Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

Program by : Monday, May 29, 2023


 

Symposium #317
Diversity submission Putting the MATRIX Project Into Action: An Update on Projects of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility SIG
Monday, May 29, 2023
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: CSS; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kathryn M. Roose (Unaffiliated)
Discussant: Holly Seniuk (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract: The mission of Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group (BFSR SIG) is to expand applications of behavior analysis and cultural analysis addressing global issues such as social justice, environmental justice, and human rights. For the past several years BFSR has been using a matrix analysis (Biglan, 1995; Mattaini, 2013) to identify the practices that support, oppose, motivate, and select the development and utilization of scientific behavioral systems to address social issues. Upon identifying 28 societal sectors, work groups comprised of SIG members have been applying the matrix analyses to various issues of social importance. This symposium will highlight the work of two of those work groups, the Sustainability Work Group and the Public Health Work Group.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): cultural analysis, culturo-behavior science, public health, sustainability
 
Diversity submission Exploring the Intersection of Behavior Science and Public Health
(Theory)
JONATHAN A. SCHULZ (Vermont Center on Behavior and Health)
Abstract: The purpose of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility (BFSR) Public Health Work Group is to explore the intersection between behavior science and public health. This work group explores the ways in which behavior scientists and public health workers can collaborate and learn from one another to affect population level outcomes. In the past year, the group has created a fact sheet for public health as an ABA subspeciality area for the BACB website and presented a poster at ABAI’s 48th Annual Convention. Currently, the group is working on developing a call for submissions to a multi-journal collection exploring the assessment and measurement of behavior change of public health importance; writing manuscripts related to the relationship between public health and behavior science; and creating panels, symposiums, and posters for behavior analytic conferences.
 
Diversity submission 

Exploring the Role of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI)’s Affiliate Chapters in Addressing Climate Change

(Theory)
MOLLY BENSON (Berkshire Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy), Holly Seniuk (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Sarah Lichtenberger (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Julia H. Fiebig (Ball State University), Molli Luke (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract:

Climate change has been identified as a “super wicked problem” and is one of the most pressing issues facing humanity today. The Sustainability Work Group of the Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group (BFSR SIG) is focused on applying the matrix analysis to sectors linked to behavior analysis, primarily sectors comprised of behavior analysts (e.g., ABAI affiliate chapters, SIGs, practitioners). Over the past year the work group has focused on identifying practices that ABAI affiliate chapters can take support to their membership in engaging in pro-environmental behaviors and taking climate action, and making their regional conferences more green. This presentation will discuss those practices. Additionally, the work group has developed a survey to support conference organizers in evaluating their current practices in relation to sustainability. The survey is currently being piloted with some affiliate chapters. In this presentation the survey will be shared along with a description of the development of the survey and discussion of future directions.

 
 
Poster Session #370A
AUT Monday Poster Session
Monday, May 29, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
1. Reducing Severe Problem Behavior Using Functional Communication and Tolerance Response Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZOE CLAIRE BLUBAUGH (Evoke Behavioral Health, University of Kansas), Claire Wobbema (Evoke Behavioral Health), Mary Howell (Evoke Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract:

Teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder who engage in severe problem behavior to tolerate delayed and denied access a necessary skill toward independent living. This skill deficit has resulted in an extensive reinforcement history that has resulted in engagement in severe problem behavior to obtain access to preferred items, specifically access to the iPad. Before teaching tolerance to delayed and denied access, it is important to ensure the participant has the pre-requisite skills, such as functional communication and a tolerance response. While focusing on functional communication training, latency data has been collected between the discriminative stimulus to terminate the iPad and the participant handing the iPad to staff. We will be determining if there is a correlation between decreasing latency of terminating the iPad and increasing use of functional communication, a tolerance response, and eventually delayed and denied access. This program aims to teach the prerequisite skills necessary to tolerate delayed and denied access.

 
2. Extension of a Skills Assessment for Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELSEY SABATA (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute, Autism Care for Toddlers Clinic), Jennifer Luebbe (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute, Autism Care for Toddlers Clinic), Amber R. Paden (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute, Autism Care for Toddlers Clinic), Matthew Welton (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute, Autism Care for Toddlers Clinic), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute), Rianna Mueller (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute, Autism Care for Toddlers Clinic)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Auditory-visual conditional discrimination (AVCD) training (e.g., receptive identification, listener responding) is a prerequisite skill for many communication and daily living skills and is often a focus in early intervention. Some learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire AVCD despite the use of experimentally validated treatments. Kodak et al. (2015) developed a skills assessment to assist with pinpointing skill deficits which may be necessary to acquire AVCD. Kodak et al. (2020) found that the skills assessment was predictive of learners who may not benefit from AVCD training. It is unclear if there is a functional relationship between the skills measured in the assessment and those needed for successful AVCD training. The current study replicated and extended the assessment by teaching the missing skills identified and returning to AVCD training to ensure the validity of each skill in the assessment. The study included 5 children with ASD receiving early intervention services. Each child had previously experienced unsuccessful AVCD training. The assessment identified missing skills for 4 children while one child had all skills. Next, the children were taught missing skills before returning to AVCD training. Results will be discussed in terms of the skills needed for successful AVCD training.
 
3. Coaching Mothers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Their Teaching Skills and Their Children’s Acquisition of Safety Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DEMET TAVUKCU (Maltepe University ), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Safety skills can be defined as the skills to protect from planned or unplanned situations that threaten the individual's safety and well-being are vital for all individuals regardless of having disability. However, it is a well-documented children with autism face 2 to 3 these factors compared with their peers in the general population. The study investigated the effect of coaching mothers of children with autism to train the use of behavioral skills training (BST) intervention and the effectiveness of BST intervention on teaching safety skills to their children. The participants were three children with ASD, aged between 6-13 years, and their mothers. The researchers formed mother-child dyad in the study. Thet used a nested multiple probe design across mother-child dyads. Findings showed, coaching the mothers was effective in training them using the steps of BST correctly. Additionally, coaching mothers was effective in promoting maintenance and generalization of the acquired steps of BST intervention. At the time, the BSY intervention was effective in teaching safety skills to children with ASD. Last but not least, the findings that was acquired from mothers showed mothers found the study as socially valid in general.
 
4. Assessing Discrimination Performances of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Using the Intraverbal Subtest
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SRIDHAR ARAVAMUDHAN (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Recent studies have identified four types of discriminations, simple, compound, verbal-conditional, and verbal function-altering effects (Eikeseth and Smith 2013; Sundberg 2016) involved in complex intraverbal behavior. We evaluated each item in the intraverbal subtest tool ( Sundberg, 2008) with 80 questions. With these 80 items, we determined that a) 21 items can help determine the presence or absence of simple discrimination, b) 32 items divergent responses, c) 45 items compound discriminations (where the response to a compound stimulus is different from the response evoked by each in isolation), and d) 22 items VCDs (VCD: where one word changes the evocative effect of another). Some of the items require more than one skill. For example, to the question “what do you do before bed,” divergent responses are possible, and correct responses require compound and conditional discrimination. With responses from 10 students, we discuss how this scoring system can identify the compound and conditional discriminations deficits and the degree of divergent intraverbal responding.
 
5. Teaching Intraverbal Responding to a 24-Year-Old Girl With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Using Proloquo2GoTM on iPad
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SRIDHAR ARAVAMUDHAN (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India), Shushmita K.S (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Preliminary studies suggest that touch-based speech-generating devices (SGD) hold promise for teaching elementary verbal operants to minimally verbal or non-vocal children with ASD (Lorah, Parnell and Tincani, 2018). The current study replicates a study by Lorah, Karnes and Speight (2015) in which they taught two school-aged children with ASD to respond to intraverbal statements regarding personal information using Proloquo2GoTM. In the current study, we taught a 24-year-old minimally verbal girl with ASD with profound discrimination difficulties to respond to two questions, “what’s your name?” and “what’s your address?” We used distinctive icons in the Proloquo2Go app and blocked-trials procedure with a 3s time delay. Preliminary results show improvement in independent responses to both questions, from 40% in the baseline for Question 1 to 100% in 180 trials and 10% to 40% to Question 2 in 240 trials. Intervention is continuing with additional targets planned in a phased manner.
 
