Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

Program by : Monday, May 29, 2023


 

Symposium #308
Hypothetical Purchase Tasks and Public Health Concerns: Sleep, Substance-Use, and the Impact of Alternative Reinforcers
Monday, May 29, 2023
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom C
Area: EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kayla Rinna (Eastern Michigan University)
Discussant: Justin Charles Strickland (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Hypothetical purchase tasks capture ecologically informed preferences for a given reinforcer across a range of prices. They are convenient tools for deriving estimates of reinforcer demand. This symposium involves innovative applications of the hypothetical purchasing task methodology, specifically attending to alternative or competing reinforcers. Four studies assess (1) demand for alcohol when other options are available and characterizing these options as substitutes, complements, or independent; (2) demand for sleep considering nappers and non-nappers, across contextual manipulations and including chores that compete with sleep; (3) demand for alcohol under consideration of relevant, next-day priorities; and (4) alcohol and non-alcohol consumption patterns of student athletes and non-athletes. Understanding relative reinforcer value will aid the development of novel therapeutic targets to alleviate public health concerns.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Identifying Alternative Sources of Reinforcement for Alcohol Use: Preliminary Analysis of Novel Activity Purchase Tasks
(Basic Research)
SARAH CATHERINE WEINSZTOK (University of Kansas), Derek D. Reed (University of Kansas), Michael Amlung (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Behavioral economic frameworks suggest that hazardous alcohol use is a temporally extended pattern of behavior that occurs in the presence of other contextual variables. Thus, alcohol demand may be impacted by the availability of alternative or competing reinforcers. Purchase tasks are a useful way of assessing demand for alcohol in the face of alternative commodities because they permit researchers to functionally define these alternatives as having a substitutable, complementary, or independent relation to alcohol consumption. However, using purchase tasks to help identify alternative reinforcers to drug use remains a relatively nascent area. We therefore tested the feasibility of adapting purchase task methodology to alternative activity engagement in a series of novel activity purchase tasks. Participants recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (N=176) were administered an alcohol purchase task, a preference assessment of various daily activities, and purchase tasks of those activities. Results showed systematic impacts of price on demand, providing a preliminary demonstration that purchase task methodology can be successfully adapted to assess demand for preferred non-drug-related alternative activities. However, continued methodological refinement is warranted. We discuss the implications and future directions of this research in identifying candidate activities that may serve as substitutes for alcohol use.
 
How Much Would You Pay for Sleep? The Behavioral Economics of Undergraduates’ Sleep
(Basic Research)
KAYLA RINNA (Eastern Michigan University), Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University), Claudia Drossel (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Lack of sleep is a public health concern. The current study examined whether hypothetical purchasing tasks offer a method for quantifying the value of sleep among undergraduate students. Instructions were varied systematically to assess within-person effects, and a sleep questionnaire distinguished two groups of sleepers: nappers (n = 178) and non-nappers (n = 215). Validity checks and data-cleaning algorithms were used to ensure data integrity. About half of the participants (59.6%) produced valid data, resulting in systematic purchasing patterns, whether sleep could be purchased in isolation or in a context that made sure that chores would still be completed if the participant slept. Hypothetical purchasing tasks have the potential to enhance a behavioral economics approach to sleep and generate public health solutions.
 
Individually Tailoring Hypothetical Purchase Tasks in the Context of Next-Day Responsibilities
(Basic Research)
BRANDON PATRICK MILLER (University of Kansas), James Murphy (University of Memphis), James MacKillop (McMaster University), Michael Amlung (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Researchers can manipulate alcohol purchase tasks (APTs) to determine how demand for alcohol is influenced by context. One contextual factor that influences demand for alcohol is the presence of a next-day responsibility (e.g., Gilbert et al., 2014; Skidmore & Murphy, 2011); however, previous research has relied on college samples and examined a limited range of responsibilities. We replicated and extended previous research using a sample of community adults reporting last-year alcohol use from Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 261; Mean age = 38.42; 79% White; 60% identified as men; 39% identified as women; 39% identified as non-binary) and eight hypothetical next-day responsibilities to determine if similar results would be found. To ensure that responsibilities were relevant to individual participants, they first rank-ordered all eight responsibilities. Participants then completed a standard no-responsibility APT, followed by two additional APTs in the context of their two highest ranked responsibilities. Intensity, breakpoint, Omax, and Pmax were significantly higher in the no responsibilities condition compared to both responsibility conditions (ps < .001); however, there was no significant difference in any demand index between the first and second ranked responsibility (p range .65-.91). We discuss these results and the advantages and disadvantages of individualizing commodity purchase tasks.
 
Alcohol Demand in College Students: The Roles of Athletic Involvement and Gender
(Basic Research)
REBECCA KURNELLAS (University of Kansas), Margaret P. Martinetti (The College of New Jersey), Elizabeth Taylor (Temple University), Rose Ward (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: College athletes represent a high-risk group for alcohol use and associated consequences. We used the Alcohol Purchase Task to compare alcohol demand among men and women student-athletes and those not involved in college sports. In our first study (n = 196), student-athletes had significantly higher expenditures on alcohol (Omax) compared with non-athletes, and men had significantly higher demand intensity compared with women. Observed demand indices were also positively correlated with other measures of alcohol use/consequences, such as the AUDIT, DDQ, and B-YAACQ. In our second study (n = 1282 with systematic APT), we added the probability-based Cup-Price Purchase Task (CPPT; Morrell, Reed, & Martinetti, 2021) to investigate whether student-athletes would display higher demand for a “bottomless cup” compared with non-athletes. Finally, we used the APT-Choice (Martinetti et al., 2019) to examine whether men and women student athletes would differ in their sensitivity to alcohol price when a non-alcoholic alternative option was available within the purchase task vignette. The findings are discussed with respect to the use of hypothetical purchase tasks to both describe demand for alcohol and alcohol-related commodities among at-risk students and to assess the viability of low-cost alternatives as a harm-reduction measure.
 
 
Symposium #309
CE Offered: BACB
Applications and Extensions of the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction
Monday, May 29, 2023
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Convention Center 403/404
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Kent Johnson, Ph.D.
Abstract: The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction (MMGI) delineates evidence-based teaching, practice, measurement and assessment procedures, and sound instructional design practices to produce superior learner performance. This symposium will focus on several aspects of the model. First, Guy Bruce will describe an organizational performance engineering system to evaluate and alter instruction based upon frequent measurement of learner performance. The system changes how providers work together so that every student makes efficient progress. Second, Andrew Kieta will describe recent extensions of Morningside’s procedures and to make it more likely that learners will apply what they have been taught in novel, real-world circumstances. These extensions also justify new generalization concepts. Third, Adam Hockman will illustrate how he uses Morningside’s assessment, measurement, and instructional design procedures to sharpen and extend advanced concert musicians’ performances. Finally, Kelsia King will describe a video conferencing process for implementing Morningside procedures to teach math in elementary schools in South Africa.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Professionals interested in behavioral education, direct instruction, Precision teaching/frequency building, special education, general education, and decision making. Audience should have a basic understanding of applied behavior analysis as applied to academic learning behavior.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. List and describe the four EARS repertoires for pragmatic decision making, 2. Define simple generative responding and describe procedures for teaching students how to engage in simple generative responding, and 3. Describe how to use the Standard Celeration Chart as a measurement and decision making tool for music performances.
 
