objectively measure the skill level of the behavior technician. To increase the frequency of behavior to occur in the future, it must be reinforced. That’s why it’s necessary to ensure the maintenance of the skills and the improvement of the behavior-technicians by facilitating the reinforcement of their competence by the behavior analyst-supervisor with appropriate and clear feedback. To reach this goal, we have developed a direct supervision curriculum. This curriculum was used with 2 behavior-technicians, who were trained by the Behavior Technician Training Program (BTTP), to maintain or increase their performances. This curriculum of supervision uses the same data collection as the BTTP. The results of the supervision curriculum show good maintenance or improvement of the competencies of the behavior technicians.

 
31.

Improving Staff Training on Reunion Island: Development of the Programme d'Amélioration des Competences de Terrain

Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
DAG STRÖMBERG (Autism Center for Young Children, Stockholm; Association Bel Avenir Autisme), Christelle Gondat (Association Autisme Bel Avenir)
Abstract:

In France, applied behavior analysis is being taught very little at the universities, even though the best practice guidelines by the French National Authority for Health is recommending its use for the treatment of individuals with autism (HAS, 2012). In order to develop and maintain competency and motivation for direct staff in service agencies for these individuals, it is important to provide training and supervision. Usuually, this training is conducted by supervisors at the workplace. How can we offer a training programme that takes little time and is still effective? From this perspective, the Programme d’Amélioration des Compétences de Terrain (PACT) has been developed. The PACT is an individualized curriculum that optimizes the type of staff training being delivered. The aim is to not only offer structured training for improving quality of ABA-based treatment, but also to respond in an organized way to the issue of staff turnover. This poster presents the current state of development of the PACT, after its first year of implementation, at a center for specialized behavioral support for 14 children with autism on Reunion Island, France.

 
32. Training Staff to Implement a Behaviour Intervention Plan Effectively: A Program Description and Preliminary Evaluation
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
DIANNA HIU YAN YIP (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Tsz Lau (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Yee Tak Lee (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Yan Long (Private Practice), Ziyan Ziyan Chen (P.L.A.I. Behaviour Consulting), Siqi Xie (Private Practice)
Abstract: As the increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is a great need for autism service. The demand for quality early intensive behaviour intervention (EIBI) in Mainland China is increasing. Yet, there are few qualified professionals with the appropriate scientific knowledge and clinical skills to support families of children with autism. Through a 6-week training program, we used behavioral skills training (BST) approach to train staff in effectively implement behaviour change programs in an applied setting in Mainland China. This training program has been conducted for five times in 20 months. Number of trainees in each training arrange from 22-40 people. Most trainees hold a Bachelor degree. Throughout the training, data was collected on trainee’s performance. At the end of the training, an evaluation consists of a written exam and a direct observation assessment using an evaluation tool we developed was used to evaluate the trainee’s competency. The results indicate that the training is effective in improving staff’s basic knowledge of ASD and ABA as well as their competency in the implementation of behaviour change programs. Finally, the challenges and barriers of cultural sensitivity in Mainland China will be discussed.
 
33.

A Model to Train Applied Behavior Analysts to Work With Autistic Kids in a Public University in Brazil

Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Kellen Carvalho (University of Sao Paulo), Martha Costa Hübner (University of São Paulo), Valeria Mendes (Centro para Austismo e Inclusão Social - CAIS), Talita Souza (Centro para Autismo e Inclusão Social - CAIS), ROOSEVELT RISTON STARLING (Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei - UFSJ)
Abstract:

More than forty years of evidences establishes the behavior analytic approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as the strongest treatment for persons included in this spectrum. One of the key components for the continued offer of this treatment is to spread the accumulated knowledge of Behavior Analysis and offer opportunities for young undergraduates students to experience it firsthand. The Centro para Autismo e Inclusão Social (CAIS) at Universidade de São Paulo (USP) offers since 2007 a supervised and intensive theoretical and direct training to undergraduates and fresh graduates where they can experience firsthand behavior analytic procedures with this population. Collecting data, training in charting and writing a final report are included in the training. Postgraduate students are responsible for evaluation and planning of those activities. After tested for five years, this training has been included in the syllabus of the psychology graduation course as a formal discipline. Three measures are obtained: performance students in the theoretical classes, performance of the participants in practicum activities, and a behavioral product, the charted progress of the autistic children that undergo treatment at USP´s Social Clinic. The three measures show an increase of correct responses in the two groups (students and children).

 
 
 
Poster Session #56
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
34. Behavioral Community Interventions in Social Work Education
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPH F. BÖRDLEIN (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt)
Abstract: Behavioral social work is the application of behavior analysis to the field of social work. There are behavioral social work interventions for individuals, groups and communities. Nevertheless, behavioral social work is far from a widely adopted approach among social work practitioners. A reason for the underuse might be seen in the fact that most interventions in behavioral social work aim at individual clients and groups. Social work could further benefit from the application of methods taken from behavioral community interventions. Behavioral community interventions modify the behavior of a larger group of people (e.g. pedestrians using a crosswalk, cafeteria patrons, students using a university building) with antecedent- and consequence-focused interventions. The poster presents a training program for social work students in behavioral community interventions. Results of two projects, undergraduate students designed and performed, are presented. In project 1 students tried to reduce the amount of disposal coffee mugs used in a university cafeteria. Project 2 was aimed at increasing the rate of paper waste recycling in a university building. Behavioral community interventions are recommended as a valuable part of the education of social workers.
 
 
 
Poster Session #57
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
35. Behavioral Safety in the Dental Surgery
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
LISA MARIA ZEITLER (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt), Christoph F. Bördlein (University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt)
Abstract: According to an analysis from Business Insider (based on data from the Occupational Information Network, a US Department of Labor database) the jobs of dentists, dental surgeons, and dental assistants are the most damaging to health. Among other, employees in this field are exposed to contaminants and to disease and infections. Another health risk is the time spent sitting and in ergonomically risky postures. In the current study, a checklist with critical behaviors and behavioral products (results of behaviors) was used to assess the level of safety in a dental surgery with seven employees. After baseline observations and task clarification, verbal and graphic feedback, goal setting and tangible reinforcers were used to modify the safety related behaviors of the employees. For all items on the checklist, the %safe was 79.57 % during baseline. During intervention, the mean %safe was 88.88 %, whereupon the final level was 95 %. Follow-Up observations showed a decline in %safe after the feedback ended. Three of the four partial indices of the checklist showed improvements of 12 % to 33 % in %safe.
 
36.

