Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

Event Details


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Poster Session #519
AUT Monday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
111. Evaluation of a Brief Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHANNON WILSON (University of South Florida), Hannah Lynn MacNaul (University of Texas at San Antonio; University of South Florida), Catia Cividini-Motta Cividini (University of South Florida), Anh Nguyen (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Identifying preferred stimuli and reinforcers is a key component to any successful intervention aimed at increasing appropriate behavior for individuals with and without disabilities (Verriden & Roscoe, 2016). Preference assessments allow for the identification of specific preferred stimuli for each individual, which can then be used in treatment planning. However, Graff and Karsten (2012) found that clinicians do not conduct preference assessments regularly, with lack of time reported as the most common barrier (81.4% of respondents). Previous research has evaluated various formats of preference assessments, including brief versions (e.g., Brief MSWO; Carr et al., 2000) to address that concern. To extend this line of work, the current study evaluated the correspondence between a paired stimulus preference assessment (PSPA; Fisher et al., 1992) and an abbreviated, briefer version. Seven participants were included in this study and results demonstrated high degrees of correspondence across preference assessment formats, with both preference assessments identifying stimuli that functioned as reinforcers. The average time to administer the brief PSPA (M = 6.6 min) was almost half the time to administer a full PSPA (M = 12.9 min), yielding important implications for practitioners. Future research will be discussed.
 
113. Social Validity of a Function-Based and Parent-Mediated Elopement Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Laura Suzanna Coleman (Marcus Autism Center), CHELSEA MARIE ROCK (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Marcus Autism Center), Jessica Solomon (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: A common concern impacting the families of children on the autism spectrum is elopement. This behavior may be amenable to treatment using behavioral interventions; however, little is known regarding the acceptability of such interventions by those receiving these services. In a randomized controlled trial, parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were trained by a BCBA to implement a function-based manualized treatment for elopement. We analyzed social validity measures to determine whether there is an association between treatment outcomes and acceptability ratings. We also explored whether the caregivers of participants with multiple identified functions for elopement have different outcomes and social validity ratings compared to those with a single function. Specifically, data were examined for 16 caregivers who completed a Treatment Acceptability Rating Form – Revised (TARF-R) following treatment, where they provided ratings of treatment outcomes and acceptability of the intervention. Both satisfaction with the treatment and satisfaction with the program were favorable, with overall satisfaction with the program tending to be rated higher than satisfaction with the treatment.
 
115. Technician-Delivered Telehealth: A Quality Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID RAY GUTIERREZ MIRANDA (Purdue University), John Augustine (Purdue University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Behavioral interventions based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to address core features related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to promote adaptive functioning for this population (Roane et al., 2016; Makrygianni et al., 2018; Roth et al., 2013). However, the COVID-19 pandemic has led some service providers to provide behavior analytic services through telecommunication platforms (e.g., Zoom and Skype), otherwise known as telehealth service delivery model. One notable telehealth model is technician-delivered telehealth in which service providers directly implement interventions without assistance from parents or caregivers through a telehealth approach. Although there is emerging research showing the potential effectiveness of technician-delivered telehealth model, an evaluation of the literature is necessary to determine whether this telehealth model is evidence-based. The current review applies the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC; 2014) quality indicators to evaluate the quality of the technician-delivered telehealth literature and to classify the evidence base. Based on these results, this review then provides recommendations to enhance the quality of the technician-directed telehealth research and practice.
 
117. Using Functional Communication Training with Time Delay to Decrease Escape-Maintained Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH MAKENZIE LINDEMANN (Utah Valley University), Sydney Jensen (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of FCT as a function-based intervention for problem behavior (Carr et al., 1999). Despite the abundance of studies supporting the effectiveness of FCT, there is limited research for such interventions being implemented in integrated school-based programs. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of Functional Communication Training (FCT) based on the results of a brief functional analysis. A brief functional analysis was conducted to determine the function maintaining the problem behavior. The results indicated that the behavior was maintained dually by escape and access to tangible items. An AB design was implemented with a three-year-old boy with autism enrolled in a preschool program that focuses on integration. A Functional Communication Response (FCR) was taught using a most-to-least prompt hierarchy with a fixed time delay to decrease escape-maintained flopping behavior. Following the intervention, the participant was able to emit the FCR spontaneously within 10 seconds of the initiation of a trial and flopping decreased to an 80% reduction from baseline The percentage of nonoverlapping data was 100% suggesting high intervention effectiveness. The findings add to the growing body of literature supporting the use of FCT. Further implications and limitations are discussed.
 