Evaluate Student Progress: A Pragmatic Approach
(Theory)
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
Abstract: A pragmatic school uses it EARS to Evaluate student progress using frequent, accurate, sensitive measures, and when a student is not making efficient progress towards mastery of the knowledge and skills necessary for a successful life, Analyzes teacher performance problems, using direct measures to identify the causes of can-do, know-how, and want-problems, Recommends changes in teacher resources, training, and management, and Solves teacher performance problems by designing and implementing recommended solutions. EARS is an organizational performance engineering process that changes how providers work together so that every student makes efficient progress. A school that does not evaluate each student’s progress using frequent, accurate sensitive measures of student behavior change and make changes in teacher resources, training, and management when a student is not making efficient progress, will be unable to ensure that every student makes efficient progress. This talk will address the following questions: Why are frequent, accurate, sensitive measures of student progress necessary to ensure that every student makes efficient progress? How do these measures differ from the usual measures that schools collect to evaluate student progress? Why does a pragmatic school need to evaluate the efficiency of student progress?
 
Promoting Real-World Application After Instruction: Structured Forms, Cognitive Strategy Instruction, Think-Alouds, and Delayed Prompting
(Theory)
ANDREW ROBERT KIETA (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Effective people engage in behaviors they were previously taught under a vastly wider variety of contexts than those presented in classrooms. We call applying the same behavior we were taught in a new context simple generative responding. To promote simple generative responding, most teachers provide suggestions or wisdom to students about applying the behaviors elsewhere. Some learners need only a few models to successfully apply the skills that they have been taught. However, a fully functional analysis must include more than hope for application. Even if they performed well during instruction, many learners require explicit instruction in knowing how, when, and why to apply their instructed skills. At Morningside Academy we have developed a Generative Instruction model for teaching learners to engage in application as well as novel behavior. Success in simple generative responding begins with designing progressions of “structured forms” that gradually approximate real-life events, and implementing two procedures to facilitate application: Cognitive Strategy Instruction with teacher think alouds to broaden the context in which a skill is initially taught, and delayed prompting to guide application of the skill in new contexts.
 
Generative Practice Strategies for Advanced Concert Musicians
(Service Delivery)
ADAM HOCKMAN (MGH Institute of Health Professions & ABA Technologies)
Abstract: Experienced musicians often have limited practice skill and strategy repertoires. Many rely on trial and error and advice from teachers. When those methods don’t work, it’s easy for students to get stuck and frustrated. This session presents the work from a practice and performance analytics course taught at the Heifetz International Music Institute. The course combined elements of the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction (MMGI) to close skill gaps, boost confidence, and achieve generative outcomes with aspiring concert musicians ages 8–30. By using component-composite analysis, explicit instruction, frequency building, and application exercises, musicians learned to identify and analyze performance problems, select and implement interventions, and measure the outcomes of their efforts. Performance data and work samples demonstrate the efficacy of teaching students to master their own practice and performance journeys.
 

Adding to a Maths Program: Charles Duna Primary School, Gqeberha, South Africa and Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research (PEER) International

(Service Delivery)
KELSIA LAUREN KING (Jumpstart Autism Center), Nombuelo Sume (Charles Duna Primary School), Jarren Gangiah (Charles Duna Primary School), Joanne K. Robbins (Morningside Academy & PEER International), Leah Herzog (Morningside Academy / PEER International)
Abstract:

In collaboration with educators in the Eastern Cape townships of South Africa since 2004, PEER International (Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research) has shared the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction. Professional development and coaching sessions were held in Gqebehra (formerly Port Elizabeth) utilizing a train-the-trainer model. Shifting from a focus on literacy to numeracy, video conferencing was employed during the pandemic with educators at Charles Duna Primary School and educators in the U.S. The effort blended the South African curricula from Maths Rainbow, Singapore Math and Spring Math, and analyzed objectives from a component - composite approach. The initial 2022 inquiry from the faculty of Charles Duna was to find a maths related resource similar to Headsprout, the reading program provided to PEER schools who had computers and internet access. Math Playground was made available, however, it is not a programmed sequence and more explicit instruction was needed. Diagnostic assessments, administered in isiXhosa, had to be translated to inform the video conferencing sessions. Unlike the United States, standardized testing and curriculum-based assessments are not readily available. The pilot program presented here will be implemented in the 2023 school year in maths instruction from Grade R (Reception) through Grade 7.

 
 
Symposium #317
Diversity submission Putting the MATRIX Project Into Action: An Update on Projects of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility SIG
Monday, May 29, 2023
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: CSS; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kathryn M. Roose (Unaffiliated)
Discussant: Holly Seniuk (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract: The mission of Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group (BFSR SIG) is to expand applications of behavior analysis and cultural analysis addressing global issues such as social justice, environmental justice, and human rights. For the past several years BFSR has been using a matrix analysis (Biglan, 1995; Mattaini, 2013) to identify the practices that support, oppose, motivate, and select the development and utilization of scientific behavioral systems to address social issues. Upon identifying 28 societal sectors, work groups comprised of SIG members have been applying the matrix analyses to various issues of social importance. This symposium will highlight the work of two of those work groups, the Sustainability Work Group and the Public Health Work Group.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): cultural analysis, culturo-behavior science, public health, sustainability
 
Diversity submission Exploring the Intersection of Behavior Science and Public Health
(Theory)
JONATHAN A. SCHULZ (Vermont Center on Behavior and Health)
Abstract: The purpose of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility (BFSR) Public Health Work Group is to explore the intersection between behavior science and public health. This work group explores the ways in which behavior scientists and public health workers can collaborate and learn from one another to affect population level outcomes. In the past year, the group has created a fact sheet for public health as an ABA subspeciality area for the BACB website and presented a poster at ABAI’s 48th Annual Convention. Currently, the group is working on developing a call for submissions to a multi-journal collection exploring the assessment and measurement of behavior change of public health importance; writing manuscripts related to the relationship between public health and behavior science; and creating panels, symposiums, and posters for behavior analytic conferences.
 
Diversity submission 

Exploring the Role of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI)’s Affiliate Chapters in Addressing Climate Change

(Theory)
MOLLY BENSON (Berkshire Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy), Holly Seniuk (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Sarah Lichtenberger (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Julia H. Fiebig (Ball State University), Molli Luke (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract:

Climate change has been identified as a “super wicked problem” and is one of the most pressing issues facing humanity today. The Sustainability Work Group of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group (BFSR SIG) is focused on applying the matrix analysis to sectors linked to behavior analysis, primarily sectors comprised of behavior analysts (e.g., ABAI affiliate chapters, SIGs, practitioners). Over the past year the work group has focused on identifying practices that ABAI affiliate chapters can take support to their membership in engaging in pro-environmental behaviors and taking climate action, and making their regional conferences more green. This presentation will discuss those practices. Additionally, the work group has developed a survey to support conference organizers in evaluating their current practices in relation to sustainability. The survey is currently being piloted with some affiliate chapters. In this presentation the survey will be shared along with a description of the development of the survey and discussion of future directions.