Comparing Three Staff Training Modalities to Teach Skills of Increasing Complexity

Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
JULIYA KRASNOPOLSKY (Melmark New England), Jill Harper (Melmark New England)
Abstract:

Various staff training strategies have previously been evaluated to determine how to improve staff performance of large groups across a variety of skills. Although shown to be effective, training strategies are often implemented in a one-on-one format with skilled supervisors, requiring extensive resources in terms of cost and time. The present study compared three staff training formats – in-vivo, video, and computer-based training – plus behavioral skills training (BST) components to determine effectiveness and efficiency of each format on staff performance during an orientation training. Using a multiple-probe design, effects of each modality on performance of each participant was measured across three content areas – best practice strategies, prompt and prompt fading, and group instruction - and nine increasingly complex skills via role-plays with scripted scenarios. Additionally, generalization probes were conducted with students with autism, during which student outcomes were measured as well. Maintenance data were collected for six months following intervention. Results were reported for both performance-based and knowledge-based competencies across participants in an orientation training. A cost and time analysis was conducted to determine efficiency of each training format.

 
 
 
Poster Session #58
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
37.

Noncontingent Reinforcement to Reduce Annoying Telephone Calls of a Person With Dementia: A Preliminary Study

Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
TAKASHI MUTO (Doshisha University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) procedure to reduce annoying telephone calls for a 95-year-old female with dementia. The mother’s calls could frustrate her family members because the contents of the callings were usually grumbling and complaining. At first, a functional assessment interview was implemented for one of her daughters. As a result, the function, or maintain factor, of the annoying calls was presumed to be social attention from four blood relatives of her family. Then, the assessment-based NCR procedure, in which all blood relatives hanged up briefly (in ten minutes) all mother’s calls, and made a short and unexpected visit or phone frequently, was conducted. Results indicated decreases in annoying telephone calls during implementing NCR. Moreover, in her family members, the degree of satisfaction for these procedures and results were very high. These results suggest that a functional assessment and the assessment-based NCR procedure delivered with non-professional family members improve so-called BPSD (a behavioral and psychological symptom of dementia) “positively”.

 
38. Evaluation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Non-Patients
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MASATAKA ITO (Graduate School, Doshisha University), Takashi Muto (Doshisha University)
Abstract: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional disorders, and psychological intervention for IBS is used. There are many people with IBS symptoms who do not have a diagnosis, called IBS non-patients, however interventions for them have rarely been investigated. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for IBS non-patients. Participants were recruited from a university population through a screening survey. Following completion of the survey, 119 individuals who had scored above the mild IBS symptom cutoff score were invited via e-mail to participate in this study. Of those invited, 35 completed informed consent. A randomized wait-list control design was used. Participants (mean age = 19.89, SD = 1.26, male = 12) were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waiting list group. A self-reporting measure was used to assess IBS severity, quality of life, psychological distress, and psychological flexibility at pre-intervention for participants. The intervention group received a one-day group ACT workshop, and was offered an ACT workbook to use in their daily lives for two months. Post-assessment and follow-up assessment were scheduled for two months later. This study is expected to discuss the effectiveness of ACT in IBS non-patients.
 
39.

Comparison of Scores of KBPAC Among Caregivers and Workers in Schools and Hospitals

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
HITOMI IWAHASHI (Fukuchiyama City Hospital), Hiroaki Miya (Fukuchiyama City Hospital)
Abstract:

Behavior analytic approaches to solve the behavioral problems in children has been gradually accepted and used in Japanese schools and hospitals. To measure the current state of knowledge of behavior principles in those places, short version of the Knowledge of Behavioral Principles as Applied to Children (KBPAC) was conducted. Participants were caregivers, medical staffs, nurse students, and teachers in junior high schools, primary schools, and kindergartens. Only the nurse students were tested the KBPAC in before and after a lecture on behavior analysis. The short version of KBPAC contains 25-items of multiple-choice instrument. The results showed that the score in medical staffs was higher than that in other groups, and the lecture on behavior analysis to nurse students increased the score. These results indicate that the knowledge of behavior principles (1) is still low in homes and schools, (2) relatively high in medical stuffs, and (3) can be increased at least in nurse students.

 
40.

Agreement Between Structured Descriptive Assessments and Functional Analyses Conducted Over a Telehealth System

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY L. BAXTER (Syracuse University), Brian K. Martens (Syracuse University), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota), Samantha Sallade (Syracuse University), Johanna Kester (Syracuse University), Adele F. Dimian (University of Minnesota), Jessica J. Simacek (University of Minnesota), Brittany Pennington (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Telehealth is an effective way of conducting functional assessments that can be used with families who live in remote areas. The current study’s goal was to evaluate the accuracy of contingency space analysis (CSA) applied to structured descriptive assessments (SDA) of parent-child interactions at identifying the function of problem behavior compared to an experimental functional analysis (FA). Four male children with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their parents participated. Assessments were conducted within participants’ homes with parents serving as interventionists with coaching from remote behavior therapists using videoconferencing. The percentage of intervals with child problem behavior across motivating operation contexts was calculated for the SDA, and the conditional probability of various parent-delivered consequences given the presence and absence of problem behavior were calculated for the CSA. Percentage agreement for each descriptive assessment was calculated by taking the number of agreements with functions identified by the FA divided by the number of agreements plus errors of omission. Agreement with the FA was 67% and 83% for the SDA and CSA, respectively. CSA coding of telehealth videos may be an efficient technique of remotely identifying potential functions of children’s problem behavior when implementing an experimental FA might not be an option.

 
41. Use of Peer Modeling in the Treatment of Food Selectivity
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER KADEY (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Henry S. Roane (Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Persistent food selectivity in children can present serious health risks by impeding healthy development. Research has evaluated a variety of effective procedures designed to increase the consumption of novel foods in children with feeding dysfunction. Nevertheless, few researchers have examined the effects of peer modeling/observational learning on food selectivity. Sira and Fryling (2012) used peer modeling within the context of observation learning and differential reinforcement paradigms to increase the consumption of novel foods in one child diagnosed with autism. We sought to extend their finding by assessing the use of peer modeling/observational learning in the absence of differential reinforcement within two children of typical development. The effects of peer modeling were assessed using reversal designs. Results suggested that the implementation of peer modeling produced increases in the consumption of novel foods for both children. Interobserver agreement data were collected on over 80% of sessions and averaged over 90% for all measures. The benefits of peer modeling as a treatment for food selectivity as well as limitations and future directions will be discussed.
 
 
 
Poster Session #59
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
42. The Effects of a Self-Managed Plyometric Training Program to Increase Vertical Leap Ability of an Amateur Basketball Player
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
BRETT EDWARD FURLONGER (Monash University), Luke Mill (Monash University)
Abstract: Basketball players of varying skill levels spend time, money, and resources to improve their vertical leap ability. Notwithstanding, despite their efforts, many do not improve this skill to a significant extent. To address this deficit a single-case experimental design with baseline, intervention, and post intervention phases was conducted to evaluate a self-managed 12-week Plyometric Training (PT) program. The intervention involved goal-setting and self-monitoring procedures involving seven exercises. The effect on the player’s vertical leap was then compared across phases – baseline, intervention and post-intervention. Rebounding performance within an actual competitive basketball match was then measured. Results supported the prediction that the self-managed PT program would improve the participant’s vertical leap ability. Given the importance of vertical leap ability for the sport of basketball, the self-managed PT program appeared to be an effective way to improve vertical leap performance and represented a cost-effective alternative to other costlier direct coaching programs.
 