119. A Systematic Review of Studies on Social Skills Interventions Using Behavioral Skills Training or Self-Monitoring for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA DEZAYAS (University of South Florida ), Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: One of the major skill deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder is a lack of social skills. These socials skills range from having conversations, difficulty interpreting nonverbal behavior, difficulty understanding emotions, and difficulty understanding the perspective of others. It is essential that children with ASD receive social skills intervention as early as possible and continue intervention through their middle and high school years given that difficulties in social skills can negatively impact their development and learning. Social skills interventions are imperative for children with high functioning ASD who typically have feelings of loneliness and desire to be involved in social relationships which demonstrates the need for effective social skills interventions The purpose of this review was to summarize the current literature on using behavioral skills training or self-management procedures to teach conversation skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. This systematic review included 13 studies in the final review. The findings of the current review suggest that BST and self-management are mostly successful in teaching conversation skills across a variety of ages and diagnoses. Future research should look at implementing these teaching procedures in school-based settings, assess generalization effects across novel people and settings, and assess maintenance effects.
 
121.

Informal Support of Immigrant Families With a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parents' Voice

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MÉLINA BOULÉ (Université du Québec à Montréal), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Marie Millau (Université du Québec à Montréal), Céline chatenoud (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract:

Having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) brings lot of joy and learnings everyday for parents but can also bring challenging situations in daily life. This family context can ask a great deal of adaptation ability from parents. Early services and formal support are important and informal support (i.e., family, friends, or community) can have a crucial impact on parents’ wellbeing and ability to adapt. Immigrant families, who have left their family and friends, are more likely to face the diagnosis and intervention trajectory alone. Cultural perceptions and knowledge about developmental disability can also be an obstacle to sharing experiences with their entourage. The current study investigates the discourse and emotions expressed by parents who have a child with ASD when being questioned about their relationship with their family (that stayed in the origin country or not) and their reactions. Their discourse about having a child with special needs and learning to navigate in a new country is also explored. Eighteen immigrant families were interviewed about their experiences of having a child with ASD in a foreign country in an area of Montreal, Canada. Emotional responses were extracted using thematic analysis to explore themes emerging around informal support, perception, and views of family’s entourage regarding the diagnosis of ASD. The findings of this study are essential to guide the support needs of parents during the trajectory of early childhood for families who have a child with ASD.

 
123.

Training Parents to Effectively and Efficiently Teach Autistic Learners Who Require Very Substantial Supports to Perform Vocational Skills via Telehealth

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BENJAMIN JOSEPH SEIFERT (Central Texas Autism Center/Ball State University)
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract:

With the prevalence of autism continually on the rise, more Autistic people will enter the work force. However, research and employment data say Autistic individuals have a difficult time securing and maintaining employment. One of the issues Autistic people face is a lack of effective and efficient vocational training. While Autistic students are afforded a free and appropriate education, many leave school without sufficient vocational training. The one constant in Autistic people’s lives are parents and caregivers. The current research focused on using Behavior Skills Training (BST) teaching parents how to correctly fade prompts when teaching their Autistic children who require vocational skills. Three parent/student dyads were recruited to collect baseline data on a vocational task, go through BST on stimulus control, prompt hierarchy, and prompt fading. A multiple probe design was used collect and analyze data for this research. The study resulted in all the parent participants acquiring and maintaining prompt fading skills and their children progressing on a vocational task faster than teaching as usual. Future research should focus on training educators and vocational coaches how to use and fade prompts in order to teach more vocational skills.

 
Diversity submission 127.

Ethnic Disparities on Early Identification and Access to Services for Black Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JACK SCOTT (Florida Atlantic University; Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Torica L Exume (Florida Atlantic University Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Maryellen Quinn (Florida Atlantic University; Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Rosemyrtle Louis (Florida Atlantic University; Center for Autism and Related Disabilities)
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disorder that affects children and families. Racial disparities affect the rate of identification, access and use of services, and relationship with professionals making these diagnoses. Black children are diagnosed with ASD 1.6 years later, misdiagnosed with a conduct disorder, or identified with more severe ASD than White children (Mandel et al., 2007; Constantino et al., 2020). Black children are more likely to be diagnosed with more severe forms of autism, suggesting under-diagnosis of children with milder forms. Poorly timed ASD identification or failing to identify Black children with ASD will decrease the likelihood of obtaining ABA treatment, especially for early intervention. We conducted focus groups, surveys and interviews with parents and professionals and analyzed data from the Florida Department of Education on six school districts to understand how Black children are identified. We also report on parent and professional perceived barriers to successful identification. Understanding the barriers coupled with our recommendations for overcoming these barriers will inform autism providers, educators, and behavior analysts in developing culturally sensitive and effective practices enabling them to better support Black parents through the ASD identification process and allow these children more equitable access to ABA services.