7. A Skills Assessment Battery to Inform Social Preference Assessments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LYNN SCHUMACHER (Mount Saint Mary’s University), Elizabeth Parthum (Mount Saint Mary's University), Michelle Buhrman (Mount Saint Mary's University), Leora Ezri (Mount Saint Mary's University ), Jessica Ware (Mount Saint Mary's University ), Kwadwo O. Britwum (Mount Saint Mary's University)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined by repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and a deficit in social communication. A putative reinforcer for behavior change is social interactions and typically, individuals diagnosed with ASD tend to lack interest in social interactions. Previous research has evaluated methods of assessing putative social reinforcers by assessing the resulting hierarchies of picture and video-based social preference assessments. Currently there is limited research on the skills and skills assessment required to inform the modality of stimuli presented (pictures or videos) and the form of preference assessment used (Multiple Stimulus Without Replacement and Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment) for social preference assessments. The current study uses an assessment to evaluate the skills for selecting and discriminating a single stimulus in an array to determine which form of preference assessment to use. Included in the skills assessment was an evaluation of derived relations which evaluated if teaching relations of A-B (pictures to videos) resulted in the derivation of B-A (videos to pictures) relations. If coordination relations emerged, pictures were used to present the social stimuli. Children diagnosed with ASD who received early intensive behavioral interventions in a clinical setting participated in the study. Following the preference assessment informed by the skills assessment, a reinforcer test was conducted to determine the reinforcing efficacy of the social interaction identified. The results of this study provide implications for a systematic skills assessment procedure that informs social stimulus preference and reinforcer assessments.
 
8. Teaching Children With Autism to Respond Cooperatively in the Presence of Law Enforcement Officers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DOMINIQUE FISHER (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Individuals with autism have been shown to be at a higher risk than those without disabilities for law enforcement officer (LEO) contact. A concurrent multiple probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of a treatment package that included behavioral skills training and multiple exemplar video training to teach 3 adolescents with autism to respond cooperatively in the presence of LEOs. Training and generalization probe contexts were defined by combinations of outdoor settings and statements made by a uniformed LEO or actor. When spoken to by an LEO or actor, a participant received a maximal score of 3 points if they stopped, oriented toward the LEO, and calmly held their hands out so that they were visible. Prior to instruction, average scores for the 3 participants were 1.2, 1.7, and 1.8. Following training, participants achieved a score of 3 during all generalization probe trials across contexts and formats. Additionally, stakeholders reported high social validity for the goals, procedures, and outcomes of the training. This study extended previous literature that used simulated training to establish desired responding in the presence of LEOs by evaluating performance in situ, and by evaluating stimulus generalization across contexts.
 
9. Using Matrix Training to Teach Object-Preposition-Location Tacts to a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAYLIN ERVAY (University of North Texas, Department of Behavior Analysis; University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center ), Haven Sierra Niland (University of North Texas), Samantha Bergmann (University of North Texas, Department of Behavior Analysis), Lisia Albuquerque (University of North Texas, Department of Behavior Analysis; University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Katherine Flores (University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Ray Lai (University of North Texas, Department of Behavior Analysis; University of North Texas Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Karen Rader (University of North Texas, Department of Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Matrix training is a teaching approach that provides a systematic framework for facilitating recombinative generalization. Recombinative generalization occurs when correct, untrained responses are emitted in the presence of novel combinations of previously acquired constituents and can lead to the acquisition of more targets with fewer learning trials. In this case study, we taught one boy with autism to emit object-preposition-location tacts using a matrix-training procedure based on Goldstein and Mousetis (1989). We combined 12 previously acquired object and location tacts (e.g., snake, bicycle, house) with novel prepositions (e.g., on top of) to form 216 novel combinations (e.g., snake is on top of house, bicycle is on top of house), and we used 3-D models available in Microsoft PowerPoint to create the stimuli, which were shown on an iPad. In baseline probes, the participant did not emit any correct object-preposition-location tacts. Following non-overlap and overlap training of three targets in a submatrix, the participant emitted correct object-preposition-location tacts in the presence of nine novel stimuli. We are continuing to probe and teach combinations with this participant. This case study yields preliminary support for the use of a matrix-training procedure to promote generative language acquisition in a child with autism.
 
10. The Effect of Advance Notice on Transitioning Compliance and Behavior Reduction While Improving Learning Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India), Anupama Jagdish (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Unpredictability is a variable which may evoke problem behavior in children with autism. Transitioning from high-p to low-p activities can evoke problem behaviors such as crying, tantrums or SIB in individuals with IDD (Riffel, 2010). This may lead to restrictions in learning as well access to social environments. Providing advance notice for transitioning to aversive stimuli may reduce the aversive properties of less preferred tasks and remove the effects of negative reinforcement (Brewer, et al., 2014). Literature has enough evidence to demonstrate a functional relationship between advance notice and reduction in problem behavior (Banda and Grimmett 2008; Lequia et al. 2012; Koyama and Wang 2011; O’Reilly et al., 2005; Sterling-Turner and Jordan 2007; Tustin, 1995). The participant in the current study was a 6 year old boy with a diagnosis of autism. He engaged in high intensity crying ranging from 40-57mins and kicking 8-18 times in a two hour session when a verbal cue was provided to transition to low-p activity such as going to a chair with toys. The intervention included introduction of a non-verbal stimulus ‘bell’ followed by a physical prompt after 2-sec. Only two prompts were required and the behavior of transitioning under stimulus control from high-p to low-p was observed from the same session. Crying and kicking behavior reduced to nil within one and six sessions respectively. Behaviors observed during waiting and access to tangibles reduced to nil from session 9. The auditory stimulus was faded from session 14 and stimulus control was transferred to verbal instruction. Learning outcomes showed an immediate improvement
 
11. A Replication of Using Prompt Fading and Errorless Learning to Teach Self-Feeding Skills In the School
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MACKENZIE RILEY (University of Georgia), Caitlin Elizabeth Schaefer (University of Georgia), Tyler-Curtis Elliott (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Learning to feed oneself is an important repertoire that services as a pivotal functional skill for future independence. Even though much research has focused on how to accept non-preferred solids and liquids (Piazza et al., 2003), they may still fail to learn how to feed themselves. The current study directly replicates (Kandarpa et al., 2019; Smith et al., 2018) by further evaluating the intervention effects of self-feeding using prompt fading and errorless learning with a 4-year-old boy diagnosed with ASD in his preschool classroom. We used a combinatorial design containing both a multiple baseline design across behavior with an embedded reversal. Results and implications are further discussed in relation to the appropriateness of behavior analysts using prompt fading and errorless learning as an effective way to teach self-feeding skills for children with ASD.

 
13. Developing Varied, Reciprocal Social Conversations: Applying Brain Frames to Support Flexible and Balanced Conversations
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANNE ANDREWS (Thrive Autism Collaborative), Helen Nychka (Thrive Autism Collaborative)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The ability to participate in varied, reciprocal social conversations is a necessary skill to access and engage with the social world and community. The current program included two teenagers, ages 14-15, who are diagnosed with Autism. In order to improve flexible and balanced social conversations between the participants, and the larger community of potential communication partners, principles and resources from the Brain Frames intervention were customized and applied to target three specific social conversation skills: making connected, on-topic comments, asking questions for new, on-topic information and asking questions for clarification. Two conditions were utilized throughout the program, alternating between self-selected, familiar topics and provided, novel topics for conversation. A Telling Brain Frame was generated by each participant on the current topic prior to initiating the conversation. Thoughts, details and related ideas to the current topic were placed on the Telling frame and subsequently referenced during the conversation. Conversations were recorded and reviewed immediately following completion. During video review a Categorizing Brain Frame was completed by each participant to self-monitor their own conversational behavior and document the instances of demonstrating each of the three targeted skills. Initial data show improved ability to identify the targeted skills and demonstrate them in conversation.
 
14. Assessment of Sensory Modalities Maintaining Automatically Reinforced Behavior in One Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN WILEY (The Learning Consultants), Trevor Swetkovich (The Learning Consultants), Jeffrey Gesick (The Learning Consultants), Kathleen Soyka (The Learning Consultants)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: A challenge in assessing and treating automatically reinforced behavior is the inaccessibility of the precise sensory consequences that maintain the behavior (Rapp 2007). A common intervention used when individuals display challenging behavior maintained by automatic sensory reinforcers is offering alternative activities that provide “matched stimulation” (Piazza et al., 2000). One way to identify alternative activities that may compete with the challenging behavior or provide matched stimulation is by hypothesizing what specific sensory input is maintaining the challenging behavior, then evaluating what may have similar reinforcing value through preference assessments. For many nonverbal individuals, identifying stimuli that function as reinforcers can be difficult. Empirically evaluating whether a stimulus functions as a reinforcer through reinforcer assessments as opposed to preference assessments may help to address this. To evaluate this, we first verified the function of the challenging behavior of one child with autism as being automatically maintained by conducting a trial-based experimental functional analysis, then evaluated which of the hypothesized sensory modalities functioned as a reinforcer by running a paired choice preference assessment then concurrent schedule reinforcer assessment and compared the results of each.
 