43.

Preferred Priming Activities to Increase Social Interaction Among Patients in a Nursing Home

Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
JORN ARVE VOLD (Rade Municipality), Jon Arne Løkke (Ostfold University College), Malin Terese Thoegersen (Rade Municipality)
Abstract:

One problem with aging is that many people experience less events and venues with social interaction with others. In particular it is a challenge in nursing homes, and several studies have shown that activation in everyday life increases life expectancy (Langer & Rodin, 1976) and the experience of pleasure and quality of life (Moore,. Delaney, & Dixon, 2007. Løkke et al, 2011). There have been some studies where they have looked at how priming with coffee and cakes (Quattrochi – Tubin & Jason. 1980), and activities (Løkke, et al. 2011) increased the interaction between patients in a nursing home. This study looks at how preferred activities increases social interaction between 3 patients at a nursing home, and measured how it was maintained after the activity had ended. The results show that participants had increased social interaction with fellow patient as long as the activity was ongoing, but this dropped considerably as soon as the activity was completed. The study shows that one must see further which elements to change within the nursing homes to maintain good social interaction between the patient, as this study showed that staff was essential to maintain social interaction.

 
 
 
Poster Session #60
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
44.

Verbal Behavior Mapp: Clinical Relevance and Coherence With Other Measures in Three Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Center-Based Treatment in Brazil

Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
LUIZA HÜBNER (Behavior Analysis Hübner Center (BAHC)), Ana Paula Parise (Behavior Analysis Hübner Center (BAHC) ), Bruna Baumgartner (Behavior Analysis Hübner Center (BAHC)), Wederson Chagas (Behavior Analysis Hübner Center)
Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to describe positive behavior changes of three kids with three to five years old, diagnosed with ASD, submitted to intensive ABA early intervention at a center in São Paulo, Brazil. Verbal Behavior Mapp (VBM) is going to be presented as a Pre and Post test measure, describing children' long term evolutions and its coherence with percentage of correct responses during training of different operants, in two years. Although VBM was published in 2007 (Sundberg), studies are necessary to show its clinical relevance in predicting areas to be taught and its relation with other behavioral measures. In the present study, VBM was applied by a behavior analyst, before the child started the program. This first evaluation specified the main areas to work with the child. During the intensive early intervention therapy, daily measures of the child's performance were taken. Every six months of ABA therapy , VBM was applied again. Data of three children will be presented (P1, P2 and P3) along two years of treatment in two types of measures: VBM and percentage of correct responses per sessions. Results shows that operants evaluated through VBM as weak in the first evaluation were those that showed, in the continuous measures daily taken, occurrence of a shaping process during trainings. Such comparisons show that VBM has clinical relevance and it is also a predictor of child' s performance during training. VBM also demonstrates behavior change in a synthetic way for long periods of behavior therapy.

 
45.

Reduction of Inappropriate Vocalizations Through Training in Verbal Operants

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Mats Jarness (Agency for Social and Welfare Services, Municipality of Oslo ), Petur Ingi Petursson (Agency for Social and Welfare Services, Municipality of Oslo), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo Metropolitan Universrity), KRISTINE SOLBREKKE RYEN (Ullevålsveien 34)
Abstract:

We aimed to assess the function of the inappropriate vocalizations of an adult male with autism and informing a behavioral treatment for establishing more functional verbal operants. The client was a male in his thirties who presented with multiple challenging behaviors. An interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) demonstrated that the function of the aberrant speech was attention. Treatment was matched to the attention function and involved establishing verbal operants with a treatment package containing verbal operant training, a token economy and differential reinforcement. The effect of treatment was analyzed with a multiple probe design across two settings. Treatment resulted in significant reduction in aberrant speech, and an increase in functional verbal behavior for the client. We argue that a verbal behavior based treatment that is informed by an IISCA may be a viable treatment alternative for adults who present with multiple challenging behaviors.

 
46. The Effects of Subtle Pre-Experimental History on Speech Perception
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
RODRIGO DAL BEN (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Débora Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Jessica Hay (University of Tennessee, Knoxville)
Abstract: Subtle discriminative stimuli, such as transitional probability (TP) and phonotactical probability (PP) from words’ syllables, have been shown to control word discrimination. Here, we investigated if stimuli from pre-experimental (PP) history have an effect on word discrimination. Brazilian-Portuguese-speaking adults (n=81) were familiarized to one of four artificial languages and tested on words vs. part-words using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure. Each language contained six two-syllable words (TP=1) and its syllables’ recombinations generated six part-words (TP=0.2). Furthermore, in Languages 1 and 2, words’ PPs were unbalanced during familiarization (0.0073 vs. 0.0085), but balanced during test (0.0085, 0.0073, respectively). Both groups discriminated words above chance, despite differences in PP. However, these very differences may have provided additional discriminative stimuli for the task. In Languages 3 and 4, PPs were balanced during familiarization (0.0085, 0.0073, respectively), but unbalanced during test (0.0073 vs. 0.0085). Participants that heard Language 3 failed to discriminate words, and those that heard Language 4 discriminated it more poorly when compared to performance from Languages 1 and 2. Results suggest that subtle differences in phonotactics function as discriminative stimuli that may control speech perception and suggest a need to consider participants’ pre-experimental history carefully when selecting stimuli for verbal behavior research.
 
47. Teaching Individuals to Identify Common Topics of Interests
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE A. HOOD (California State University, Northridge), Stephanie Monroy (California State University, Northridge), Francesca Randle (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Jesey Gopez (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Abstract: Individuals with social and conversation skills deficits often have deficits discriminating vocal and nonvocal cues of interest and uninterest from their conversation partner(s). In the present study, we taught individuals to converse about preferred and less preferred topics of conversation, discriminate when the conversation partner is no longer interested in the topic of discussion, to discriminate common interests, and to end the conversation using behavioral skills training. Stimulus generalization was assessed through conversations with novel conversation partners. We assessed the social acceptability rating from the participants and the conversation partners. We observed robust increases in following the conversation, changing the topic of conversation, ending the conversation, and tacting common interests with the trainer. In addition, we have observed high levels of stimulus generalization across all skills with novel conversation partners. However, we have observed over generalization of tacts of common interests with the trainer to tacts of common interests with the novel conversation partners, thus, we had to teach participants how to discriminate common interests with multiple conversation partners. We effectively taught the participants to discriminate the common interest and we observed similar effects when conversing with novel adults.
 