 
 
Symposium #327
CE Offered: BACB
Building Reinforcing Interactions: Accelerated Learning Through Reinforcement System Training
Monday, May 29, 2023
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom F
Area: AAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Josef Harris (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz, Ph.D.
Abstract:

According to Sidman (2010), Skinner (1938) was able to produce fast learning when teaching his rats to press a lever because he started by teaching them how the reinforcement procedure was going to work. This is usually called magazine training in the laboratory. The learner must understand when reinforcement is available, where to go or what to do to access the reinforcer, how to consume the reinforcer, and how to go back to training after finishing the reinforcer. Skinner more specifically described these behaviors as a behavior chain, as reinforcement involves a series of actions on the part of the learner. Early behavior analysts who worked in both laboratory and applied settings knew that it was crucial to begin with magazine training. However, many modern behavior analysts do not understand the important skills that a learner learns during this step. Without this foundation, learners are not fully prepared for future learning. This symposium will show how starting with reinforcement system training leads to accelerated learning in applied settings.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, chaining, clicker training, horses
Target Audience:

BCBAs, clinical directors, animal trainers

Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will be able to name the elements of the reinforcement system. 2) Participants will be able to describe why it is important to train the reinforcement system first. 3) Participants will be able to identify breaks and follows when analyzing a reinforcement system.
 

Introducing Horses to Clicker Training: Accelerated Learning Through Reinforcement System Training

(Applied Research)
MARY ELIZABETH HUNTER (Behavior Explorer), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Clicker training and positive reinforcement training are growing in popularity among horse owners. However, there is a lack of systematic, step-by-step procedures for owners to follow when introducing a horse to clicker training. Some professional trainers advocate for “charging” the clicker; other trainers begin straightaway with teaching a new behavior, such as touching a target or turning the head away. The lack of precise instructions means that some horses perform unwanted, and potentially dangerous, behaviors during initial training sessions, including nipping, biting, pushing, and searching the person for food. These behaviors may be accidentally reinforced and may discourage owners from continuing with positive reinforcement training. This presentation will describe a step-by-step approach for introducing horses to positive reinforcement training. Horses learned how to consume the reinforcer, where the reinforcer would be delivered, and when the reinforcer would be delivered. Next, the horses learned three additional behaviors, including touching a target, backing up, and stay. Results showed that horses were able to learn the reinforcement system with few or no errors and that starting with reinforcement system training produced accelerated learning on other tasks.

 

Building Joyful Back-and-Forth Interactions and Accelerated Learning for Children With Autism Through Reinforcement System Training

(Applied Research)
CRYSTAL FERNANDEZ (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Most therapy procedures for children with autism are based in positive reinforcement. Recommendations for the application of positive reinforcement have often been based on characteristics of the reinforcer, such as size, immediacy, level of deprivation, and the schedule used. However, there are other factors that are also important in the successful application of positive reinforcement, including aspects related to how the reinforcer is delivered. Related to this, Skinner (1938) discussed how reinforcement involves a chain of behaviors. In the context of autism therapy, reinforcement involves the interaction of two organisms, the therapist and child, and these interactions create an interlocking chain of behaviors. Yet, this chain of interactions is often not explicitly taught, resulting in unwanted behaviors and slower progress for the child. This presentation will describe a procedure and data collection system for evaluating reinforcement systems during therapy sessions. Results show that rebuilding faulty reinforcement systems leads to more teaching opportunities and accelerated learning.

 
 
Panel #331
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of Behavior Analysis to Public Health: An Opportunity for Dissemination
Monday, May 29, 2023
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Quartz AB
Area: CSS; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Candace R Fay, M.S.
Chair: Candace R Fay (Florida Institute of Technology)
CRYSTAL M. SLANZI (Temple University)
SARAH CATHERINE WEINSZTOK (University of Kansas)
TRACI M. CIHON (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Abstract:

Human behavior has an impact on many public health concerns, such as the spread of infectious disease. As such behavior analysts are in a unique position to contribute to public health research and practice at all three intervention levels: primary (e.g., prevention), secondary (e.g., screening), and tertiary (e.g., treatment). Public health differs from behavior analysis in that it is focused on health at the community and population level rather than the individual level. However, we can still contribute a number of our methodologies in assessment, measurement, and intervention to this area. The panelists will share their experiences in applying behavior analysis to public health and will be available to answer questions from students, particularly as they relate to dissemination, branching out within behavior analysis, and networking with like-minded professionals.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Graduate students, Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will be able to identify examples where behavior analysis can contribute to public health research and practice at all three intervention levels: primary (e.g., prevention), secondary (e.g., screening), and tertiary (e.g., treatment). 2. Following the presentation, attendees should be able to identify behavior analytic methodologies in assessment, measurement, and intervention that can be applied to public health. 3. Attendees will be able to identify broader applications of behavior analysis to public health around the world and approaches to improving levels of community engagement.
 
 
Symposium #335
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Under Shifting Conditions of Reinforcement
Monday, May 29, 2023
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom C
Area: EAB/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Chata A. Dickson, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium features translational research evaluating behavior under shifting conditions of reinforcement. Two of the studies were conducted in outdoor settings with typically developing adults serving as participants. One of these evaluated effects of effort on resurgence of shooting a basketball from a location previously correlated with reinforcement. The other investigated resurgence of dwelling in an experimentally defined unmarked location within an 84m-squared area. In both cases, resurgence occurred consistently across repeated measures. The third study compared effects of two treatment conditions on cooperation with transitions from more-preferred to less-preferred activities. Children with autism served as participants, and the activities were similar to those they encountered daily at their school. Collectively, the studies showcase procedures for evaluating and affecting behavior in transition states.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): activity transitions, behavioral resurgence
Target Audience: Attendees should have an understanding of schedules of reinforcement and behavior analytic experimental procedures.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, if asked, participants will (1) define resurgence and describe the commonly used three-phase test for resurgence (2) describe the potential impact of remote histories of reinforcement on responding under extinction (3) describe how response effort may impact resurgence (4) describe the conditions under which transitions between activities may be problematic with respect to negative incentive shift
 
Response Effort and Behavioral Resurgence of Longer- and Shorter-Range Basketball Shots
(Basic Research)
DIEGO COYLE DIEZ (The New England Centre For Children), Drew Ewen (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Hannah Byrne (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Four typically developing adults were tasked with shooting a basketball toward a hoop from two different locations on a basketball court. Two target locations (near and far) were marked with chalk. The target response was shooting a basketball toward the hoop. Each session consisted of three components and lasted until 20 shots had occurred. First, shots from one of the locations were followed by a whistle. Second, shots from the other location were followed by a whistle. Third, no shots were followed by a whistle, and this was the test for resurgence. Each whistle was accompanied by a point exchangeable for an opportunity to win a gift card. Sessions were conducted in a reversal design, and the two conditions defined whether shots from the near or far location would be reinforced in the first component. Resurgence occurred for all participants regardless of location, and a greater magnitude of resurgence was observed when the first component targeted the near location for three out of four participants.
 
Resurgence of Spatially Defined Behavior
(Basic Research)
JULIANNA ETHEL PELKEY (Melmark New England), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: We extended previous research on resurgence by evaluating durations of dwelling within experimenter-defined spaces in a field. Participants were 7 typically developing adults who were instructed at the start of the study to move about the area and to listen for a whistle, which would signify accrual of a lottery ticket that increased their chances of winning a prize. Each session consisted of 3, 4-min phases. In the first phase, the experimenter sounded a whistle on a VI 10 s schedule only when the participant was in one of the four quadrants; in the next phase the whistle sounded only when the participant was in another of the quadrants, and in the third phase, no whistles were sounded. We were interested in the resurgence of dwelling in the first quadrant during the third phase of each session. Resurgence occurred in 22 of the 30 evaluations, and was repeated across and within participants, and with and without contingency reversals. Future research may apply similar methods, and this approach may solve some of the problems with generality that have been identified by researchers and practitioners wishing to extend the findings of resurgence studies to relevant human contexts.
 