15. Examining the Effects of Virtual Reality Instruction on the Acquisition and Generalization of Peer Social Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN KARIEL (Virginia Institute of Autism), Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism), Diana Smith (Virginia Institute of Autism), Rachel Metras (Virginia Institute of Autism), Lydia A Beahm (University of Virginia)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) interventions have become increasingly widespread in various fields, but applied behavior analysts have only recently begun to explore their utility. Much of the published research on VR within ABA has focused on training staff and treatment implementers; however, VR also holds promise as an intervention component for clients and consumers of ABA services, including those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study includes young children with ASD and involves measuring acquisition of peer social skills within a VR environment as well as generalization to “real world” settings with actual peers. Initial results for a 6-year-old boy with a diagnosis of ASD show acquisition of peer social skills (greetings, joining conversation, and inviting peers to join a group) within the VR environment with minimal experimenter-implemented prompting and reinforcement. Generalization to real-life peers during initial probe measures was variable, but brief in-vivo training resulted in mastery-level performance in all cases. Data collection is underway with additional participants.
 
16. The Effect of Cues Associated With Treatment on the Renewal of Challenging Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Demoines Ham (Marcus Autism Center; Georgia State University), DARKO CABO (Georgia State University ), Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center; Emory School of Medicine), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center; Emory School of Medicine), Christopher A. Podlesnik (University of Florida), Carolyn Ritchey (Auburn University), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Clinically, renewal occurs when a challenging behavior that was decreased in treatment increases following a change in the treatment context. Identifying methods to mitigate renewal is critical to ensuring that treatments are effective across settings. The present study evaluated the effects of adding a cue (i.e., a stimulus that is associated with treatment) to the environment on challenging behavior and mands. Participants were three children with autism who engaged in challenging behavior maintained by tangibles. In baseline, we measured mands for tangibles and challenging behavior when the tangible was removed in context A. Then, we implemented functional communication training in a different setting (i.e., context B). Once the participant mastered the functional communication response, we added a cue (e.g., wristband) during treatment. When mands and challenging behavior were stable, the participant returned to context A, where sessions with and without the cue alternated. The results showed that, for one participant, the cue mitigated renewal relative to when the cue was not present. For two participants, the cue did not mitigate renewal relative to when it was absent. For all participants, the presence vs. absence of the cue did not differentially impact manding. In summary, our results suggest that the cues used in the study may not have been salient enough to differentially affect renewal.

 
17. Increasing Selection and Acceptance of Alternative Foods in Children With Feeding Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLA NICOLE FRONTE (Florida Autism Center - a division of BlueSprig Pediatrics), Vivian F Ibanez (University of Florida), Ronald J. Clark (University of Florida), Nicole Perrino (Florida Autism Center, University of Florida), Shania Tarver (Florida Autism Center - a division of BlueSprig Pediatrics), Roseberlie Dazulma (Florida Autism Center - a division of BlueSprig Pediatrics), Faith Kirkland (University of South Florida; UF CAN)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Crowley et al. (2020) used a matching-law-based intervention to increase consumption of novel, healthier, alternative foods with young children with autism and food selectivity. In their study, children chose between the change-resistant food and an alternative food, when no (free choice), positive-reinforcement (asymmetrical choice), or negative-reinforcement-based (single choice) contingencies were in place. During asymmetrical choice, Crowley et al. presented a preferred toy or edible at the table. In the current study, we replicated and extended Crowley et al. by comparing access to a preferred item at the table (differential reinforcement) relative to leaving the mealtime area (differential reinforcement exit) during the asymmetrical choice phase. For one participant, escape extinction was not required, and alternative-food acceptance increased regardless of the consequence in the asymmetrical choice phase. However, access to leaving the mealtime area produced higher levels of alternative-food acceptance for a second participant who required one exposure to escape extinction. We also included caregivers as feeders and observed generalization of treatment effects. These outcomes have implications for using choice-based intervention and arranging differential reinforcement in specific ways for children with feeding disorders.
 
18. The Reduction of Challenging Behavior Using Demand Fading, Trauma-Informed Care, and Escape Extinction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NATHAN BURNS (Evoke Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: This poster presents research focused on the use of demand fading to decrease a variety of challenging behaviors and increase the rate of skill acquisition in a 6-year-old male receiving center-based services. The functional assessment interview completed with the client’s caregiver lead to conditions to test for escape, specifically escape from transitional demands. Results of the FA revealed that transitional demands evoked the highest rate of challenging behavior. In a study done by Piazza et al. (1996), it was reported that using demand fading was effective in reducing escape-maintained destructive behavior to near-zero levels, and compliance improved during instructional activities without the use of physical guidance. A demand fading program was implemented with the subject to address challenging behavior while increasing skill acquisition. Results from our study suggest that demand fading can be an effective treatment to reduce challenging behavior when combined with other behavior change procedures.
 
19. Functional Analysis and Intervention of Property Destruction in Relation to Perseverated Speech and Access to Attention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAYTON PIZZANO (The May Insitute), Catherine Maruska (The May Institute), Emily Sullivan (Western New England University)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Perseverative speech is a commonality in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurological disorders that may be maintained by access to attention in the form of verbal operants (Kuntz, Santos, & Kennedy, 2020). Sarah is a 14-year-old female diagnosed with ASD, attends a school for autistic individuals, and engages in perseverative speech and property destruction. A pairwise functional analysis was conducted to determine the function of Sarah’s property destruction. Results confirmed an attention function. Anecdotally, an increase in perseverations precedes property destruction. A perseveration assessment was conducted to determine the topography of vocal-verbal attention that is correlated with decreased perseverations. The sequence of each series included repeat, ignore, contextually appropriate, socially positive, and socially negative attention. Sarah’s perseverative speech was lowest in the contextually appropriate condition and increased in all other conditions. Functional communication training will be initiated to increase appropriate mands for attention.
 
20. Adaptation of the PECS Protocol to the Introduction of an AAC device: A Pilot Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAYLA CURRAN (Evergreen Center), Rebecca Hotchkiss (Evergreen Center, Cambridge College, CABAS)
Discussant: Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: There are different tools and effective teaching methods to establish communication repertoires for non-vocal individuals (Bondy & Frost, 2001; Shillingsburg et al., 2019), including Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS), speech-generating devices (SGD), and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. The purpose of this study is to pilot an adaptation of the initial phase of the PECS protocol (Bondy & Frost, 2001) with an SGD to evaluate spontaneous mands. Multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments (DeLeon & Iwata, 1996) were conducted to determine preferred items. During baseline, the SGD was open to a screen with only the preferred item’s icon. The item was held in the participant’s eyeline by the communication partner and participant responses to reach for the item or the device were recorded. Error correction procedures were then introduced to prompt selection of the SGD icon to access the preferred item. Preliminary results demonstrate acquisition of the first step of the PECS protocol - reaching towards the SGD device when presented with a preferred item. The study will continue to evaluate the effect of the protocol on the remaining steps of the phase. Results will be discussed in relation to replicability of this pilot for additional participants with more stringent experimental parameters.
 
21. Increasing Spontaneous Use of Framed Mands in a 4-Year-Old on the Autism Spectrum Using Differential Reinforcement, Time Delay Prompting, and Parent Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY M EISMAN (Evoke Behavioral Health), Nathan Burns (Evoke Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: A 4-year-old male on the autism spectrum who receives early intervention services in a clinical setting is being taught to increase his use of spontaneous framed mands using the combined treatment package of differential reinforcement, time delay prompting, and parent training. According to Shillingsburg et al. (2020), as children grow older, using framed mands are more likely to grant them access to preferred stimuli because framed mands will result in more specific requesting when compared to single word mands. Teaching framed mands are also more likely to facilitate the development of spontaneous mands across multiple environments (Shillingsburg et al., 2020). The goal of this study is to determine if the treatment package mentioned above will be successful in increasing the client’s use of spontaneous framed mands, and decrease the amount of one-word and non-functional mands the client uses.
 
22. Stimuli Control Transfer in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) With Remote Teaching
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAYARA CRISTINA FREITAS PEREIRA GIOLO (Federal University of São Carlos - UFSCar), Nassim Chamel Elias (Federal University of Sao Carlos)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract: The end of year 2019 was marked by the identification of a virus, responsible for causing COVID-19. Several sanitary measures were established with the objective of preventing the advance of the disease, such as apartness, resulting in changes in everyone’s routines and specifically for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This experimental study used a Multiple Probe design across sets of stimuli to verify the transfer of multiple stimulus control (visual and vocal) to the vocal stimulus in children with ASD through remote teaching. The data collecting was carried out remotely, via Internet. Two young boys diagnosed with ASD participated. The data collecting procedure was composed of nine steps: 1) repertoire assessment; 2) baseline; 3) teaching-Set 1; 4) probe; 5) teaching-Set 2; 6) probe; 7) teaching-Set 3; 8) probe; and 9) Follow-Up. The results indicated that functional relations were established between verbal instructions and corresponding motor behaviors in the process of transferring stimulus control in both participants. For behaviors were learned by one child and six by the other. Concluding that the remote teaching can act as means for installing novel behaviors with stimulus control transfer in children with ASD, specifically the transfer from multiple stimuli to single one.
 