48. Evolution of Shared Stimulus-Response Functions in Cooperation Task
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
WILL FLEMING (University of Nevada, Reno), Osmar Lopez (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: In his book Cultural Psychology (1982), J. R. Kantor characterizes cultural fields as consisting of shared stimulus-response functions (SSRFs) acquired over the lifetime of individuals. The purpose of this project was to examine patterns in behavior segments as SSRFs evolve and factors that contribute to changes in such patterns. Participant dyads completed a computerized turn-based cooperative game at different computer terminals where they could not communicate except through the program. Each trial consisted of (1) a player selecting a originally arbitrary stimulus from an array with a particular contextual stimulus present (i.e., a shape), (2) the other player selecting a shape from an array with the stimulus the first player selected present, and (3) both players receiving feedback on how much money they earned. Experimental conditions varied in reward amounts for corresponding responses (i.e., responses in which the second player selects the shape stimulus that was present on the first player’s screen) and non-corresponding responses, as well as the discriminability of reward amount changes (i.e., whether the reward amount for corresponding responses changed across conditions). Results elucidate patterns of responding that develop during the acquisition of SSRFs and factors that both contribute to the persistence and discrimination of SSRFs.
 
 
 
Poster Session #61
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
49. Further Evaluation of the Prevention of Problem Behavior Using a Laboratory Model
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TARA A. FAHMIE (California State University, Northridge), Anne C. Macaskill (Victoria University of Wellington), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Elizabeth Hernandez (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Severe problem behavior among individuals with intellectual disabilities is prevalent, harmful, and costly to treat. It is important for behavior analysts to evaluate how their successful approach to assessment and treatment can be applied to the prevention of severe problem behavior. However, it is difficult to study prevention in applied settings without foregoing experimental control. Laboratory models may provide a convenient, efficient, and safe way to answer basic questions about the prevention of problem behavior. Fahmie, Macaskill, Kazemi, and Elmer (2018) conducted a preliminary evaluation of a laboratory model that compared the preventive efficacy of noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Results showed that both interventions similarly prevented the development of an analogue to problem behavior in undergraduates. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend this laboratory model and to address some of its previous limitations. Specifically, we sought to determine whether and under which conditions differential reinforcement produces prevention effects. Results suggest that following training, increasing the probability of reinforcement for alternative behavior results in significantly better prevention effects. Our results have implications for the prevention of problem behavior as well as for basic research of human behavior.
 
50. The Effects of Individualized Positive Behavior Support on Challenging Behaviors for a Student With Intellectual Disabilities in Special School
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
EUNHEE PAIK (Kongju National Univ.), Changho Kim (Korea Seonjin Special School), Mijum Choi (Kyungmin University), Seungchul Kwak (Kongju National University), Young Hee Seo (BK21 Kongju National University), Byoung In Lee (Dankook University), Bogseon Hwang (Korea Nazarene University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of individualized positive behavior support(PBS) intervention on problem behaviors of a student with severe intellectual disabilities of special school in South Korea. The target behaviors were three behaviors, hitting and pulling against the elevator door & wall, stuffing the wall with his tongue, or bothering peer while doing classroom activities at school. The functional behavior assessment including MAS, interviews with teachers, direct observation as well as school records led to the hypothesis for challenging behaviors at school. The hypothesis led to the positive behavior support intervention of setting event, antecedent event, alternative behavior, and consequence strategies were implmented. The study utilized multiple baseline design across three behaviors as a research design. The percentage of frequency of student’s problem behavior was measured using partial interval recording. The results of the study were as follows; Firstly, individualized positive behavior support was effective decreasing three behaviors; resisting the elevator door close, stuffing the wall with his tongue, and bothering peer. Secondly, the effects of positive behavior support intervention were maintained two weeks after the intervention. In conclusion, this study indicated that the individualized positive behavior support decreased the target student’s problem behaviors and maintained the effects during the generalization period.
 
51. The Effect of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support on the Academic Engagement Behavior of Child With Developmental Delay
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
YUNHEE SHIN (Daegu Cyber University), Jung Yeon Cho (Daegu Cyber University)
Abstract: This study was to reduce the problem behavior and increase the engagement behavior of the participant with developmental delay through PBIS in nursery school. PBIS focused on individual has different from behavior modification exclude functional assessment. PBIS consider participant’s function and their environment, for example, background and attendance, and also their motivation. The participant was a boy aged 6 years old and he diagnosed developmental delay in hospital. He has difficult with learning compared normal peers and he’s often saying “no, get a way, I don’t like” – negative words. He also has difficult to make friends and play with long strap alone. He goes to nursery school every day and has problem behaviors – crying, broken rules, wandering around during class hour in the classroom. According PBIS procedure, We decided the participant’s target behavior, and use MAS(motivated assessment scale) and conducted functional assessment and functional behavior analysis. After behavior analysis, we made an intervention plan using modeling and differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior. Data was collected for 4 months, 15 times. It was 4 times in baseline and 11 times in Intervention in the classroom. Data analyzed by partial-interval recording and inter observer reliability was 93%. The participant’s problem behaviors were crying, broken rules, wandering around his classroom, out of seat, and engagement behaviors were raising hands, asking teacher's permission, tell a teacher 'help me'. The result of this study shows A(baseline)-B(intervention) single subject research design. In baseline phase, the number of problem behavior was average 8.25(range from 7 to 9), this number of problem behavior was getting down average 5.27(range from 8-3). The number of engagement behavior was 0 in baseline and until 6 sessions. However, the number has changed on 7 sessions; the average of engagement behavior in intervention was 1.9. In Conclusion, PBIS has a positive effect on problem behavior and engagement of the participants with developmental delay during class hour. However, the effect of the engagement behavior is not powerful. If this study was sustained over 20 sessions, this result would change positively.
 
52. Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Problem Behaviors Maintained by Attention
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MIYUKI NOGUCHI-SATO (Kyoto University of Education), Akiko Iwatani (Mikumo Special Needs School)
Abstract: Studies have indicated that the combination of functional communication training (FCT) and extinction is an effective intervention for reducing severe problem behaviors exhibited by individuals with intellectual disabilities. However, few studies have examined the effect of FCT with extinction on problem behaviors. In the present study, we implemented FCT, along with extinction, and examined its effectiveness in reducing the attention-maintained problem behavior (i.e., kicking and scratching) of a 14-year-old boy with intellectual disabilities in a special needs school. In session 2, the participant’s teacher took day off, and the problem behavior decreased. This indicated that his problem behavior was maintained by teacher’s attention. In the FCT, we taught the participant to show a card to get the teacher’s attention. During the intervention, the teacher gave attention to the participant if he showed a card; however, if the participant exhibited problem behavior to get attention, the teacher did not react. Results showed that the intervention reduced the frequency of problem behavior. These effects maintained until probe phase.
 
53.