A Comparison of Two Methods for Enhancing Cooperation With Activity Transitions

(Applied Research)
GEGUEL FEDERICO LANDESTOY, M.S., ABA, BCBA (Melmark New England ), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Activity transitions are sometimes associated with challenging behavior, perhaps especially when transitions are from higher to lower preference activities. We compared the effects of two methods of prompting activity transitions on pausing and challenging behavior. Participants were two students at a school for children with autism. The two methods, advance notice and intervening activity, were presented in a multi-element design. higher, moderate, and lower preference activities (HP, MP, and LP) were identified using preference assessments. In the advance notice condition the participant was informed that he had 1 more minute with the HP before he was cued to engage in the LP. In the intervening activity condition, the participant was provided with an MP for 1 min before he was cued to engage with the LP. Pausing started when the participant was cued to begin the LP and ended with the first active response. For one participant, the intervening activity condition resulted in shorter transition times and fewer instances of challenging behavior. For the other participant there was no difference between the two conditions. For some individuals, scheduling a period of engagement with a moderate preference activity may result in shorter times to engagement in the next activity.

 
 
Symposium #357
CE Offered: BACB
Basic and Applied Investigations of Resurgence
Monday, May 29, 2023
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom C
Area: EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kyleigh Montague (University of Florida)
Discussant: Michael P. Kranak (Oakland University)
CE Instructor: Michael P. Kranak, Ph.D.
Abstract: Resurgence is a form of relapse defined as an increase in a previously reinforced target response (e.g., challenging behavior) when conditions for a more recently reinforced alternative response (e.g., communication response) have worsened. Resurgence has been demonstrated across many species and populations in the laboratory and is prevalent in clinically relevant behavior. Recent examinations of resurgence have highlighted the advantages of translating findings from basic research to inform developments of behavioral treatments in clinical settings and, conversely, pulling from observations in applied settings to inform laboratory research. This bidirectional, translational approach deepens our understanding of behavioral processes involved in resurgence while enhancing and refining clinical practice. In this symposium, both basic and applied researchers discuss the impact of various parameters on resurgence (e.g., alternative reinforcement magnitude, target and alternative reinforcement rate) as well as mitigation strategies (e.g., inclusion of a timeout procedure). A quantitative framework of resurgence, Resurgence as Choice in Context, is also evaluated for its fit to data and clinical implications of its use. Dr. Michael Kranak will serve as discussant.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Choice, Relapse, Resurgence, Translational research
Target Audience: The audience should have some knowledge of treatment relapse and its clinical implications, with a basic understanding of resurgence and resurgence arrangements. Previous exposure to literature on laboratory models of resurgence or quantitative modeling of behavioral data would be useful.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe a standard resurgence procedure; (2) describe three variables that influence resurgence; (3) describe a quantitative framework of resurgence.
 
A Quantitative Analysis of the Effects of Target and Alternative Reinforcement Rate on Resurgence
(Basic Research)
KYLEIGH MONTAGUE (University of Florida), Carolyn Ritchey (Auburn University), Carla N Martinez-Perez (University of Florida), Sylvia Murphy (University of Florida), Toshikazu Kuroda (Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International), Christopher A. Podlesnik (University of Florida)
Abstract: Resurgence is a form of relapse defined as an increase in a previously reinforced target response when conditions for a more recently reinforced alternative response have worsened. The present experiment evaluated the effects of target and alternative reinforcement rate on resurgence in humans recruited through crowdsourcing. Contingent on responding, we arranged combinations of high- and low-rate target and alternative reinforcement in Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively, across four groups (i.e., high-high, high-low, low-high, and low-low). When testing for resurgence by extinguishing alternative reinforcement in Phase 3, we observed resurgence in all groups except the high-low group. A quantitative model of resurgence, Resurgence as Choice in Context (RaC2), provided a poor fit to the data (r2 = .52). The model tended to underpredict target responding and overpredict alternative responding in Phase 3. Our findings support others showing little effect of training reinforcement rates and that lower alternative reinforcement rates are less likely to produce resurgence than higher rates. Finally, further development of RaC2 is needed to better predict resurgence under these conditions.
 
Alternative-Reinforcer Magnitude Effects on Resurgence Across Successive Relapse Tests in Mice
(Basic Research)
ANDREW R. CRAIG (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Beatriz Elena Arroyo Antunez (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Kate Elizabeth Derrenbacker (Upstate Cerebral Palsy), Charlene Nicole Agnew (Proud Moments ABA), William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University), David Mathews (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Abbie Cooper (West Virginia University), Henry S. Roane (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Alternative-reinforcement based treatments are common strategies for reducing maladaptive behavior in humans. When conditions of alternative reinforcement are made worse in some way, however, behavior that was targeted for elimination may relapse or resurge. Using rat subjects, we previously showed that high-magnitude alternative reinforcers produce faster elimination of the target behavior but more resurgence once removed than do low-magnitude alternative reinforcers. In this experiment, we systematically replicated our procedures to assess cross-species generality of these effects to mouse subjects. Further, we evaluated changes in resurgence across successive determinations by cycling between periods during which alternative reinforcement was present and those during which it was absent. Mice that experienced high-magnitude alternative reinforcers demonstrated faster elimination of the target behavior and more resurgence when alternative reinforcement was suspended than those that experienced low-magnitude alternative reinforcers. Moreover, although the overall magnitude of resurgence decreased across successive tests, between-group differences in resurgence remained. Thus, alternative-reinforcer magnitude affects the behavior of mice similarly to the way that it affects the behavior of rats, and these effects appear to be robust across successive exposures to nonreinforcement.
 
Weakening Target Response Through Timeout: Effects on Resurgence
(Basic Research)
L. REBECA MATEOS MORFIN (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara), Cinthia Hernandez (Universidad de Guadalajara (CEIC)), Kenneth D. Madrigal (Universidad de Sonora)
Abstract: Resurgence after weaking target response through a 5- or 30-s time out (TO) contingency was assessed. Rats were exposed to a two-component multiple schedule. On both components, target response was reinforced according to a VI30s. Once responding was established, alternative responding was reinforced on both components; concurrently target responding was placed on extinction on one component, while between groups, a 5- or 30-s TO was arranged for the second component. Once alternative responding was placed on extinction, resurgence was observed in both components. For all rats, greater resurgence was observed after extinction than either TO contingency; however, the length of TO showed no differences between groups. Results are discussed in terms of procedures that could allow resurgence to be mitigated
 
Resurgence of Destructive Behavior Following Reductions in Alternative Reinforcement: A Prospective Analysis
(Applied Research)
CASEY IRWIN HELVEY (Rutgers University), Brian D. Greer (Rutgers Brain Health Institute; Children’s Specialized Hospital—Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services (CSH–RUCARES); Department of Pediatrics, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University), Wayne W. Fisher (Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Daniel R. Mitteer (Rutgers University (RUCARES))
Abstract: Resurgence is an increase in responding following a worsening of reinforcement conditions. Resurgence as Choice (RaC), a quantitative model of resurgence, suggests that resurgence increases as an exponential function of the size of downshifts in alternative reinforcement. Thus, RaC predicts greater resurgence with larger decreases in alternative reinforcement. Consistent with RaC, recent retrospective analyses of clinical data have shown that resurgence of destructive behavior increases as alternative reinforcement decreases, replicating findings from the basic animal laboratory. We conducted a prospective analysis of resurgence of destructive behavior following a fixed progression of schedule thinning steps (Study 1) and a pseudo-random order of schedule thinning steps counterbalanced across participants (Study 2). In both studies, resurgence was evaluated in the context of using multiple schedules during functional communication training (FCT) with scheduled probes for downshifts in alternative reinforcement. A dense FCT phase was conducted between schedule thinning probes. The results and implications of using RaC to inform clinical decision-making during treatment will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #364
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Applied and Theoretical Explorations of Ethics in Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 29, 2023
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1A/B
Area: DDA/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Swathi Ragulan (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Swathi Ragulan, Master in Applied Behavior Analysis
Abstract:

Ethics is an important construct in the field of behavior analysis for numerous reasons. However, the utilization of distinct ethical practices and the different theoretical conceptualizations of ethics have only recently began to attract more attention from our field as a whole. In this symposium, we will attempt to offer applied and theoretical applications of ethics and ethical practices. First, Andrea Michaels will describe the current state of ethics within applied behavior analysis via data gathered from a scoping literature review. Next, Will Fleming will discuss a molar, interbehavioral approach with regards to analyzing the ethics of behavior analysis as an applied science. Finally, Dr. Ilene Schwartz will describe how behavior analysts identify ethical dilemmas in practice, how they make ethical decisions, and what resources are used during the decision-making process.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

This symposium is intended for a target audience at an intermediate instruction level. It is encouraged that attendees are familiar with the BACB ethics code, are current on ethics-related literature within behavior analysis, and are also familiar with the philosophical underpinnings of the field to a certain extent. It will also be beneficial for attendees to assess their own professional experiences within behavior analysis and identify potential ethical dilemmas they have previously faced prior to attending this symposium.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify and state the recent trends and gaps in the behavior analytic ethics literature; (2) describe the importance of assent in the practice and dissemination of behavior analysis; (3) assess and compared various ethical decision-making processes currently used by practitioners and researchers in the field.
 
The Current State of Ethics in Applied Behavior Analysis: A Scoping Review
(Theory)
ANDREA NICOLE MICHAELS (University of Nevada, Reno), Abraao Figueira de Melo (University of Nevada, Reno), Donna West (University of Nevada, Reno), Helen Tecle Kidane (University of Nevada, Reno), Bethany P. Contreras Young (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Ethics is a central component of the practice of applied behavior analysis. Since behavior analysts work toward supporting behavior change in research participants and clients, it is crucial that they do so in a socially acceptable way from both the consumers’ and profession’s point of view. However, there is no such literature review that has identified articles, summarized key themes, or provided guidance for future scholarship. We conducted a scoping literature review that focused on the broad goal of describing the current state of ethics within applied behavior analysis as expressed within peer-reviewed journal articles. Utilizing six databases, we identified 51 articles that met our inclusion criteria. We analyzed each article by extracting data such as: function of article, central topic and purpose, BACB Code references and Code items, and whether the article discussed common ethical principles. We report findings related to clusters of central topics and purposes, percentages for how often each ethical principle is discussed, and data pertaining to different BACB Codes and Code items. This scoping literature review may identify resources for other scholars to employ on a variety of topics. Implications such as gaps in the literature and shifts in content over time are also discussed.
 
Cultural Reaction Systems of Power: An Analysis of the Ethics of Behavior Analysis as an Applied Science
(Theory)
WILL FLEMING (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Behavior-analytic orientations as cultural practices evaluate the utility of constructs on the basis of the scope of human problems they can be effectively used to solve. As such, behavior analysis has largely become an applied science concerned with solving culturally-situated problems. Given how advanced behavioral science has become, this presents certain issues, including the construction of verbal contingencies that maintain response patterns that cohere with services we are able to provide. Our ability to produce demand for our own products using behavioral technology warrants an analysis of the ethics of scientific system construction. To this end, the current paper will use a molar, interbehavioral, and post-structuralist unit of analysis—cultural reaction systems of power—to analyze the ethics of behavior analysis as an applied science. Power relations across various activities that scientist-practitioners participate in will be assessed, and various forms of culturalization in which scientist-practitioners participate in through (1) direct behavior change interventions, (2) the production of scientific products and knowledge, and (3) graduated dissemination processes will be distinguished. Recommendations towards constructing a science that is more cognizant of its participation within power relations will be offered, and the importance of incorporating assent into behavior-analytic dissemination will be discussed.
 
How Behavior Analysts Make Ethical Decisions: A Qualitative Study
(Theory)
ILENE S. SCHWARTZ (University of Washington), Nancy Rosenberg (University of Washington), Elizabeth Kelly (University of Washington), Kaitlin Marie Kloes Greeny (University of Washington)
Abstract: Behavior analysts (BAs) frequently face professional ethical dilemmas. When faced with these dilemmas, BAs must problem solve and decide how to ethically respond. Though BAs have many tools available to guide their ethical decision-making (e.g., Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts; BACB 2020), little is known how BAs make ethical decisions in practice. We conducted a qualitative investigation of BAs’ ethical decision making to better understand how they identify ethical dilemmas in practice, how they make ethical decisions, and what resources they use during the decision-making process. Implications for behavior analytic practitioners, researchers, and people involved in training and supervising behavior analysts are discussed.
 
 
Panel #366
CE Offered: BACB
Learning-to-Read: The Science of Behavior and Early Reading Instruction
Monday, May 29, 2023
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Convention Center 405
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Margaret Uwayo, Ph.D.
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
JO ANN PEREIRA DELGADO (Teachers College, Columbia University)
MARGARET UWAYO (Kalamazoo Academy for Behavioral & Academic Success (KABAS) and YWCA of Kalamzoo)
LEANNA MELLON (SUNY New Paltz)
Abstract: The purpose of this panel discussion is to highlight recent contributions of the science of behavior to early reading instruction for P-12 children with and without disabilities. Proficient reading is foundational to an individual’s academic and social success. Yet, in the United States only 32% of fourth grade students read proficiently in 2022 - a statistic that is, in part, lower than previous years because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The science of behavior has identified research-based teaching operations that can offer improved early reading outcomes for school-age students. In this panel discussion, researchers and practitioners will discuss applications of the science of behavior to reading instruction and how it can be used by P-12 educators to improve early reading outcomes. Panelists will discuss how early reading is an extension of verbal development and how interventions from the science of verbal development can increase early reading outcomes. This panel is one of two panels that will highlight the contributions of the science of behavior to reading instruction.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: IThe audience should have a basic understanding of applied behavior analysis and its application to education.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) summarize the role of early reading in verbal development; (2) describe a strategic science of teaching and its application to early reading instruction; (3) discuss various contributions of the science of behavior to reading instruction.
Keyword(s): Pedagogy, Reading, Verbal behavior, Verbal development
 