23. Teaching a Tolerance Response for Denied Access by First Evaluating an Effective Response to Perseverations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE HOWELL (Melmark), Rakeyla Little (Melmark), Jessica Mercante (Melmark), Alyssa Raftovich (Melmark)
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT) has been shown to decrease challenging behavior by providing an appropriate, alternative response that serves the same function as the behavior (Carr and Durand, 1985). Given the complexities in our day-to-day environment, honoring communication requests from individuals we serve is not always possible. One possible intervention for teaching individuals to tolerate denied or delayed access is by teaching a tolerance response via functional communication training (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). However, how you respond to the communication request can affect the frequency of challenging behavior (Mace, Pratt, Prager, & Pritchard, 2011). The purpose of this study was to assess how various responses to requests affects challenging behavior and perseverations. Results indicated that responding to perseverations once in a definitive tone resulted in the lowest frequency of challenging behavior and perseverations. This response was then incorporated into tolerance response training by teaching a tolerance response for denied access while increasing the delay period to the terminal duration of 10 minutes. Results of this study were: (a) increased independence of toleration response observed (b) absence of challenging behavior across 10 minutes following denied access, and (c) maintenance of the tolerance response observed 24 days post assessment.
 
24. Assessment and Treatment of Aggression and Automatically Maintained Disruptive Behavior With Liquids
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIK BUSTAMANTE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Zhana Loubeau (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract: Challenging behaviors such as self-injury, aggression, and disruption are more common amongst individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities than their peers. For some individuals, blocking of one form of challenging behavior may cause a more severe form to occur (Hagopian & Toole, 2009). In the current study, Payton, a 13-year-old-male previously diagnosed with Autism and an Intellectual Disability was admitted to an inpatient hospital for the assessment and treatment of aggression. This behavior reportedly co-occurred when he was blocked from engaging in disruptive behavior by dumping containers filled with liquids onto surfaces or himself (termed liquid disruption). Results from a functional analysis of liquid disruption indicated this behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. A subsequent assessment during which Payton was physically blocked from accessing containers of liquid, indicated his aggression was maintained by contingent access to engage in liquid disruption. A competing stimulus assessment (Jennett, Jann, & Hagopian, 2011) was conducted to identify items that competed with liquid disruption, and subsequently decreased aggressive behaviors. Results from this assessment identified a tablet and a DVD player, along with prompted engagement, effectively competed with Payton’s attempts to engage in aggression and liquid disruption. Treatment consisted of continuous access to competing items, prompted engagement, and physically blocking access to containers of liquid. Generalization of treatment procedures to novel areas was completed, and low to zero rates of liquid disruption and aggression were observed. Limitations and future directions related to the assessment and treatment of idiosyncratic functions will be discussed.
 
25. Using a Fork is Not a Joke! How Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Helps Learning Autonomies During Meals
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GIULIA FERRAZZI (ABA ITALIA), Sofia Guaraldi (Villa Igea Hospital ), Francesca Franco (Villa Igea Hospital)
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by difficulties with social interactions, deficiency in verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests; one of these characteristic behaviors is food selectivity. Behavioral intervention literature for Pediatric Feeding Disorders is increasing significantly. This study aim to extend prior research in order to enrich culture about behavior intervention related to food selectivity. This is a single-subject study. The subject is a 9 years old male diagnosed with autism and food selectivity. Major difficulties are autonomy related to meals such as sitting down and using flatware. Prior starting a food-related treatment, it seemed useful to teach basic autonomy such us using fork. Prompt procedures from Applied Behavior Analysis have been used. In few sessions student learned how to use fork and how to sit down properly during mealtime. A generalization intervention is in progress. Evaluating effects of enroll parents as therapists for treating food selectivity has become increasingly important in the dissemination and practice of applied behavior analysis.
 
26. Analysis of Relapse on Automatically Maintained Problem Behavior: An Inpatient Replication and Extension
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DREW E. PIERSMA (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute; the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michael P. Kranak (Oakland University), Ryan Benson (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract: Renewal of problem behavior occurs when a previously eliminated behavior reemerges following a context change. In the behavioral assessment and treatment of problem behavior in specialized inpatient and outpatient clinics, changes in contexts and stimulus conditions are quite common. These may involve person-based changes, such as introducing a novel therapist, or location-based changes, such as returning to the home environment. Recently, Muething et al. (2022) investigated the prevalence of renewal of automatically maintained behavior resulting from context changes. Their results found that problem behavior reemerged in 36% of applications following person-based changes and in 26% of applications following location-based changes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to replicate these procedures and analyze the prevalence of renewal in an additional 135 inpatient treatment applications for automatically maintained behavior across 78 cases via consecutive-controlled case series. Similar to Muething et al., renewal was prevalent in 68% of applications; however, we found a slightly lower prevalence of renewal across all context changes overall. Various factors related to the prevalence of renewal, as well as applications regarding treatment, are discussed.
 
27. Using Video Modeling to Teach Socio-Dramatic Play to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA BONFANTE (Wrap Around Agency), Megan E Vosters (Invo Healthcare), Emma Rork (Autism Home Support Services)
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract:

Play is an imperative part of childhood and aids in the development of language and social skills. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have deficits in play skills, which may contribute to further delays in social development due to a decreased number of social opportunities during play. We analyzed videos of typically developing children’s play to revise data collection and inform the video model scripts. We then examined the effects of a video modeling intervention on independent play using a multiple baseline design across toy sets. Finally, we evaluated whether increases in play resulted in increased social interactions with peers during a socio-dramatic play center.

 
28. Teaching Advanced Geometry and Spatial Reasoning Skills Using Relational Training Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZHIHUI YI (Univeristy of Illinois Chicago), Meredith T. Matthews (University of Illinois at Chicago), Mariah Dixon (Emergent Learning), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois Chicago)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract: Relational training procedures have been shown to be effective in teaching a variety of adaptive behavior skills among autistic individuals (Dixon et al., 2021). Yet few studies have investigated its efficacy in teaching advanced academic skills among autistic individuals. The current study extended prior work by Fienup & Critchfield (2011) by analyzing the impact of relational training procedures among autistic learners for advanced geometry skills. Two autistic participants were exposed to a series of relational training procedures where they were directly taught to expressively identify the names (B) of 3D shapes (A; A-B Train), to draw a 2D top-view (C) of the shape (A; A-C Train), and to select the equation (D) used to calculate the shape’s (A; A-D Train) volume. Subsequent probes examined whether participants could expressively identify the name of a 2D shape (C) if it were in 3D (B; C-B Test) and select the equitation to calculate its volume (D) if the 2D shape (C; C-D Test) were in 3D. Results show that participants successfully derived the relationship between a shape’s 2D top-down view and its corresponding 3D name, as well as the equation to calculate its volume. Implications for practitioners were discussed.
 
29. Using Problem Solving Strategy Training to Teach One Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to Explain How to Perform Behavioral Chains
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELE RIZZI (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara), Cristina Pavone (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy)), Annalisa Galeone (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus - Pescara (Italy))
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Problem solving is an increasing area of interest in behavior analytic research. Many studies applied Skinner's conceptualization of verbal behavior to teach socially significant responses to people with intellectual disabilities. In the present study, a partial replication of the study “Teaching to children with autism to explaining how: a case for problem solving?” (Frampton and Shillingsburg, 2018), we taught an adolescent girl with ASD and intellectual disabilities to explain how to perform behavioral chains to others. Using a multiple probe designs we evaluated the effectiveness of a problem solving strategy training (PSST) in producing correct responding. After the acquisition of the problem solving strategy in the first set of chains, participant generalized the skill to set 2 and 3 without formal teaching.
 
31. Further Evaluation of the Function of Social Interaction in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HARPER JEEN GRABENHORST (University of Florida), Ciobha A. McKeown (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Jeanne Stephanie Gonzalez (University of Florida)
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Several studies have validated methodology for determining the function of social interactions for children with autism. This study sought to replicate and extend the utility of procedures evaluated by Morris and Vollmer (2021). As part of the child’s initial assessment, we conducted a modified sociability evaluation to determine if social interactions functioned as reinforcing, neutral, or aversive stimuli. Across an eight-minute evaluation, using a concurrent operant set-up, we measured if the child spent most their time playing with toys by themselves or selecting to play with the same toys with an adult. Then, we conducted weekly assessments to evaluate if social function changed across time as the child participated in behavior analytic therapy. Initial assessment results suggested that most children found social interactions to be a neutral stimulus. We observed a shift in sociability over time as the child learned essential skills (e.g., manding, response to name, functional play). We will discuss the clinical utility of this assessment tool, considerations toward improving social interaction, and future directions for measuring sociability.
 