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior With an Adult With Smith-Magenis Syndrome

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TANYA HOUGH (Purdue University; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Edward Cumella (Purdue University), Jessica Tischner (Purdue University), Natasha Chung (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic disorder. Individuals diagnosed with this disorder often display severe challenging behaviors that can impact their quality of life. Despite the clear need, there is currently a dearth of research using applied behavior analytic techniques to address challenging behavior among individuals with SMS. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to address attention-maintained elopement and physical aggression in an adult with SMS residing in a community based group home. This study is one of the first assessing applied behavioral techniques to address challenging behaviors maintained by attention in a person with SMS. DRO was demonstrated effective in reducing both target behaviors, resulting in a 100% reduction of elopement and physical aggression. The present study reinforces prior research, suggesting that maladaptive behavior was maintained by environmental factors and can be successfully addressed in adults with SMS. These findings, based on a single subject design, also suggest a need for more behavioral research among those with SMS.

 
54. A Case Study on the Intervention of a Child Who Doesn’t Swallow and Drool His Saliva
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JUNG YEON CHO (Daegu Cyber University), Yunhee Shin (Daegu Cyber University)
Abstract: This study was to reduce and eliminate the behavior of keeping saliva in the child’s mouth and drool it. His shirts had stench and drenched his shirt every day. He was getting sick from exposure and his parents and nurturers have difficulties with changing clothes. The participant is a boy, 11 years-old and has dependent personality. He diagnosed developmental disability by doctor and goes to special school in South Korea. The program was conducted by 2 behavior therapists at T center for 40min per session from August to November, 2016. Data collected and analyzed through observational records, video records, and interviews. Total 25 sessions conducted and we collected data in baseline using ABC observation and MAS (motivated assessment scales) and FBA(Functional Behavior Analysis) in ABAB design. The participant’s function was escape from tasks and ecological values were feeding ways from parents, cleaning up his drool, apart from parent in class. Researchers build intervention plan based on E-A-B-C strategy and carried out the plan.In the ecological intervention, Adjustment of environment and situation induction was implemented. In Attendance and behavioral intervention, we adjusted proper of task level, position check, teaching of mouth close, and alternative behavior. In consequence intervention, we had extinction, differential reinforcement, and functional communication training. The result of this study found that the number of target behavior decreased almost 50% from baseline period to maintain period. In Conclusion, the child was getting better to target behavior and control his mouth. The intervention through functional analysis was successful. When the target behavior is not somatic, but functional behavior, multiple environmental adjustment and expressive language or gesture skill are very importance, also it should teach a child to proper behavior for a generalization.
 
55. The Effect of Intensive Matching to Sample Training Conducted in a Short Time on Adaptive Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KENTA KONDO (Meisei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the level of adaptive behavior of children with developmental disorder rise by intervention using applications that can perform efficient sample matching tasks. 6 students with developmental disabilities and intellectual disabilities (males=3, females=3: 6 to 10 years of age) participated in this experiment. Individual intervention by matching to sample tasks done on PC is an independent variable. We evaluated the adaptive function of each participant using Vineland-?, created tasks individually and intervened. The change amount of the evaluation point in Vineland-? of each participant was taken as the dependent variable. By this intervention, Participants who showed a tendency for each region score of Vineland-? to rise was revealed. When the intervention was completed, it was shown that the score of Vineland-? in each participant could decline. From the above, it became clear that intensive intervention by the sample matching task performed on the PC is effective for acquiring the adaptive behaviors of children.
 
56.

Training of Clothes Selection in According With the Room Temperature in Child With Autism

Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MAKO ITO (Meisei University), Koji Takeuchi (Meisei University)
Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to allow ASD children with intellectual disabilities to be able to pick out participant child clothes according to room temperature by environment control and discrimination training so that he can wear it. Setting: This study was conducted in house of participant. Participant: A 14 years old child (male) diagnosed with ASD and intellectual disabilities (IQ 40) participated. Procedures: In the B.L., we measured that the child picked his clothes suitable for the room temperature in his chest. As an intervention, we conducted environment control and discrimination training. Environment control is the disposition of clothes in an easy to select place. Discrimination training is to reinforcement pick out he clothes according to room temperature. We classified according to matched the room temperature and then did training. After that, we evaluated generalization to untrained clothes. Results: It became possible to pick out the suitable clothes from the chest and change it. He was also selected the right pick out the clothes in the generalization scene.

 
57.

Behavioral and Academic Interventions for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Review of the Literature

Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
CLAUDIA M DUNN (Texas A&M University ), Julie L. Thompson (Texas A&M University), Heather Dulas (Texas A&M University ), Kristina Ingles (Texas A&M University)
Abstract:

Research has consistently demonstrated that behavioral and academic interventions are effective to improve academic outcomes for students with or at risk of emotional and behavioral disorders (Rogevich & Perin, 2008). However, very few studies adapt behavioral and academic interventions for linguistically diverse students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The assumption is that adaptations addressing values, culture, and language will increase the effectiveness and sustainability of these interventions (Cabassa & Baumann, 2013). Yet, this has not been confirmed via a systematic review of the literature. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to examine to what extent linguistically diverse students with emotional and behavioral disorders in pre-k to 12th grade were included in behavioral and academic intervention studies, whether adaptations of research-based practices using different cultural variables to support those students were used, and to what extent linguistically diverse participants benefitted from these adaptations. Implications for linguistically diverse students with or at risk of EBD, professionals, and educators will be discussed. Additionally, recommendations for future research will be provided.

 
58. Self-Evaluation to Improve Complex Job Performance in a Dynamic Work Environment
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TRACY EILEEN SINCLAIR (The University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: Transition-age individuals with disabilities continue to lag behind same-age peers in postsecondary outcomes of education, employment, and independent living skills. The role of self-determination in postsecondary success has been thoroughly researched, acknowledged, and proven to be a predictor of postsecondary goal attainment (Test et al., 2009). Skills of self-determination include goal-setting and attainment, self-observation, evaluation, and reinforcement, and independence (Wehmeyer, 2007). Self-management strategies, such as self-evaluation, are a demonstrated evidence-based practive for students with developmental disabilities (Carr et al., 2014). This multiple baseline across participant dyads study examined the application of self-evaluation on overall work performance ratings for students with developmental disabilities in an authentic work environment. Scores of self-evaluation were compared to ratings by job coaches, and over time, student scores and job coach scores showed an emergence of convergence one prompting was used in conjunction with self-evaluation procedures and then faded. This study incorporated the use of a technology-based self-evaluation form. Social validity results demonstrate both students and job coaches involved in the study found self-evaluation to be beneficial to work performance and expressed enjoyment. Furthermore students felt more independent and in control of their work environments, and job coaches felt the students improved in independent living skills and taking ownership of their actions and work behaviors. Implications for practice suggest the incorporation of self-evaluation in the community work setting can positively benefit work performance and increase skills of self-awareness.
 