 
Diversity submission 129.

Using Behavioral Skills Training to Improve the Graduation and Persistence of College Students With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALI K. MAHAMAT (Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract:

Despite inclusion efforts in higher education in recent years a growing commitment to educational equity among historically underserved students is required. There is limited support for persistence and graduation of college students with learning disability. These groups of students come from a diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds such as historically Black, Latinx and other subgroups that identify as non-white. Herbert et. al (2014) suggested that learning disability such Autism as one group that should be supported. A more systematic, culturally sensitive approach is essential to connect the educational gaps. There is limited research on successful interventions for underrepresented college students with Autism. Behavior Skills Training (BST) is a method to teach students, staff, parents, and anyone else you are teaching a new skill. BST as “a procedure consisting of instruction, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and feedback that is used to teach new behaviors or skills” (2004, p. 558). This Project utilized a workshop training using behavior skills training, modeling, rehearsing, feedback to teach college students with disability selected skills including time management, self-advocacy, job interview skills and other daily living. Early data suggest that there’s a significant difference in the success of students early in the semester, compared to past graduations rates. 5 out of 8 students showed an increase of overall GPA. 3 students reported increased in social skills. Although this project is currently underway, promising significant outcomes are anticipated.

 
131. Effects of Using Telehealth-Based Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Caregivers to Implement the Cool Versus Not Cool Intervention with their Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTANY DUMPROFF (Temple University), Art Dowdy (Temple University)
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract: This study was conducted to first evaluate the effects on caregivers’ fidelity of the Cool Versus Not Cool (CNC) intervention using remote behavioral skills training (BST) and second, to evaluate subsequent treatment effects when caregivers implement intervention with their child with ASD. The components of behavioral skills training used were instruction, modeling, role-playing, and feedback. Past research has not evaluated the effects of the CNC intervention on children with ASD’s social skills when implemented by their caregivers. Thus, this research was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote based BST and the effectiveness of caregiver-implemented CNC intervention. Results suggested that remote-based BST is a useful training strategy to train caregivers and to support caregiver-implemented CNC to improve children with ASD’s social skills. During follow up and generalization conditions across dyads, caregiver and child skills maintained. During generalization, caregiver skills maintained when teaching new social skills for Caregiver 1 and Caregiver 2, but not entirely for Caregiver 3.
 
133.

Evaluating Virtual Training for Increasing Clinicians' Fidelity of Implementation of the Facing Your Fears Curriculum

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH LUDMILLA BERNIER (Brock Univeristy), Kendra Thomson (Brock University ), Judy Reaven (JFK Partners, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus), Melissa Susko (Dalhousie University), Julia DeSantis (N/A), Tanya Makela (Lake Ridge Community Support Services), Maurice Feldman (Dept. of Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Evidence indicates that Facing Your Fears (FYF), a group-based cognitive-behaviour therapy, is effective for reducing anxiety and increasing emotion regulation in children with autism. Treatment fidelity, or the accuracy of treatment delivery, is a critical component for sustainable implementation and positive child outcomes. Few studies have focused on clinicians' fidelity implementing FYF or maintenance of accuracy over time. To our knowledge, no research has examined the use of virtual behaviour skills training with self-monitoring for improving clinicians’ fidelity implementing FYF. In a multiple-baseline design across three clinicians, we evaluated the efficacy of the training for increasing fidelity of a target from the FYF curriculum (preparing for and conducting exposures), selected by the clinicians. All clinicians met the fidelity mastery criterion (i.e., 90% across two sessions) within three sessions. Their performance maintained at two-month follow-up and will be reassessed at six-month follow-up. Clinicians also rated their confidence and competence of FYF implementation pre-and post-training, and all clinicians’ ratings increased post-training. Clinicians will reassess their confidence and competence ratings at six-month follow-up. Clinicians reported that the training procedures were acceptable on a social validity measure administered post-training. Incorporating evidence-based training to improve FYF treatment fidelity could optimize training and improve child outcomes.

 
135.