32. The Use of Behavioral Skills Training With Caregivers on Correct Pairing Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MIKAYLA CAMPBELL (Utah Valley University), Lauren Mather (Utah Valley University), Devin Guinn (ABC), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Kelsi Walker (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract: Behavior analysts and caregivers play a critical role in the delivery of effective treatment to those with autism. One effective strategy for ensuring long-term maintenance of targeted behaviors is to train caregivers on specific treatment implementation procedures. Previous research has shown Behavior Skills Training as an effective intervention for teaching caregivers proper treatment implementation of a variety of skills, such as prompting, teaching social skills, and self-care, to their children. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Skills Training in teaching appropriate implementation of pairing procedures to caregivers. The current study employed an AB design, whereby the intervention involved a Behavior Skills Training protocol (instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback) given to caregivers on effective pairing strategies with their child with autism. The staff recorded data on the implementation of the pairing task analysis as well as the frequency of independent tacts and mands made by the child with autism to these family members. The results suggest the training was effective in teaching appropriate pairing procedures to the parents. Additionally, the findings show an increase in independent tacts and mands to family members, as well as to the behavior technician.
 
33. A Component Skills Assessment of Observational Learning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH M. SANSING (University of North Texas; Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Karen A. Toussaint (University of North Texas), Samantha Bergmann (University of North Texas ), Chelsea Christina Elwood (University of North Texas; Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Samantha Kaur Sidhu Perdeep Singh Sidhu (University of North Texas; Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Katherine Flores (University of North Texas; Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Reagan O'Hearn (University of North Texas; Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Vanéssa De Hoyos Hernández (University of North Texas; Kristin Farmer Autism Center)
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Observational learning (OL) allows an individual to acquire novel responses by observing others’ behavior and the corresponding consequences. The complexity of skills involved with OL may vary with the learning context. A learner may observe modeled responses to both trained and untrained stimuli or they may observe both reinforced and unreinforced consequences. The purpose of this study was to develop assessment and training procedures for OL component skills when the learner observes a combination of learning contexts: correct and incorrect responses to both trained and untrained stimuli. Two children with autism participated. We assessed the following component skills in the context of tact trials: (1) Tacting trained and untrained stimuli, (2) monitoring modeled performance, (3) discriminating consequences, and (4) conditionally responding based upon a name call. Next, we trained the component skill(s) for which the learner’s performance did not meet criterion and then reassessed for OL. For one participant, OL was demonstrated across all trial types after the inclusion of a differential observing response (DOR) for consequence discrimination. The results for the second participant are currently in progress. Implications of these outcomes and directions for future research will be discussed.
 
35. The Effect of Self-Management Procedures on Maladaptive Social Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN MATHER (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley Unviersity), Kelsi Walker (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often have deficits in social behaviors and have difficulty responding appropriately under varying social contexts. The research surrounding self-management procedures has produced promising results as an intervention for addressing maladaptive behaviors and teaching appropriate replacement behaviors. Furthermore, self-management procedures offer exceptional utility as a minimally intrusive intervention since they allow the learner to continuously monitor and govern their own behavior. Although self-management procedures have been demonstrated as effective, further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions in promoting appropriate social interactions under various contexts. The current study utilized an AB design to evaluate a self-management procedure with an individual with autism to teach acceptable social behavior and decrease maladaptive social behaviors. A token economy was used, and reinforcement was provided on a fixed interval schedule contingent on the client responding in accordance with predetermined social rules. The intervals were gradually increased as progress was made to promote maintenance of the target behavior. The data suggest the intervention was effective in improving the client’s social interactions, as well as in decreasing maladaptive behavior. The findings support the use of self-management as an effective and minimally intrusive intervention for addressing social behaviors for individuals with autism.
 
36. Effects of Differential Outcomes on Listener Discrimination Skills Among Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MADISON JUDKINS (University of Nebraska-Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute), Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute), Zeinab Hedroj (University of Nebraska-Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Melissa Valdez (University of Nebraska-Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Jessica Archer (University of Nebraska-Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Catalina Rey (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract: The differential outcomes procedure (DOP) involves pairing specific reinforcers for correct responses to specific discriminative stimuli. For example, during tact training, a child might receive candy each time for correctly tacting “cat” and chips each time for correctly tacting “dog.” This procedure has been shown to result in faster acquisition (i.e., differential outcomes effect; DOE) than standard conditional discrimination teaching procedures (Trapold, 1970; Urcuioli, 2005). Though the DOE is a well-established effect in both human and non-human animals, there is little research demonstrating its utility in clinical applications (McCormack et al., 2019; Urcuioli, 2005). The current study evaluated the effect of the DOP on the acquisition of receptive identification among four autistic children using an adapted alternating treatments design embedded within a multiple-probe-across-comparisons design. Preliminary results suggest the effects of differential outcomes procedures might be idiosyncratic.
 
37. Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Behavior Functions in an Inpatient Population With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ILEANA UMANA (Baylor College of Medicine), Robin P. Goin-Kochel (Texas Children's Hospital/ Baylor College of Medicine)
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder experience higher levels of stress when compared to parents of children with other developmental disabilities (Hayes & Watson, 2013). Though parents of children with autism express many reasons for parental stress, many studies report challenging behaviors as a top source of stress (Bonis, 2016). Given the vast possibilities of operationalizing “challenging behavior”, it is important to understand the relationship between parental stress and behavior at the function level. This poster examines the relationship between parental stress and the function of self-injurious behavior in an inpatient sample of children with autism spectrum disorder. Researchers used data provided by the Autism Inpatient Collection (AIC; Simmons Foundation) to understand the relationship between parent reported function of self-injurious behavior (FAST; Iwata et al., 2013) and parental ratings of parental stress (Parenting Stress Index-4; Abdin, 2012 ) and self-efficacy (Difficult Behavior Self-Efficacy Scale; Brown & Hastings, 2002). Data was available for 217participants. The average age for child-patients was 12.6 (SD = 3.35). Results from statistical analysis and implications for practice will be discussed.
 
38. Reduction of SIB for a Teenager with Limited Communication Skills in a Center-Based Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHAELAGH NELSON (Evoke Behavioral Health ), Claire Wobbema (Evoke Behavioral Health), Lisa Nigrelli-Doyle (Evoke Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder may exhibit self-injurious behaviors (SIB); studies have suggested that for many, SIB can be automatically maintained. The current study was conducted on a 14-year-old male with limited expressive language who exhibits head-directed SIB in the form of making contact between his head and his hand, his head and an object, or his head and a hard surface with more force than a tap. Results from a brief functional analysis determined a hypothesized primary function of automatic reinforcement; this was indicated by increased rates of SIB as compared to the control condition (Richards et al., 2012). Recent literature reviews of treatments for SIB resulted in multiple methods proven to be effective interventions for decreasing these undesired or unsafe behaviors. Automatically reinforced SIB is shown to be more resistant to treatment compared to socially reinforced SIB due to the unreliability in specific variables that may maintain it (Iwata et al., 1994). We hypothesize that implementation of interventions consisting of functional communication training will result in reduced instances of self-injurious behavior in a center-based setting (Tiger et al., 2008).
 
39. An Evaluation of Delay and Denial Training: Durability Against Treatment Relapse
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KENDALL MAE KASTNER (Marquette University ), Stephanie A. Hood (Marquette University ), Daniel R. Mitteer (Rutgers University (RUCARES))
Discussant: Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Abstract: Delay and Denial Training is a prevalent prescribed intervention following successful implementation of Functional Communication Training (FCT). Although there is strong empirical evidence in support of delay and denial training as an intervention to reach socially acceptable outcomes, there has yet to be systematic assessments of this intervention’s susceptibility to treatment relapse. The goal of this evaluation is to arrange treatment challenges which mimic the conditions that threaten treatment outcomes in the natural environment, specifically transferring treatment to a new environment or treatment integrity omission errors. Researchers replicated recent iterations of delay and denial training procedures (Hanley et al., 2014; Rose & Beaulieu, 2019), and included treatment challenges based on procedures by Saini et al., (2018), and Fisher et al., (2019). With this project researchers hope to add to the existing research on delay and denial training and examine the durability against treatment relapse in the forms of renewal and resurgence.
 
40. A Systematic Review of Studies on Social Interaction Skills Interventions for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Selina Arvelo (University of South Florida), Danielle Ann Russo (University of South Florida ), Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida), RYAN HINDERLITER (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Sloane Pharr (The Wellness Centre)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties developing social interaction skills. Interventions in the early school years are more likely to have noticeable positive effects on later skills and school success for these children. This review study aimed to summarize current literature on school-based social interaction skills interventions for young children with ASD. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that used applied behavior analytic (ABA) interventions to improve the social interaction skills of children with ASD aged 4 to 8 in school settings. Using systematic procedures, 16 studies meeting established inclusion criteria were reviewed to examine the characteristics of the studies and to identify the interventions that are effective and efficient in increasing social skills in young children with ASD in schools. The findings suggest the following implications for practice and future research: (a) providing implementation support to teachers to improve treatment fidelity, (b) evaluating social validity of the interventions, and (c) promoting intervention maintenance and generalization effects. Findings suggest an increase in research detailing the training of teacher implementers for better understanding of all variables in the study’s environment as well as the need for further examination of the impact of coaching during interventions.
 