59. Considerations When Selecting Stimulus Preference Assessment Procedures
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
JORDAN DAVID LILL (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute for Genetics and Rehabilitation), Mark D. Shriver (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute for Genetics and Rehabilitation)
Abstract: Graff and Karsten (2012) reported that nine in ten Board Certified Behavior Analysts and Associate Behavior Analysts frequently use stimulus preference assessment (SPA) procedures. There are six distinct empirically-derived SPA procedures available to behavior analysts to evaluate preference. However, guidance on how to select optimal SPA procedures are limited which may lead to the selection of less efficacious SPA procedures and failure to identify reinforcers (Steinhilber & Johnston, 2007). This presentation will highlight the strengths and limitations of two decision-making models for selecting SPA procedures currently available (Karsten, Lepper, & Carr, 2011; Virues-Ortega et al., 2014). A decision-making model for selecting SPA procedures will be presented that will address the limitations of previous models by considering the characteristics of the client, stimuli, and setting. The decision-making model will also consider motivating operations and outcome agreement across procedures. Practitioners will be able to identify efficacious SPA procedures that best fit the context of the environment, client, and stimuli using an easy-to-follow flowchart.
 
 
 
Poster Session #62
Sunday, September 29, 2019
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Stockholm Waterfront Congress Centre, Level 4, Balcony
60.

The Effects of Functional Communication Training on Disruptive Behavior Maintained by Task Avoidance in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RENATA MICHEL (Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo / Grupo Conduzir)
Abstract:

Functional Communication Training (FCT) is a common treatment for problem behavior Carr & Durand (1985) and it is defined as a procedure that reinforces a functionally equivalent communicative response. The current study investigated the efficacy of FCT to reduce disruptive behavior maintained by escape avoidance; verify the efficacy of a alternative fading out procedure used by Lalli, Casey, & Kates (1995), to teach the participant to tolerate, engage and complete the task independently. Participants were three children between three and six years old, diagnosed with autism, that never had received any previous behavior treatment and were regularly attending to a mainstream school for at least one year. The sessions were conducted at a particular clinic. An experimental functional analysis was conducted to assess the function of disruptive behaviors for all the participants. The functional analysis was composed of three experimental conditions: A - Demand; B - Control; and C - Attention condition. All functional analysis and intervention sessions were 5 min induration, and data on disruptive behavior were collected using 10-s momentary time sampling. In the Functional Communication Training (FCT) condition, each participant was taught to request a pause to perform tasks through verbal responses. Teaching the non verbal response. A fading out procedure was implemented. The task execution response was taught and a gradual decrease of the prompt was implemented, from highest to lowest: FP - total physical prompt, DL - partial physical prompt, DG - gestural prompt and I - independent response. A naive experimenter were asked to conduct the same procedures of condition 1 and 2. Functional analyses results showed that the there was a considerably greater number of disruptive responses emitted by the three participants in the demand condition.The results showed all the participants presented a decrease in disruptive behavior after the acquisition of a verbal response to request a pause to perform tasks. The results also indicated the participants acquired responses for the task execution, reducing the emission of verbal pause requests and maintaining a low number of disruptive behavior. The generalization test of the verbal response (mand) and the non-verbal response (do the task) to a naive experimenter, it was verified that for all the participants there was generalization of the verbal and non verbal responses.

 
62.

Eating Meatballs: Increased Food Consumption by Providing Choices

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HAMPUS ERIK BEJNÖ (Department of Special Education, Stockholm University), Amanda Marie Jackman (Autism Center for Young Children, Habilitation & Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden), Lars Klintwall (Department of Psychology, Stockholm University)
Abstract:

Selective eating is common among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It can in some cases threaten the physical development of the child, as it requires a variety of nutrients from different sources. In a single-case experimental design (SCED) a 5.6 year old boy with ASD who displayed food selectivity and only ate pasta, french fries, vegetables and fruit received a food choice intervention in order to increase his consumption of food containing protein. The target behavior was to eat meatballs during family dinner. In the baseline condition the boy could pick any amount of meatballs he wanted from a bowl in the middle of the table, whereas in the experimental condition the boy was asked to choose between two bowls containing different amounts of meatballs. An ABAB design was used to demonstrate experimental control over the target behavior. The boy displayed an increased consumption of meatballs and thus protein during the SCED’s two experimental conditions, which proved the effectiveness of the intervention.

 
63.

Effects of Social Stories using Video Self-Modeling and Discrete Trial Teaching using Text Card on Social Communication Skills of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EUNJUNG HUR (Dankook University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of social story intervention using video self - modeling and discrete trial teaching intervention using text card on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. The subjects of the study were six boys with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 5 and 7 years. This study used alternating treatments design with initial baseline phase , final best-treatments phase and maintenance and the frequency of greeting, requesting, pecentage of responses were estimated through the sessions. The results of this study were as follows: First, DTT using text card was effective to acquire social communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorder with acquisition deficits and social story intervention using video self-modeling was effective to increase the social communication behavior for the children with performances deficits. Second, the children received the social story intervention using video self-modeling performed faster than the children received DTT using text card. Third, all subjects showed the maintenance effect of acquired skills after withdrawal of best effective intervention. Fourth, the effect of intervention was generalized during follow-up sessions except greeting behavior. The subjects received social story intervention using video self - modeling showed a higher level of generalization than the subjects received DTT using text card. These results indicated that DTT intervention using text card is effective for social communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorder with defects acquiring social communication skills and social story intervention based on video self-modeling was effective for social communication behaviors for the children with autism spectrum disorder with defects skill performances.

 
64.

Reduction of Food Selection by a Functional Assessment and a Questionnaire

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXANDRA LECESTRE (BA-eService), Laurent Keser (BA-eService)
Abstract:

Eating issues are a major problem for a lot of children with ASD. It can be a real challenge for their health and for their inclusion to the community at the short, middle or long term. This problem’s resolution has a great social significance for improving the lives of the persons. A functional assessment coupled with a questionnaire on eating habits was implemented in 2 children with autism of 5 and 6 years to increase for one, the amount of food ingested, and for the other, the food diversification. The coupling of these 2 types of evaluations made it possible to set up effective programs in both cases to decrease the number of challenging behaviors and to increase the amount of food or the number of accepted different foods by a better definition of the program steps in the food exposure, the shaping, and the acquisition criteria. It would be interesting to use the food habit questionnaire for other situations in order to assess its effectiveness in developing food-related programs.

 
65.

A Comparison of Modified Food Chaining and Simultaneous Presentation Plus Nonremoval of the Spoon to Treat Food Selectivity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Catherine McHugh (Brock University), KIMBERLEY L. M. ZONNEVELD (Brock University)
Abstract:

Feeding disorders can range from mild (e.g., food selectivity by taste or texture) to severe (e.g., total food refusal). If left untreated, feeding disorders can result in serious health ramifications, including malnutrition, growth delays, and developmental delays. Recent studies comparing commonly used occupational therapy (OT) treatments (sensory integration therapy and a modified sequential oral sensory approach) and empirically supported behavioral treatments found behavioral treatments to be more effective for all participants while both OT treatments were ineffective for all participants. The purpose of this study is to compare a modified version of another commonly used OT treatment, food chaining, to an empirically validated behavioral treatment, simultaneous presentation plus nonremoval of the spoon, to treat food selectivity in three children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

 
66.