 
Panel #379
CE Offered: BACB
Reading-to-Learn: The Science of Behavior and Advanced Reading Instruction
Monday, May 29, 2023
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center 405
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Denise Ross, Ph.D.
Chair: Denise Ross (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee)
BRITTANY DIANNE BLY (Teacher's College Columbia University)
KIEVA S. HRANCHUK (Brock University)
JENNIFER WEBER (Teachers College, Columbia University & Nicholls State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this panel discussion is to highlight recent contributions of the science of behavior to advanced reading instruction for P-12 children with and without disabilities. Proficient reading is foundational to an individual’s academic and social success. Yet, in the United States only 32% of fourth grade students read proficiently in 2022 - a statistic that is, in part, lower than previous years because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The science of behavior has identified research-based teaching operations that can offer improved reading and writing outcomes for school-age students. In this panel discussion, researchers and practitioners will discuss applications of the science of behavior to advanced reading and writing instruction and how it can be used by educators to improve literacy outcomes. Panelists will discuss how advanced reading and writing are extensions of verbal development and how interventions from the science of verbal development can increase advanced reading and writing outcomes. This panel is one of two panels that will highlight the contributions of the science of behavior to reading instruction.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Intermediate. The audience should have a basic understanding of applied behavior analysis.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) summarize the role of advanced reading and writing in verbal development; (2) describe a strategic science of teaching and its application to advanced reading and writing instruction; (3) discuss various contributions of the science of behavior to advanced reading and writing instruction.
Keyword(s): Reading, Verbal behavior, Verbal Development, Writing
 
 
Symposium #386
CE Offered: BACB
Context Matters: Recent Findings on Strategies to Reduce the Magnitude of Renewal
Monday, May 29, 2023
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom C
Area: EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Ryan Kimball (University of Saint Joseph (West Hartford, CT))
Discussant: Christopher A. Podlesnik (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Ryan Kimball, Ph.D.
Abstract: Treatment relapse refers to the recurrence of a previously eliminated undesirable response following successful intervention. Renewal is one form of relapse that occurs due to a change in context (e.g., treatment setting or implementer). Unfortunately, recent research in applied settings indicates that renewal is prevalent during clinical practice. Accordingly, behavior analysts must discover the conditions in which renewal occurs and evaluate strategies to mitigate the magnitude of renewal. Translational research from the human-operant laboratory and basic research with nonhuman animals provide avenues that can serve as the first steps in developing more robust treatments to guard against renewal. This symposium will present four recent studies on renewal. In the first presentation, researchers examined the role of multiple-context training on ABC renewal with rats. In the second presentation, researchers compared dense and lean schedules of differential reinforcement on the magnitude of renewal with undergraduate college students. In the third presentation, researchers evaluated the impact of fading reinforcer type on the magnitude of renewal with rats. In the final presentation, researchers studied ABA renewal during differential reinforcement of asymmetrical choice options with and without extinction.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Differential reinforcement, renewal, translational research, treatment relapse
Target Audience: The target audience would consist of graduate students, master's-level clinicians, and doctoral-level clinicians/researchers seeking to better understand how context changes impact the relapse of undesirable behavior (e.g., aggression exhibited by a child diagnosed with disabilities). The target audience should have experience with terms such as differential reinforcement, extinction, and stimulus control.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Identify environmental conditions that often result in renewal. 2. Describe potential strategies that may mitigate renewal. 3. Describe the difference between renewal and other forms of relapse
 
Conducting Extinction in Multiple Contexts Prevents ABC Renewal of Beer Seeking in Rats
(Basic Research)
RODOLFO BERNAL-GAMBOA (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Tere A. Mason (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Nuria Rojas (National University of Mexico), Javier Nieto Gutierrez (National University of Mexico)
Abstract: Since some of the clinical treatments to reduce problematic behaviors include components of extinction, several authors have highlighted the possible contributions of using renewal as a laboratory model for understanding relapse after behavioral interventions. In ABC renewal, after acquisition training takes place in Context A, and extinction in Context B, the reoccurrence is observed when testing is conducted in Context C. In one experiment with rats we investigated the impact of using multiple contexts during extinction on ABC renewal of beer seeking. Two groups of rats were trained to run down the runway for beer in Context A during the first phase of the experiment. In the second phase, the instrumental response underwent extinction. For one group of rats (ABC_1), extinction took place in one Context (B); whereas the other group (ABC_3) received extinction in three different contexts (B, D and E). Then, both groups were tested twice to measure ABC renewal. One test was carried out in the Extinction Context (B), while the other test took place in the Renewal Context (C). We found the ABC renewal effect only in the group that received extinction in one context.
 
Renewal During Dense and Lean Schedules of Differential Alternative Reinforcement: A Human Operant Investigation
(Basic Research)
RYAN KIMBALL (University of Saint Joseph (West Hartford, CT)), Emily Ferris (University of Nebraska Medical Center; Munroe Meyer Institute), Lindsay Elise Day (University of Saint Joseph), Rebecca Karis (University of Saint Joseph), John Silveira Jr. (University of Saint Joseph), Michael P. Kranak (Oakland University)
Abstract: Renewal is a type of relapse that occurs due to a change in context. Previous research has demonstrated that renewal may occur despite differential reinforcement for an alternative response. We used a translational approach to study the effects of dense and lean schedules of DRA during repeated renewal tests with undergraduate college students (n = 18) and a simulated computer task. All participants experienced two, three-phase ABA renewal arrangements. In the dense and lean renewal arrangements, we differentially reinforced alternative behavior in Context B and the renewal test in Context A on a VI 3-s or a VI 12-s schedule, respectively. Overall, we observed renewal in 30/36 (83%) renewal tests, but the magnitude of relapse was often small. Further, the data suggest that although renewal is possible in both arrangements, a slightly higher magnitude of renewal may be more likely with a lean schedule of reinforcement versus a dense schedule.
 

An Analysis of Renewal Following Fading of Reinforcer Type

(Basic Research)
BEATRIZ ELENA ARROYO ANTUNEZ (SUNY Upstate Medical University), William Sullivan (Golisano Children's Hospital & Center for Special Needs; SUNY Upstate Medical University), Emily L. Baxter (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Kate Derrenbacker (Upstate Cerebral Palsy), Henry S. Roane (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract:

Renewal is the recurrence of a previously eliminated behavior following a change in context. Previous research has demonstrated that when target and alternative behaviors were associated with different reinforcers, re-presenting the target reinforcer non-contingently produced relapse. Relapse was mitigated, however, when the reinforcer associated with the alternative response was re-presented. The current study evaluated whether fading reinforcer type during Phase 2 of a relapse preparation would mitigate renewal. During Phase 1, one type of reinforcer (O1) was contingent on rats lever pressing. During Phase 2, reinforcement was presented non-contingently on a fixed schedule, consisting of O1 and a new reinforcer type (O2). For one group (Forward Fading), the percentage of O1 delivered increased across sessions, while the percentage of O2 decreased. For the other fading group (Reverse Fading), reinforcement fading occurred in the opposite manner, while the control group only received O2. Phase 3 consisted of noncontingent delivery of O1 only to test for renewal. Results indicated that the direction of reinforcement fading did not differentially affect relapse between the fading groups. Further, both fading groups demonstrated attenuation of relapse relative to the control, where robust renewal occurred. Implications of these findings and directions for future research will be discussed.