41. Using Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Neurodivergent Adults Transportation Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE CASTILLO (University of North Texas), Karen A. Toussaint (University of North Texas), Samantha Bergmann (University of North Texas ), Ian S. Paterson (University of North Texas), Roberto Moran (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Brianna M. Anderson
Abstract: Public transportation can provide individuals with access to their community, employment, and other resources. However, public transit systems can often be complex, and neurodivergent individuals may require explicit teaching for successful use. Behavior skills training (BST) procedures have been widely established as an effective method for teaching complex skills. The current study investigated the effects of behavioral skills training on utilizing the Transit app for one adult college student diagnosed with autism and a second adult college student diagnosed with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Transit app was designed to provide real-time public transit data to users and can be used in over 175 metropolitan areas around the world. We assessed and trained performance using vignettes that entailed various routes, origins, and destinations. Following training, in-vivo performance was assessed across various campus and local community locations. Results suggest that BST was effective in teaching neurodivergent college students to correctly utilize the transportation app, and the bus-taking skills generalized to the natural environment.
 
42. Toilet Training: When the Gold Standard Fails You
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SAMANTHA SMALLEY (Oliver Behavioral Consultants), Dominique Bladow (Oliver Behavioral Consultants), Claire Godfrey (Oliver Behavioral Consultants)
Discussant: Mikaela Danielle Green
Abstract: In 1974, Azrin & Foxx published their landmark book: Toilet Training in Less Than a Day, which initiated changes in approaches to one based on science and positive reinforcement. Successful outcomes have been reported in the literature for years (Cicero, Pfadt, 2002; Cocchiola,., Martino, Dwyer, & Demezzo, 2012; Kroeger, Sorensen-Burnworth, 2009; LeBlanc, Carr, Crossett, Bennett, Detweiler, 2005). One element to training involves manipulating accessibility to liquids. Increasing the volume of liquids increases probability of elimination. This relationship ensures conditions necessary to establish stimulus control over responding. Eating disorders can disrupt this relationship and reduce conditions that produce eliminations (Francis, Mannion & Leader, 2017; Williamson, Kelley, Cavell & Prather, 1987). Consequently, more time is spent on the toilet with no output and little chance for differential reinforcement (Azrin & Foxx, 1971). In this study, a 7-year-old boy was trained to use a toilet at his day program. Initially, he did not consume solid foods and, other than formula, consumed no liquids. He did not drink from cups and wore pull-ups which were changed as needed. The present study describes (1) slow acquisition of successful eliminations; (2) gradual introduction of straws, cups, and consumption of food; and (3) generalization to other toilets.
 
43. Using an Omnibus Mand to Treat Multiply Maintained Severe Behavior in a Public School Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COURTNEY LEWIS (Mississippi State University), Hailey Spinks (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Brianna M. Anderson
Abstract: An omnibus mand is a functional communication response (FCR; e.g., “my way”) that produces all reinforcers simultaneously. Teaching an omnibus mand can be an efficient method for reducing problem behavior with multiple functions. The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of a treatment package including an omnibus mand on severe problem behavior in a public school setting. The participant was a 5-year-old autistic male who engaged in disruptive behavior (e.g., disrobing, throwing items) and aggression that had resulted in injuries for several teachers and peers. Results of a trial-based functional analysis indicated target behaviors were maintained by attention, escape, and access to tangibles. A treatment package that included an omnibus mand procedure quickly decreased target behaviors, but we observed increased levels of problem behavior relative to baseline when the omnibus mand was not reinforced (i.e., during the participant’s toileting routine and new staff training). Additionally, treatment integrity was variable for school staff despite ongoing training. Our study supports the use of an omnibus mand procedure to decrease severe problem behavior but suggests the ability to maintain high treatment integrity may be an important consideration when deciding whether this intervention is appropriate in more naturalistic settings.
 
44. Establishing Manding in a Child Using 3-Dimensional Objects
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSUE NEVAREZ (Oliver Behavioral Consultants), Kiera Benson (Oliver Behavioral Consultants), Lia Korn (Oliver Behavioral Consultants)
Discussant: Mikaela Danielle Green
Abstract: One of the leading contributors to self-injurious behaviors is failure of an individual to acquire functional communications skills (Tiger, Hanley, & Bruzek, 2008). Research suggests that teaching functional communication skills, (e.g., manding for objects) using a pictorial representation may compete with and replace self-injurious responses. When a picture fails to produce functional requesting, other stimuli (connecting two objects together) can be substituted. Gio is a 4-year-old boy who enjoys walking, eating snacks, and relaxing in his beanbag, He has no functional communication skills and prefers to play with toy objects than pictures. He engages in severe self-injury (punches to the eyes) when communication fails or delayed access to reinforcers. During phase one, Gio received training to request for reinforcers using visual pictures (e.g., Picture Exchange Cards, tablet, book, 2-dimensional pictures). During this condition, he did not demonstrate pointing at the object consistently. In phase two, reinforcers were delivered to Gio when he pointing to 3-dimensional objects representing the object. Objects were introduced separately, and reinforcers were delivered only when Gio reached for, grabbed the object, and handed it to the therapist. Currently, all 3-dimensional objects are worn on the belt of the therapist and Gio mands more effectively for reinforcers.
 
45. Measuring Indices of Happiness and its Relation to Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACQUELINE WILSON (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Caitlyn Federico (Salve Regina University ), Kaitlyn Regine (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Brianna M. Anderson
Abstract: Indices of happiness have been used to assist in the evaluation of individuals’ preferences and quality of life, as well as the social validity of intervention procedures. Practitioners may also benefit from measuring indices of happiness when treating problem behavior. However, limited research has evaluated the relation between indices of happiness and the occurrence of problem behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess indices of happiness and its relation to problem behavior with a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Indices of happiness and occurrences of problem behavior were both measured during a structured assessment. Conditional probability analyses were conducted evaluating the relation between the two variables. Interobserver agreement (IOA) was collected during 85% of sessions using trial-by-trial agreement with a score of 100%. The results of the assessment showed that the presence of happiness indices coincided with increased instances of one target behavior while the absence of happiness indices coincided with increased instances of a second target behavior. Considerations for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior and its relation to happiness indices will be discussed.
 
46. The Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude Using Social Reinforcers on Skill Acquisition for Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANNA CHUNG (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Carrie Gray (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Annette Griffith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Yors A. Garcia (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana)
Discussant: Mikaela Danielle Green
Abstract: Reinforcement is a consequence of behavior that explains why people do the things they do. Attention is a form of reinforcement that does not require any additional materials and is readily available. Attention, or social reinforcement, appears as either vocal verbal praise, or physical attention. Praise consists of verbal statements such as “Good job” or “Fantastic,” and physical attention consists of social interactions such as tickles, fist bumps, or high-fives. This study consisted of three parts. Study one evaluated the effects of different magnitudes of attention on skill acquisition. A multielement design investigating three independent variables was used: praise, physical attention, and a combination of both praise and physical attention. It was hypothesized that skill acquisition would occur across each condition; however, a significant difference was expected in the combination condition. A concurrent study assessed the preference of attention conditions. A preference assessment was conducted each session block, where the participant chose which condition they would like to initiate. Attention as the sole reinforcer was evaluated and provided support to extend the literature to include the efficacy of attention alone as a reinforcer when other topographies (i.e., tangibles, edibles) are unavailable.
 
47. An Evaluation of Discrete-Trial and Secondary Target Instruction Procedures on Olfactory Tact Acquisition for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANN MARIE KONDRAD (Yellow Brick Academy), Michael Toto (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Amanda Mahoney (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group ), Meredith L. Andrews (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Brianna M. Anderson
Abstract: Tacting is the act of labeling a stimulus presented. Teaching individuals to tact visual stimuli has often been the focus of research on tact acquisition, perhaps understanably; however, visual is not the only type of stimulus that may be tacted. For example, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have difficulty learning tacts of nonvisual stimuli such as sounds, feelings, or scents. Tacting scents has been recently evaluated using typical discrete trial teaching procedures, and it has been successful. A secondary instruction may include an additional characteristic of a tact, such as a class. For example, the smell of strawberries can be characterized as fruity. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the literature on tact training and secondary target instruction by evaluating the effects of discrete-trial procedures that involved either immediate echoic prompts, prompt delay, or an error correction procedure on the acquisition of olfactory tacts with children diagnosed with ASD.
 