Relational Learning Between Symbols and Words Representative of the Addition and Subtraction by T-IRAP for a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NOZOMI YOSHIDA (Meisei University), Daiki Furuya (Meisei University), Koji Takeuchi (Meisei University)
Abstract:

This research is for a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder who can not perform appropriate calculation when asked to add and subtract in words (For example, "+" is replaced by the word "add"). The signs of addition and subtraction and words expressing them was learned by T-IRAP, which is a computer task, and then it was investigated whether an appropriate calculation could be performed. T-IRAP displays stimuli at the top and center of the monitor and it involves a task to seek appropriate selection ("same" or "different") based on the relationship between the two stimuli. Participating child did 32 sentence problems expressing additions and subtractions in words before T-IRAP, immediately after T-IRAP, 2 weeks after and 1 month after implementation. As a result, the number of correct answers before T-IRAP implementation was 20, but immediately after implementation, after 2 weeks and after 1 month all questions were answered correctly. In other words, by using T-IRAP, learning the relationship between signs of addition and subtraction and also words expressing them, makes it possible for a child with the disorder to perform appropriate calculations.

 
67. Applied Behavior Analysis in the Czech Republic: Strides Made and Progress Needed
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHERI KINGSDORF (Masaryk University ), Karel Pancocha (Masaryk University)
Abstract: Over the past decade there has been an increase in the awareness and recognition of autism in the Czech Republic. Even with this rise, practices for diagnosis are still in their infancy, only being seen within the last 30 years. Therefore, it is not surprising that areas like education and treatment are too lagging. Even with the late introduction of diagnostic practices, the Czech Republic has made applied behavior analysis (ABA) part of the conversation surrounding treatment. This introduction has been minimal, though, with the availability of ABA services being scarce. The presence of the science of behavior in the Czech Republic is in a state of growth. However, the full impact of this maturation is relatively unknown. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to look closer at the applications of ABA in this region by conducting a preliminary assessment on the recent expansion of the science. Preliminary results indicate that parents play an integral role in the service delivery model; but that there are current gaps in data collection, assessment, and curriculum development. This valuable information can be used to drive future practitioner curriculum in the area.
 
68.

Parent-Mediated Early Intervention for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in India: Preliminary Outcomes

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GEETIKA AGARWAL (Ball State University; Stepping Stones Center, Bangalore, India), Svetlana Iyer (Stepping Stones Center, Bangalore, India), Divya D'Souza (Stepping Stones Center, Bangalore, India)
Abstract:

Literature suggests that Early Intervention (EI) is the most effective intervention program to increase behavioural outcomes of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Solomon et. al. (2007) reported that although the methods of early intervention programs available to children may vary, they all share a few characteristics: Early, Intensive, and one-on-one intervention. While researchers continue to “perfect the formula of early intervention”, a number of studies have demonstrated positive outcomes for parent-implemented EI approaches to address behavioural problems, parent-child interactions, and to facilitate communication. In a first study of its kind, we share outcome data from a 6-week ABA-based and parent-implemented EI program at a private clinic in Bangalore, India. Thirty children between 18 months to 60 months old and their caregivers enrolled in the program. The teaching goals were designed in the areas of co-operation, play, visual performance, motor imitation skills, social interaction, behavioral skills, receptive and expressive language. The parents were taught errorless teaching procedures for skill acquisition along with behaviour management strategies. The result of the program demonstrated significant gains for children across all domains, supporting the existing literature. This is an especially important outcome for a country such as India which has few trained professionals, very limited knowledge and awareness about ABA and a growing recognition of the prevalence of ASD and need for EI.

 
69.

Cultural and Family Factors on Parent-Mediated Multimodal Communication Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Ching-Yi Liao (Texas A&M University), Jennifer Ganz (Texas A&M University), Kimberly Vannest (Texas A & M University), Yan Li (Texas A&M University), Yi-Fan Li (Texas A&M University), Sarah Ura (Texas A&M University), SANIKAN WATTANAWONGWAN (Texas A&M University)
Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction, language, and communication as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Multimodal communication intervention (MCI) focuses on children's natural speech productions that children are taught to develop their own communication skills via nonsymbolic and symbolic forms of expression to communicate with others. After receiving training from professionals, caregivers with limited experience can be taught to implement communication intervention correctly. However, culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional (CLDE) children with ASD and their families who speak native languages other than English usually do not receive sufficient and appropriate services and supports. To understand CLDE children’s cultures and special needs, collaborating with parents is an important component of a successful special education program. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cultural and family factors on parent-mediated multimodal communication intervention for children with ASD. The participants were four families who spoke more than one language and shared more than one culture at home. The parents' implementation of the intervention strategies and the children's communication behaviors were evaluated in a multiple-probe design with baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases, as well as generalization phases across all phases. One cultural background survey, a parent interview, and the short coaching surveys were conducted to understand each family's acculturation, cultural background, and parent feedback to provide culturally appropriate parent coaching. Parents implemented learned strategies with the children and got feedback from the coach during each parent coaching session. This presentation will present the results of parents' implementation of intervention components, children’s communicative outcomes, and social validity. Limitations and suggestions for future research will be discussed.

 
70. Cross-Cultural Content Validity of the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale in Sweden
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HAMPUS ERIK BEJNÖ (Department of special education, Stockholm University), Lise Renat Roll-Pettersson (Department of special education, Stockholm University), Lars Klintwall (Department of Psychology, Stockholm University), Ulrika Langh (Stockholm Autism Center and Karolinska Institutet), Samuel L. Odom (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), Sven Bolte (Karolinska Institutet)
Abstract: Increasing rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and younger age at diagnosis pose a challenge to preschool intervention systems. In Sweden, most young autistic children receive intervention service in community-based preschool programs, but no tool is yet available to assess the quality of the preschool learning environment. This study adapted the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale Preschool/Elementary to Swedish community context (APERS-P-SE). Following translation and a multistep modification process, independent experts rated the content validity of the adaptation. Findings indicate high cross-cultural validity of the adapted APERS-P-SE. The cultural adaption process of the APERS-P-SE highlights similarities and differences between the American and Swedish preschool systems and their impact on early ASD intervention.
 
71.

Using Telehealth and Consultation to Reduce Problem Behavior in a Speech Therapy Session: A Behavioural Consultation Model

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
GEETIKA AGARWAL (Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA; Stepping Stones Center, India.), Jency Blesson (Jewel Autism Center, Kerela, India.)
Abstract:

Positive reinforcement is effective in reducing inappropriate behaviours, while increasing appropriate and adaptive behaviours. In this study, we demonstrated the use of positive reinforcement, by a speech therapist within the participant’s speech therapy session. The intervention was developed using a consultative model, along with a Board certified Behavior analyst using telehealth. The intervention was developed address out of seat and screaming behaviours in a 3 years and 9 months old child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The participant was enrolled in an autism centre in Kerala, India where he was receiving Occupational Therapy (OT), Speech Therapy (ST) and Individual Education Program. The intervention was implemented by a speech therapist in the regularly scheduled speech therapy session, where the therapist collected ongoing data, and also videotaped the session for review and feedback. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the outcome of the intervention. Inter-observer agreement (IOA) data were collected for 100% of the sessions. IOA was calculating by dividing the number of agreements by the sum of the number of agreements and disagreements and then multiplying by 100%. For the sessions, IOA was 100%. The results indicated that the intervention was effective in reduction of the two target problem behaviour.