Teaching Pretend Play Skills to Children With Autism: A Comparison of Different Prompting Strategies

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MADISON SCHALLER (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Nebraska Omaha), Gabriella Rachal Van Den Elzen (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Sara S. Kupzyk (University of Nebraska Omaha)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Children with autism demonstrate delays in pretend play skills, which can negatively affect their ability to form social relationships with peers. The purpose of this study was to compare interventions for teaching children with autism pretend play skills. The interventions evaluated included (a) prompt delay which involved waiting a specified time before physically prompting play actions, (b) instructive feedback in which secondary play targets were presented during the inter-trial interval without providing prompts or reinforcement, and (c) prompt delay with instructive feedback which was combined both procedures. We implemented these interventions in a trial-based arrangement and conducted free-play probes throughout training. We used an adapted alternating treatments design embedded within a multiple probe design across sets of play materials to compare the effects of each intervention on the pretend play actions and vocalizations of a 5-year-old girl with autism. She met mastery criteria faster with prompt delay with instructive feedback in the first comparison and with prompt delay in the second. Play actions generalized to free-play probes, but play vocalizations did not. Video modeling with contingent reinforcement was implemented and found efficacious for increasing her vocalizations. Overall, results indicated different interventions were effective in increasing pretend play skills.

 
137. An Evaluation of a Caregiver-Led Approach Toward Teaching Vital Prevention Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINE FELTY (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Nebraska-Omaha), Javid Rahaman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Ruppel et al. (2021) demonstrated the efficacy of an approach with children who exhibited deficits in communication and tolerance skills. Their approach could prevent problem behavior toward similar goals as the Preschool Life Skills program (PLS; Hanley et al., 2007). However, a potential limitation of Ruppel et al.'s approach is the omission of challenging situations (risk factors) shown to influence problem behavior based on the assessment and treatment literature. Given the gaps in Ruppel et al. relative to other prevention programs (PLS), the primary aim of this study was to systematically extend Ruppel et al. by including teaching situations and generality tests that expand the application of prevention skills. Similar to Ruppel et al., caregivers directly implemented all procedures. We evaluated target skills and problem behavior using a multiple-probe design across challenging situations (Horner & Baer, 1978). Behavioral skills training was used to teach caregivers the experimental procedures (Miltenberger et al., 2004). The second aim of this study was to evaluate teaching efficiency by analyzing the data in a trial-by-trial format. Results indicated that children engaged in the target skills during all opportunities following teaching from caregivers. Additionally, some children learned the target skills after only four opportunities (trials).
 
139.

The Induction of Naming Through Multiple Exemplar Instruction in an Individual With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIE M. CRABTREE (Avail Outreach; Bending Birch Behavioral Services), Emma Benington (Bending Birch Behavioral Services), Melissa Martin (Bending Birch Behavioral Services)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Bi-Directional Naming (BiN), is a capability that allows an individual to learn novel speaker and listener responses from incidental exposure to unique stimuli and the corresponding name. The speaker and listener responses emerge without direct teaching or reinforcement, which increases rates of skill acquisition exponentially. The naming capability often emerges in neurotypical children between the ages of 2 and 3 but is frequently missing for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Much of the existing literature in this area has demonstrated the effectiveness of Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI), which consists of teaching stimuli across speaker and listener response topographies, in inducing BiN in neurotypical individuals who do not have the naming capability. The current intervention replicated and extended previous research that demonstrated the emergence of BiN through the implementation of MEI in typically developing preschool children (Greer, et al., 2007). Specifically, the effectiveness of MEI in inducing BiN was evaluated in a 10-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who did not previously have the naming capability. Results suggested that, following MEI across speaker and listener responses for three teaching sets, the naming repertoire emerged for the initial, untrained set of stimuli.

 
141.

Connections Between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Aural Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JADE BERYL WHEELER (University of West Florida), Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Hearing disorders can cause problematic symptoms and lower the quality of life for anyone that has them. Individuals with neurodivergence such as Autism Spectrum Disorder are more likely to be born with or develop an auditory disorder at some point in their lives, which can cause further problems in cognitive, social, and emotional development. Research has shown that although there is a definite correlation between autism and hearing disorders, the nature, cause, and identities of the hearing disorders remain generally vague beyond the broad umbrella of ‘auditory processing disorder’. It is pertinent to gather research on the connections to the two diagnoses; to learn and discover ways to accommodate and provide relief, therapy, or assistive technology for individuals with both ASD and auditory disorders. In doing so, many individuals with both broad disorders, concurring or not, will be able to have better development, communication, and social skills, among many other benefits. Research for this poster was found using the online databases available to students of the University of West Florida through John C. Pace Library.

 
143.