48. Effects of Similar and Dissimilar High-Probability Request Topographies on Low-Probability Request Compliance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERICA HEBERT (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Holly Bruski (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Chrystal Jansz Rieken (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Mikaela Danielle Green
Abstract: High-probability request sequencing is a teaching procedure that includes the rapid presentation of multiple responses with a high-probability of compliance, followed by a response that has a low-probability of compliance. There is an extensive amount of research exists on the use of the high-probability request sequencing, and the effects of various procedural changes to increase compliant responding. Although this antecedent intervention has been determined to be effective in increasing compliance, limited research has been conducted on the role of topography across high- and low-probability requests. The present study sought to replicate and extend previous research on the high-probability request sequence by incorporating four experimental conditions that examined the role of topography as it related to compliance in three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that regardless of topographic similarity between high- and low-probability requests, participants demonstrated an increased percentage of compliance to low-probability requests. Future researchers should consider recruiting a more diverse population and ensuring limited exposure to the target low- probability requests to promote external and internal validity, respectively.
 
49. Antecedent Functional Analysis of Food Refusal for a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA B CAMAFREITA (University of Kansas ), Pamela L. Neidert (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Brianna M. Anderson
Abstract: According to Piazza and Volkert (2012), an estimated 30-80% of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit a feeding disorder in their lifetime. Feeding disorders can lead to serious complications such as malnutrition, delays in growth, and exposure to intrusive interventions such as tube feeding. Munk and Repp (1994) found that the presence of certain stimulus features such as food texture or food type could lead to food refusal in children with ASD. The purpose of the current study is to use an antecedent functional analysis based on methodology described by Munk and Repp (1994) to inform a function-based treatment for food refusal in a child diagnosed with ASD. A multielement design was used to assess variable influence (texture, type, vehicle) on food refusal. Preliminary results show an influence of taste and texture on food refusal. Refinement of procedures to identify specific stimulus features that influence food refusal will allow clinicians to treat feeding disorders efficiently and effectively, minimizing the need for elongated treatment evaluations and/or using countertherapeutic interventions.
 
Diversity submission 50. Relational Coherence and Autism Education: Does How We Educate Caregivers About Autism Matter?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA N. CHASTAIN (University of Illinois, Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago), Meredith T. Matthews (University of Illinois at Chicago), Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois, Chicago)
Discussant: Mikaela Danielle Green
Abstract: Advocates of the neurodiversity movement have been pushing for autism acceptance rather than the medical model ideal of autism as a disease in need of a cure. However, informational material available to parents of children suspected of autism is often in line with the medical model description, “disease-ifying” the diagnosis. The current study extends the work of Relational Density Theory by exploring differences in relational coherence of negative and positive terms with “autism diagnosis” and “no autism diagnosis” after exposure to material that either enforced the medical model description of autism or educated parents on autism acceptance. Participants were parents and caregivers of children being evaluated for autism. Half of the participants were given educational material describing autism as a medical disorder, and the other half were given educational material describing autism using acceptance language. A multidimensional scaling procedure was then used to generate a two-dimensional geometric space for each group, where relational coherence between terms could be evaluated. Preliminary results show differences between groups, suggesting that the way that we educate parents about autism impacts their perception of it.
 
51. School-Based Intervention for Severe Problem Behavior: Evaluation of a Screening and Selection Tool
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HAILEY SPINKS (Mississippi State University), Courtney Lewis (Mississippi State University )
Discussant: Brianna M. Anderson
Abstract: Schools are an important setting for behavioral intervention. Nonetheless, some severe problem behavior (e.g., aggression, disruptions, self-injury) is inappropriate for school-based assessment and treatment due to safety concerns. The purpose of the present analysis was to develop screening and selection procedures that could be used to identify characteristics of individuals whose severe behavior is likely appropriate to be treated in a public-school setting. To evaluate our screening procedures, we offered free behavior analytic services to selected students and solicited applications from special education personnel from public schools in a southeastern state. We received 15 applications from 8 counties; 11 of these applicants also completed a follow-up screening. Each completed application packet was then reviewed and scored across numerous dimensions to determine which identified students were most appropriate for our services. Interobserver agreement for our selection measure was high, suggesting our scoring procedures were reliable. Preliminary assessment and treatment outcomes for the individuals selected to receive our services are positive and may provide additional information about the validity of the identified screening and selection procedures. Additional research in this area is warranted to help researchers and practitioners better understand the necessary considerations for assessing and treating severe behavior in schools.
 
53. To Mix or Not to Mix, That Is the Question
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEREDITH T. MATTHEWS (University of Illinois at Chicago), Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Diana Stanciu (University of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Brianna M. Anderson
Abstract: Conditional discrimination and matching to sample procedures have been used to train relations between stimuli and subsequently assess stimulus equivalence, or the behavioral phenomenon that occurs when certain relations between stimuli emerge without direct training. Equivalence-based instruction (EBI) refers to the application of stimulus equivalence and previous research has indicated that EBI can be applied to teach a variety of educational and language skills to children. The present study extended upon previous research to determine the efficacy of treatment interventions when comparing a blocked versus a mixed trial block utilizing EBI. We evaluated the efficacy of blocked versus mixed trial blocks on programs taken from the PEAK Equivalence module implemented across individuals with autism in an alternating treatment design. Three autistic participants were exposed to a series of relational training procedures across PEAK Equivalence programs where they were directly taught the training steps and probed the final step for derivation. For example, participants were taught to match a spoken word (A) with a sample synonym (B; A-B Train), and subsequent probes examined whether participants could then match the sample synonym (B) with the spoken word (A; B-A Test). Results of the present study show that blocked training trials led to higher rates of mastery compared to the mixed training trial blocks. Implications of this research study for practitioners are discussed.
 
54. Using Rules and Scheduled Sits to Reduce Fecal Soiling in an Adult With Autism at an Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Treatment Center
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
GENEVIEVE ELOSKOF (Easterseals Southern California), Justin Chan (Easterseals Southern California), Shaji Haq (Easterseals Southern California), Joyce Chenchen Tu Battersby (Easterseals of Southern California)
Discussant: Mikaela Danielle Green
Abstract: Individuals with developmental disabilities are more likely to experience toileting issues, such as encopresis, soiling, and constipation than the general population (Matson & Lovullo, 2009). Further complications to treatment may arise for individuals with autism who display repetitive and restrictive behaviors. Treatment for an adult with fecal soiling that only occurred at an ABA treatment center was provided using a combination of scheduled sits, food choices and contingencies, and rules. Results showed that the treatment package effectively reduced fecal soiling at the ABA treatment center. A discussion will include clinical implications, limitations, and future directions for research.
 
55. I-Mand Training: A Long-Term Study About the Use Versus Abandonment of a High-Tech Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SALVATORE VITA (Neapolisanit Rehabilitation Center), LUIGI IOVINO (Neapolisanit Rehabilitation Center), ANDREA MENNITTO (Neapolisanit Rehabilitation Center), ANGELO REGA (University Federico II, Naples; Neapolisanit Rehabilitation Center)
Discussant: Brianna M. Anderson
Abstract: Over the years, a considerable amount of research has demonstrated the impact of Alternative Augmentative Communication (AAC), particularly when supported by methodologies derived from Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA). Over the years, various types of AAC systems have been developed and new technologies have expanded the clinical possibilities in this field. However, despite increasingly computerised systems and the use of rigorous methodologies (e.g. PECS), the literature shows that more than half of AAC systems are abandoned after a short time. I-MAND® training is a theoretical framework that, by exploiting the principles of ABA and enriching itself with the steps of the PECS methodology, aims at the teaching of high-tech AAC systems, making up for the methodological shortcomings of teaching Speech Generator Device (SGD). The following study shows how, the percentage of abandonment of a SGD based on a specific teaching methodology (I-MAND®), is lower than the body of research present in the literature so far, offering cues for thought on the use and dissemination of AAC systems.
 
 
 
Poster Session #370D
CSS Monday Poster Session
Monday, May 29, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Jonathan Krispin (Valdosta State University)
Diversity submission 70. Breaking Biases: An Evaluation of the Effects of Error Correction on Diminishing Implicit Biases Regarding an Individual’s Abilities Based on Knowledge of a Diagnosis
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
CRYSTAL FIELDS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Nicole Kanew (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Rachel García (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Rocco G Catrone (The Chicago School Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Stephanie Jimenez (University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown)
Abstract: Biases can manifest in a variety of ways. Most often, we think of racial or religious biases, but a person may develop biases toward many characteristics, such as physical diagnoses (e.g., pregnancy), developmental diagnoses (e.g., autism), and mental diagnoses (e.g., bi-polar disorder). The purpose of this study was to determine if an individual’s biases about a variety of disorders, delays, disabilities, and impairments can be altered. To assess the participants’ biases, we used the General Capabilities Scale, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-2, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Stigma. To do this, the study examined the impact of error-correction strategies on bias amongst nine adult participants. The introduction of all three error-correction procedures resulted in an increase in the knowledge each of the participants had about the 12 different categories of disabilities and disorders that were presented to them. This study concluded by discovering that the use of the error correction of repetitive responses yielded no more effectiveness than any other error correction procedures.
 