 

Evaluating Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Renewal During Differential Reinforcement of Asymmetrical Choice Options With and Without Extinction

(Basic Research)
KACEY RENEE FINCH (West Virginia University), Ashe Walker (West Virginia University), Rebecca Woodard (University of North Carolina Greensboro), Kamila Redd (Washington University in St. Louis), Briel Durand-Zara (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract:

Renewal is the reemergence of a previously reduced response following a context change. ABA renewal was evaluated in a series of human-operant experiments during which adults engaged with a computer task with three colored circles (a target response and two alternative responses). Each experiment followed a standard 3-phase relapse arrangement. Context changes were represented by the background screen color, which progressed according to an ABA context arrangement. The target response was reinforced in Phase 1 (Context A) and then reduced according to a differential reinforcement procedure in Phase 2 (Context B). In Phase 2, there were concurrently available asymmetrical choice options with varied magnitudes of reinforcement. For some participants, target responding was on extinction. For others, the target response continued to be reinforced with a lower magnitude of points relative to the alternative responses. Phase 3 was the renewal test in the presence of Context A. Renewal occurred for most participants across experiments; therefore, we evaluated context fading to mitigate renewal. At the end of Phase 2, the background color of the screen gradually shifted from Context B to Context A. Clinical implications for the occurrence of renewal in concurrent-operant arrangements and mitigation strategies based on context-fading will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #388
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research and Exploration of Teaching Complex Verbal Behavior
Monday, May 29, 2023
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 3B
Area: VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Nicole Pantano (Assumption University)
Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Nicole Pantano, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium seeks to provide information on recent advancements in complex verbal behavior across a variety of applied and translational studies. Emergent behavior, including the generalization of autoclitics to novel tacts and the acquisition of intraverbal-tacts, will be explored in research with autistic children. Considerations regarding skills necessary for teaching qualifying autoclitics will be presented. Additionally, research on the component skills necessary for the emergence of intraverbal-tacts will be presented. As a continuation of the exploration of skills related to emergent responding, this symposium will also present a summary of recent literature on the acquisition of novel responses through learning by exclusion. Additionally, a synthesis of research on teaching complex verbal behavior, specifically foreign language, will be presented. Suggestions for future research and practice will be shared.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autoclitics, emergence, exclusion responding, foreign language
Target Audience: Should be familiar with complex verbal behavior, with recent research in responding by exclusion, interested in teaching foreign language, and interested in the importance of expanding research in these areas
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Understand the role of component skills in intraverbal-tact emergence; (2) Describe the most common teaching procedures and assessment methods implemented during learning by exclusion trials with participants that have autism; (3) Describe behavior analytic procedures for teaching a foreign language, and (4) Describe qualifying autoclitics and identify benefits and limitations of two methods to teach qualifying autoclitics
 

A Sequence to Facilitate the Emergence of Intraverbal Tacts in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
NICOLE PANTANO (Assumption University), Tina Sidener (Caldwell University), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), April N. Kisamore (Hunter College)
Abstract:

Identifying component skills necessary for the emergence of intraverbal tacts, or verbal responses under control of both a verbal and nonverbal antecedent stimulus, is important because the occasion for this skill often occurs in a child’s everyday life (Palmer, 2016). Previous research has begun to identify a sequence of component skills that may lead to the emergence of multiply controlled intraverbals. However, it remains unclear which component skills are necessary versus sufficient. Our study sought to evaluate a subset of component skills evaluated in previous research that, conceptually, should be sufficient for emergence of intraverbal tacts. We found intraverbal tacts emerged to mastery criteria for all participants, only following acquisition of both element tacts and intraverbal categorizations. These data suggest these component skills may be sufficient for intraverbal tact emergence.

 
A Review of Learning by Exclusion
(Applied Research)
ARIADNA MARTINEZ (University of South Florida), Catia Cividini-Motta Cividini (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize the literature investigating the acquisition of new responses through learning by exclusion. Learning by exclusion has been studied is also known as “fast mapping” or “exclusion responding”. Learning by exclusion consists of the acquisition of new relations through exclusion without explicit training (Wilkinson et al., 1996). In behavior analysis, matching-to-sample tasks are used in learning by exclusion research completed with familiar and unfamiliar stimuli followed by probe trials (Sivaram & Bhabu, 2018; Wilkinson & McIlvane, 1997). Researchers synthesized data from the literature for the following categories: (a) participant characteristics (b) target behavior information, (c) pre-evaluation assessments (d) post-evaluation assessments, (e) teaching procedures, and (f) outcomes. Results indicate that the majority of participants had an ASD diagnosis, expressive and receptive skills, communicated vocally, and had positive learning outcomes. However, there was variance in the expressive and receptive skills and pre-existing exclusion skills of participants that did not have positive learning outcomes. Limitations of the previous research, recommendations for future research, and implications for clinical practice are discussed.
 

Toward Establishing a Qualifying Autoclitic Repertoire in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
TODD M. OWEN (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Autoclitics are secondary verbal operants that are controlled by a feature of the conditions that evoke a primary verbal operant such as a tact or mand. Among the types described by Skinner (1957), qualifying autoclitics extend, negate, or assert a speaker’s primary verbal response and modify the intensity or direction of the listener’s behavior. In the only study to date on teaching qualifying autoclitics, Howard and Rice (1988) established autoclitics that indicated weak stimulus control (e.g., “like a [primary tact]”) with four neurotypical preschool children. However, generalization to newly acquired tacts was limited. In Experiment 1, we extended Howard and Rice to four autistic children while using simultaneous teaching procedures and observed generalization across sets and newly acquired tacts. In Experiment 2, we evaluated the effects of multiple exemplar training on generalization of autoclitics across sets of naturalistic stimuli. Across participants, gradual increases in autoclitics occurred across untaught stimuli after teaching with one or more sets.

 
Teaching a Foreign Language: A Systematic Review of the Literature
(Theory)
GRACE ECKO JOJO (Simmons University), Judah B. Axe (Simmons University), Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Mary Signorella (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: There has been a steady increase in publications on cultural humility and cultural diversity within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Given increases in culturally and linguistically diverse families in the United States (United States Census Bureau, 2017), it is critical to examine effective methods of teaching a new language. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of foreign language instruction studies published in the field of behavior analysis. Across the 27 articles that met the inclusion criteria, we coded participants, language (native and foreign), verbal operant, independent variable, generalization data, maintenance data, and setting. We found that the research primarily included typically developing children (55%) and adults (33%). Additionally, most languages targeted for instruction were Roman. Most researchers used a verbal behavior or derived relations framework to assess and teach the second language, while other researchers used Morphological Analysis Strategy (MAS) and programmed instruction. Generalization and maintenance data were collected in fewer than half of the studies, and half of the studies were conducted in school settings. We identify limitations and gaps in the literature and provide suggestions for research and practice.
 
 
Symposium #393
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Writing With Morningside Generative Instruction: Explicit Instruction, Frequency Building, and the Good Behavior Game
Monday, May 29, 2023
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center 405
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Andrew Robert Kieta (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Alyssa R McElroy, M.A.
Abstract:

The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction (MMGI) has been applied to teaching written performance to both typical and non-typical children and adult learners. Explicit instruction, frequency building to criterion, and classroom management procedures derived from evolutionary theory and student participation are key components of MMGI. First, Paige Sherlund-Pelfrey will provide a systematic review of the evidence of the effectiveness of explicit instruction and frequency building to criterion as methods to build writing skills with typical and non-typical elementary and middle school children. Second, Alyssa McElroy will describe a specific study that evaluated Morningside’s Writing Persuasive Compositions program, which includes explicit instruction and frequency building to criterion, to teach persuasive writing to college students with disabilities. Finally, Hannah Jenkins will detail a system for teaching students to set learning, organizational, and citizenship behaviors, as well as procedures for transitioning from the Good Behavior Game to the Mystery Behavior Game, to set the context for effective writing instruction.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Professionals interested in behavioral education, direct instruction, Precision teaching/frequency building, Response to Intervention, Good Behavior Game, and special education. Audience should have a basic understanding of applied behavior analysis as applied to academic learning behavior.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Describe the effectiveness of explicit instruction and frequency building on writing performance, 2. List four types of persuasive sentences and describe explicit instruction and frequency building procedures for teaching those sentence writing performances, 3. Describe the procedures for establishing the Mystery Behavior Game as a classroom wide, group contingency for shaping student learning, organizational, and citizenship behaviors.
 