 
73. Promoting Generalization of Varied Play Behavior With Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BETHANY P. CONTRERAS YOUNG (Middle Tennessee State University ), Thomas S. Higbee (Utah State University), Annie Galizio (Utah State University), Azure Pellegrino (University of Kansas), Lorraine A Becerra (Utah State University)
Abstract: One of the defining characteristics of autism is the presence of excessive repetitive behaviors. Many children with autism engage in rigid and repetitive play. Researchers have shown that variability of play behavior, among other behaviors, can be increased through contingencies of reinforcement. However, little is known regarding generalization of response variability beyond the specific responses that are trained. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of combining multiple exemplar training with discrimination training on promoting generalization of varied play behavior to untrained play materials. After increasing variability of play behavior by implementing lag schedules across multiple play sets, we observed generalization of varied play to untrained play sets with all three participants.
 
74. An Evaluation of Fidelity of Implementation of a Manualized Social-Play Curriculum
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW T. BRODHEAD (Michigan State University), Emma Seliina Sipila (Michigan State University ), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Play is the foundation upon which social skills are built. Though typically developing children learn from an early age to interact socially through play, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate characteristic deficits in social interaction and often do not engage in social play like their typically developing peers. When children with ASD engage in inappropriate, rigid, or isolated play, their peers often perceive them as odd or disrespectful. These perceptions lead to social isolation and stigmatization, and interfere with a child's ability to build meaningful relationships with peers. The purposes of the present study were to: (1) implement a component of a play curriculum for children with ASD, and (2) measure the extent to which that curriculum was accurately implemented by instructors. The results of this study indicated that instructors implemented the curriculum with high levels of treatment fidelity. The implementation of an instructor self-monitoring checklist further increased instructor fidelity. These findings and implications are discussed.
 
75. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on the Acquisition of Swimming Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSEY ERIN WRIGHT (Quest Swims)
Abstract: Childhood obesity is a growing public health concern. Studies have suggested that children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a prevalence of obesity higher than that of the general population (Hill, Zuckerman, and Fombonne, 2015). Specific interventions to increase physical activity in this population are needed to promote a more active lifestyle. The current study evaluated the effects of Behavior Skills Training (BST) on the acquisition of aquatic skills needed to swim laps for 3 participants diagnosed with ASD. Prior to implementation of BST, each participant was evaluated using the American Red Cross Learn-to-Swim Level 4 criteria. Skills selected were those needed to swim laps for exercise. Baseline data showed that targeted skills were 0% correct.  Treatment was evaluated using a multiple baseline across skills. Results showed that the percentage correct increased for all skills following BST. These results suggest that BST is a viable approach for teaching swimming as exercise to children with ASD.
 
76.

Parent-Implemented School-Readiness Skill Training Using iPad in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUKA ISHIZUKA (University of Tsukuba, Faculty of Human Sciences), Natsumi Ishikawa (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) acquired school readiness skills through parent-implemented video modeling intervention using iPad. Two preschool children with ASD participated in this study. We used multiple baseline design across stimulus sets to evaluate the intervention effect. We created videos about school-readiness skills such as rules for engaging in collective action or making friends. In the baseline, the child watched a video which are not presented the corrected answers and the therapist asked the child what to do in such a scene. In the training1, the appropriate answer in a sentence were presented after video and the child was asked to read the answer. In the training2, the child watched a video modeling video which were presented the appropriate answers on an iPad with parent. When the child answer appropriate answer, the parent presented the verbal praise. At the baseline and training1 phase, all children had low correct rates. However, all children increased their correct response rate following training2 and maintained the correct response at follow up. The results suggest that parent-implemented video modeling intervention using iPad can be an effective procedure for acquiring school readiness skills.

 
77.

A Behavioral Approach to Using Tripartite Interpersonal Distance as a Measure of Social Engagement

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
Masashi Tsukamoto (Keio University), AIRI TSUJI (University of Tsukuba), Satoru Sekine (Keio University), Kenji Suzuki (University of Tsukuba), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract:

Engineering technologies have provided various perspectives for the social intervention in children with autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether the motion capture system (MCS) could quantify the social interactions between an adult and two typically developing children (age 5, respectively). This experiment consisted of a single session including two types of phases: testing and interaction. In testing phases, the children wore a specialized cap which acquires the information about head position, and then freely played with several toys in the circle with a diameter of approximately four meters. The adult was pinned to a predetermined position and took little initiative in that play. In interaction phases, the adult exhibited positive affect such as smiling, laughing, and playful vocal tone to provide reinforcement for the child’s social-communicative responses. After interaction phases, the children engaged in increased levels of social behavior although the observable distances between the children and the adult on the testing phases were almost the same level through the session (the MCS data is under analysis). The results may suggest that a wide variety of social behaviors other than making an approach are available for typically developing children.

 
78.

Telepractice Parent Coaching in a Multimodal Communication Intervention: Part 1, Parent Implementation and Part 2, Child Outcomes and Correlations

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SANIKAN WATTANAWONGWAN (Texas A&M University), Jennifer Ganz (Texas A&M University), Lauren Pierson (Texas A&M University), Valeria Yllades (Texas A&M University), Ching-Yi Liao (Texas A&M University - College Station, TX), Sarah Ura (Texas A&M University)
Abstract:

Telepractice parent coaching facilitates communication between therapists and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and provides the potential to decrease the discrepancy between demand for behavioral intervention services and families’ ability to access those services. The purpose of this single case multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effects of telepractice coaching on child communication skills in a multimodal communication intervention with parents of children with ASD. Three parent-child dyads and one parent-child triad participated in the study, with child ages ranging from 3 years to 15 years. The study design included three main phase changes in each level, including baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. The generalization data was conducted across all three phases. All parents completed 10 to 12 coaching sessions ranging in duration from 30 to 60 minutes one time per week via a telepractice platform. The coach provided weekly feedback to parents after data analyzation of a video-recorded parent-child interaction. Results of the functional relation between parents’ fidelity and intervention, correlation and effects between parents’ fidelity and the child’s behavior, study limitations, and implications will be discussed.

 
80. Least-To-Most Prompting in Increasing Frequency and Diversity of Pretend Play in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DİNÇER SARAL (Anadolu University), Burcu Ulke Kurkcuoglu (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of least-to-most prompting (LTM) with the use of contingent imitation (CI) on increasing frequency and diversity of pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three children with