71. Integrating Public Health and Behavior Science
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
JONATHAN A. SCHULZ (Vermont Center on Behavior and Health), Elizabeth Schieber (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Crystal M. Slanzi (Temple University), Sarah Catherine Weinsztok (University of Kansas), Francesca Cecilia Ramírez (National University of San Marcos; Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológic), Nikol Mayo (National University of San Marcos; Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológica), Patricia I. Wright (ProofPositive: Autism Wellbeing Alliance ), Traci M. Cihon (Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Discussant: Jonathan Krispin (Valdosta State University)
Abstract: Public health interventions and programs, which aim to prevent diseases and promote health status for individuals and communities, have made important contributions for the past century. However, there is room for improvement on the extent to which such interventions and programs consider the behavior of individuals as many public health concerns can be addressed through adapting and changing human behavior. However, formal collaboration between public health scholars/practitioners and behavioral scientists remains scarce. In fact, “public health” is not even a program area in behavior analytic conferences nor is there a public health Special Interest Group. This poster builds on the 2022 ABAI public health poster that provides recommendations to continue demonstrating the utility of behavioral science in public health and broaden our scope of practice by exploring the ways that behavioral scientists and public health professionals can collaborate and learn from one another. We will provide a behavior analytic conceptualization of the social determinants of health and integrate this analysis to a new Healthy People 2030 objective. We will present strategies on how behavior scientists can collaborate with public health professionals to improve population health outcomes and reduce health disparities, as well as pathways of how behavioral scientists can ethically expand their scope of practice to public health.
 
Sustainability submission 72. Demand for Climate-Friendly Commodities: Do Rules About Benefits Influence Behavior?
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
CYNTHIA J. PIETRAS (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Stephanie Jimenez (University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown)
Abstract:

This study used a hypothetical purchase task to investigate how likelihood of purchasing a climate-friendly commodity (rooftop solar) varied with price and descriptions of benefits for purchases. Prior research has shown that consumption for a sustainable commodity varies as a function of price and is well described by an exponential demand function (Kaplan, Gelino, Reed, 2018). Research has also shown that beliefs in consequences of energy investment decisions are related to household choice (Kastner & Stern, 2015). Participants were recruited from Amazon MTurk and N=244 completed the study. Participants rated how likely they would be to purchase home solar panels at 17 prices ranging from $0 to $150000. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups given different statements about benefits of purchasing solar panels: no information, energy independence, cost savings, or climate change benefits. Likelihood of purchase varied as a function of price and was well fit by exponentiated demand functions. Preliminary analyses show similar results across groups in obtained demand intensity (QO) and elasticity, median price at maximum output (Pmax) at $7500 and median breakpoints at $17500-$20000. Future studies will investigate effects of messaging on consumption of commodities with lower prices (i.e., electric vehicles, plant-based burgers).

 
Sustainability submission 73. Evaluating the Effects of Information and Education on Sustainable Purchasing
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
KATELYN RACHELLE JONES (Missouri State University), Maggie Adler (Missouri State University ), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Mikaila Field (Missouri State University ), Lauren Candrl (Missouri State University )
Discussant: Jonathan Krispin (Valdosta State University)
Abstract: The fast fashion industry is growing which in turn impacts our environment with chemical pollution, CO2 emissions, and textile waste (Niinimäki et al., 2020). The current study is a translational evaluation of relational framing involved in sustainable purchasing using a multiple baseline across participants with an additive component analysis. In baseline, participants completed a purchasing task and a multi-dimensional scaling procedure. Half of the participants then received pamphlets containing information on the two clothing brands while the other half received a pamphlet on the benefits of sustainable fashion on the environment. Participants then completed the purchasing task and multi-dimensional scaling procedure again. Participants then received the pamphlets they did not receive previously and completed the surveys again. Results show participants were more willing to buy more expensive items after being informed the company is sustainable. Participants also relationally framed the sustainable brand to more pro-climate stimuli and the fast fashion brand to anti-climate stimuli after the intervention. The results indicate that (1) participants need more information about climate change to increase the reinforcing value of sustainable properties of clothing and (2) recognition of sustainable branding established through advertising, consistent with a relational frame theory account.
 
 
 
Symposium #407
Challenge of Reinforcing Safety Behavior of Workers at Work Sites-Measurement and Evaluation of Safety Behavior of Workers in Various Companies
Monday, May 29, 2023
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall A-C
Area: OBM/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rieko Hojo (Nagaoka University of Technology)
Abstract:

Due to recent global trends such as the SDGs, maintaining and enhancing people's health, safety and happiness is focused. Along with this, there is a great deal of interest in well-being not only of general public but also workers in the workplace. As a new ISO related to occupational health and safety, "ISO 45003 – Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace – Guidelines Mental Safety and Health in the Workplace " was released. Safety at work that relied on human attention or was secured by the principle of stopping and isolating machines has changed with the introduction of ICT equipment and/or cloud network so on. There are an increasing number of situations where the principle of "stop and isolation" is not applied due to robot teaching work and working in IMS. Considering the actual situation of workers who have to adapt to such rapid changes, it is necessary to search for the ideal way of optimal work style for workers at work. In this presentation, we outline of methods of measurement of working behavior using IoT devices and evaluation using BA procedure in some industries such as automobile manufacturing in Japan. In addition, we introduce some results of measurement of well-being at work during working from the viewpoint of occupational safety field using BA procedure.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Behavior-based safety, Mechanical safety, Occupational safety, Worker
 
Measurement of Safety Behavior of Workers at a Tunnel Construction Site in Japan
RIEKO HOJO (Nagaoka University of Technology)
Abstract: The construction industry has the highest number of deaths by industry, accounting for about 30% of the total. Above all, knowledge of the laws of human behavior is indispensable for the prevention of serious accidents at mountain tunnel sites. Risk management is a prerequisite for face work, which is particularly risky. In order to ensure this safety, signals and monitoring have been performed by people until now, but with the rapid development of ICT and AI, it is now possible to communicate safety information in real time. It is desired to improve safety and productivity along with safety. On the other hand, in constructing a face monitoring support system and performing cooperative work between humans and machines, there is a possibility that workers will fall into negative situations such as mental and physical stress, embarrassment, and disgust. Therefore, it is expected that the use of the face monitoring support system will evoke a sense of security regarding reliability and validity, as well as positive aspects such as rewarding. Therefore, we propose a method to quantitatively and objectively evaluate the mental and physical changes that occur under the cooperative work of related workers and the face monitoring support system.
 

Measuring Repetitive Worker’s Answering Behaviors of Well-Being at Work

YUKA KOREMURA (KOREMURA Giken Co., LTD. ballast Dept GOP CO., LTD. SATEC), Rieko Hojo (Nagaoka University of Technology GOP CO., LTD. SATEC), Christoph F. Bördlein (Technical University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt (THWS)), Kohei Nomura (GOP CO., LTD. SATEC), Shoken Shimizu (GOP CO., LTD. SATEC National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan)
Abstract:

The question of how to work changes over time. Regarding whether a worker's work behavior is efficient and productive, work skills are acquired, and the fluency is trained. However, it is not known whether the worker is performing the work behavior with job satisfaction or stress during the work; in other words, whether the worker continues to constructively perform the work behavior contingent on work-appropriate behavior in the work context. We conducted experiment that repeatedly engaged in work in two short-time work settings before and after the work answering questionnaires on well-being, stress checks, and current state of mind, and measured vital data (heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure). The subjects were six adult workers who performed 40 1-min. tasks, five times each, on four different portable work platforms made of aluminum alloy, one at high elevations and one at low elevations, and answering questionnaire behavior data were collected before and after the tasks were performed. Subjects’ answers were no significantly different (Fig. 1). We will examine whether there is a change in each subject's answering behavior, the type of platform, and the difference in between the height of the platforms.

 

Using a Self-Commitment to Reduce the Consumption of Disposable Coffee Mugs

CHRISTOPH F. BÖRDLEIN (Technical University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt (THWS)), Tanja Schneider (University of Vechta)
Abstract:

We used a self-commitment strategy to encourage college students to reduce the amount of disposable coffee mugs they used. Student of an introductory course in behavior analysis were informed about the environmental hazards associated with the usage of disposable coffee mugs (they are not recyclable and waste a lot of resources in terms of paper, oil products etc.). It is easy to use a reusable coffee mug instead. After discussing strategies on how to avoid the usage of disposable coffee mugs (having a reusable mug, prompting yourself to put it in your bag when leaving your home etc.), students were asked to sign a self-commitment never to use a disposable coffee-mug again. For signing the commitment, the students received a reusable coffee mug (while stocks last). 67 students signed the commitment and agreed to leave their email addresses in order to contact them afterwards. After one year the students were asked to answer an anonymous online survey about their usage of disposable coffee mugs in the year preceding and following the commitment. The usage of disposable coffee mugs was reduced from a mean of 32 in the year before the commitment to 6 in the year following the commitment.

 

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