A Systematic Review of Explicit Instruction and Frequency Building Interventions to Teach Students to Write
(Applied Research)
PAIGE LEE SHERLUND-PELFREY (Western Michigan University ), Alyssa R McElroy (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Van Stratton (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Using explicit instruction (EI) and frequency building to a performance criterion (FBPC) as an intervention to teach writing skills to individuals with and without disabilities has become increasingly common in recent years (Datchuk & Kubina, 2017; Datchuk & Rodgers, 2018; Rodgers et al., 2020). While literature reviews on writing interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (Accardo et al., 2019; Pennington & Delano, 2012) and writing difficulties and learning disabilities (Datchuk & Kubina, 2012) are available, to date there is no systematic review of EI and FBPC for writing skills. Researchers and practitioners may benefit from knowledge surrounding the effectiveness of these interventions for different populations and various writing skills. Thus, the purpose of the current systematic review is to examine and summarize the available evidence on EI and FBPC as a method to teach writing skills, provide recommendations to practitioners and teachers, and establish future directions in research for the research community.
 

Using Explicit Instruction and Frequency Building to Teach Persuasive Writing to College Students With Disabilities

(Applied Research)
ALYSSA R MCELROY (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Van Stratton (Western Michigan University), Paige Lee Sherlund-Pelfrey (Western Michigan University )
Abstract:

Proficient writing skills are critical for academic, vocational, and social outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). However, many individuals struggle to develop proficient writing repertoires (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2012; Whitby & Mancil, 2009). This study sought to teach eight college students with disabilities to write four types of persuasive sentences (e.g., thesis statement, major point, minor point, transition sentence) using a modified explicit instruction program and frequency building to a performance criterion sessions. Five of the eight participants met criteria for all four sentence types and demonstrated maintenance skills during follow-up sessions. Future directions regarding instructional strategies for college-level writing will be discussed.

 
The Mystery Good Behavior Game: An Evolution of the Good Behavior Game to Occasion Generative Responding
(Service Delivery)
HANNAH JENKINS (Morningside Academy), Andrew Robert Kieta (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Extending the author's prior research, procedures were designed to guide classroom teachers on how to systematically shift class wide social-behavior contingencies from the Good Behavior Game (GBG), to the Caught Being Good Game (CBGG), to the Mystery Behavior Game (MBG), in which reinforcement is delivered for desirable behaviors that are not explicitly stated to the students (Jenkins 2022). First, procedures were designed for setting classroom expectations using Ostrom's eight core design principles for governing groups. Students agreed upon values, expectations, rewards, and punishments. Second, the learning, organizational, and citizenship behaviors required for writing class success were analyzed and organized into a scope and sequence. Third, procedures and data-based decision-making criteria were designed to evolve the group contingency intervention from the punishment based GBG to the constructional, reinforcement-based CBGG, in order to teach some of the targeted behaviors in the scope and sequence. Fourth, the MBG was introduced in order to evoke and reinforce novel behaviors that were not explicitly taught during the previous game iterations. Finally, the author will evaluate what other untargeted or unexpected behaviors emerged from the MGB.
 
 
Symposium #400
CE Offered: BACB
The Many Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis in Juvenile Justice Settings
Monday, May 29, 2023
4:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: CSS; Domain: Translational
Chair: Emily Kieffer (ATBx)
Discussant: Emily Kieffer (ATBx)
CE Instructor: Emily Kieffer, M.A.
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has historically been implemented and carried out most commonly in clinical settings with adults and children diagnosed with autism and developmental disabilities. Within recent years, the field of ABA has been disseminating its implementation of services and interventions to other settings and populations. Behavior analysts at ATBx, LLC have been providing ABA services within juvenile detention and residential facilities within the past 5 years. The presentations in this symposium include the implementation of facility wide program assessments and interventions, strategies to increase “buy in” with professionals from other disciplines, review of utilizing neuroscience data within juvenile justice settings and a review of the current allocation of resources within the system and its effect on recidivism and problem behaviors to avoid release.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): "Juvenile Justice", Recidivism, Youth
Target Audience:

Behavior Analyst and those in trainging

Learning Objectives: 1. How to increase implementation of behavior plans in juvenile justice settings. 2. Ways to build rapport and communicate effectively with professionals outside of ABA. 3. How to use skill acquisition programming to decrease high frequency problem behaviors observed in youth committed to residential juvenile justice programs.
 
Behavioral Neuroscience Goes to Court
(Service Delivery)
CALEB D HUDGINS (Adapt & Transform Behavior)
Abstract: Over the last decade there has been a substantial increase in attempts to utilize brain data to inform criminal justice systems. This includes attempts to admit neuroscience data as evidence for trial and sentencing but also as inputs to prediction tools like risk assessments. Behavior analysis is in a unique position to contribute to and advance these efforts, particularly in the area of dynamic risk assessments. Identifying behavior measures as risk factors that are both predictive and dynamic allow those same risk factors to be targets for intervention and support services. By considering the ways in which neuroscience data is currently being utilized by the courts and other justice systems, its strengths and limitations, behavior analyst can better understand how they can support the current needs of criminal justice practitioners.
 

Using Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to Increase the Effectiveness of Facility Wide Interventions and Individualized Plans in the Juvenile Residential Facility

(Applied Research)
ELLIE MOROSOHK (Adapt & Transform Behavior)
Abstract:

Applied Behavior Analysis services are provided in a variety of settings and with different populations of clients, including in juvenile justice facilities. ABA services provided in these facilities include individualized behavioral services with behavior intensive youth, facility wide interventions, staff training and consultation. The data examined in this presentation will look at an initial assessment of a facility before ABA services were implemented and a follow up after one year of comprehensive ABA services. The results show that in the year that ABA services were implemented, there was an increase in staff proficiency, positive interactions among staff and youth and implementation of daily routines.

 

Voluntary Commitment: The Function of Recidivism in Juvenile Justice Settings

(Theory)
SARA HORDGES (Adapt & Transform Behavior)
Abstract:

Many youth committed to Juvenile Justice programs will engage in higher frequencies of problem behaviors closer to their release date in order to access additional resources and avoid returning to an aversive, unsafe or traumatizing environment. This occurs because the current system disproportionately allocates resources to mental health therapies rather than providing youth access to treatments and resources that will teach adaptive real life skills such as budgeting, job skills, obtaining housing, etc. In this presentation we will review case studies of youth who voluntarily committed themselves to the criminal justice system.

 
Navigating Uncharted Waters
(Theory)
EMILY KIEFFER (ATBx)
Abstract: As the world of ABA grows in multiple directions, analysts are continuously needing to adapt to new environments. As a supervisor of analysts new to working outside of early autism intervention settings, the presenter has observed these analysts struggling to build rapport with professionals from other disciplines. This skill deficit frequently impacts treatment outcomes as without “buy in” many well written behavior plans fail to be implemented. This presentation will discuss the strategies and rapport building techniques used to assist in developing relationships in “uncharted waters”. Additionally, this talk will discuss how the analyst can use these strategies to increase rapport in the home, community and in schools to expand the use and knowledge of ABA with their current clients.
 

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Modifed by Eddie Soh
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