Implementing Group-Based Situational Social Games for Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Trial

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHONGYING WANG (Nankai University ), Miao Yu (Nankai University)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Background: Some group-based early intervention program for children with ASD was reported to be effective, such as G-ESDM. The majority of services for children with ASD is still 1:1 implementation (one interventionist to one child) through private practitioners in China, resulting in high cost and many families cannot afford. However, unlike clinical-based therapy settings, preschool programs provide opportunities to play and communication with other peers, hence maximizing learning opportunities and reducing social isolation. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of group-based situational social games for preschoolers with ASD. Methods: Thirty-one children with ASD aged between 3 to 6 were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental group (N = 15, Meanage = 4.85, SDage = 0.74) or the control group (N = 16, Meanage = 4.47, SDage = 0.89) as shown in Table 1. Children in the experiment group were provided an eleven-week group-based situational social games which included eleven social themes plays to guide children to use appropriate social communications skills, twice a week and 60 min each time, besides the regular intervention, 20 hours one-to-one ABA intervention. Children in the control group were provided only the regular intervention. The measure used before and after intervention were the Chinese Version of Psycho-educational Profile - 3rd Edition (C-PEP-3), the Child Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Results: After eleven weeks’ intervention, the results showed that the C-PEP-3 verbal cognition score of the two groups improved significantly post-intervention compared to pre-intervention (P < 0.05) and the C-PEP-3 interpersonal relationship score increased significantly in the week 11 compared to that in the baseline in the experiment group (P < 0.05) but not in the control group (P = 0.077). The total score of SCQ and AQ decreased significantly (P < 0.05) only in the experiment group. Conclusions: The group-based social game interventions for children with ASD are effective in improving children's social communication skills. More research is needed to explore social game themes, optimal duration of intervention, and the maintenance of intervention outcomes.

 
145.

Clinician Implementation of Task Interspersals With Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ISABELLA MASSARO (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Daniela Silva (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Amanda Austin (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Samreen Rizvi (Rutgers University New Brunswick NJ), Michael Romano (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract:

Task interspersal is a procedure often used when teaching individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that involves presenting trials of maintenance tasks before trials of acquisition tasks. This procedure has been shown to be effective in teaching a variety of skills to individuals with ASD (e.g., Chong & Carr, 2005; Pitts & Dymond, 2012) and its general procedures were recently summarized through a survey by Bottini et al. (2019). However, no research has examined the different contexts in which service providers may use task interspersal with individuals with ASD and the procedural variations that may occur across these contexts. The present study surveyed direct care providers to evaluate differences in procedural approaches when task interpersals were used as an antecedent intervention to prevent undesired behavior rather than as a consequence following challenging behavior. Preliminary results from 18 professionals working in the field of ABA indicate that nearly 90% of respondents utilize interspersals antecedently and as a consequence following the occurrence of challenging behavior. Procedural variations were noted between contexts with regard to the ratio of mastered to target tasks, type of reinforcement used, and reinforcement schedule. Results of the survey will clarify interspersal procedures utilized in the field.

 
Diversity submission 147. Evaluation of Instructive Feedback and Multiple-Exemplar Training as Strategies for Generalizing Tacts Across English and Spanish Responses
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICIO ERHARD (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Fabiola Vargas Londono (University of Texas at Austin), Ross Nesselrode (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Research has indicated that bilingual learners diagnosed with autism have difficulty accessing culturally responsive interventions. Emerging research has shown that people with autism have benefited from the use of instructive feedback and serial multiple-exemplar training for promoting the generalization of tacts. However, no study has examined the effects these combined strategies have on the emergence and generalization of tacts across multiple languages. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across four participants was used to teach children from heritage language homes tacts in English and Spanish. The study demonstrated that instructive feedback and serial multiple-exemplar training were effective in producing generalization across novel stimulus exemplars in primary and secondary languages for two of the four participants. Additional training components (rehearsal and corrective feedback) were effective in producing the same generalization outcomes with the remaining two participants. Clinical implications are discussed.
 
Sustainability submission 149.

Incorporating a Sex Education Package to Decrease Public Masturbation

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PORSHA CHARDAI OGAWA (Oaks Integrated Care INC), Amy Ashenfelter (Oaks Integrated Care INC)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract:

Masturbation is defined as the touching and stimulation of one’s own genitals for sexual arousal and pleasure. This may involve the use of hands or rubbing against surfaces and/or the use of objects. Due to the lack of sex education and social awareness those with autism spectrum disorder at times may engage in inappropriate sexual behavior during inappropriate times or while in inappropriate places. Individuals with ASD are especially at risk for sexual abuse, self-harm and causing harm to others when engaging in socially inappropriate behaviors such as public masturbation. Masturbation is part of normal sexual development and should also be expected in individuals with ASD (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1996). Having an intellectual disability does not limit the act of masturbation, instead it is important to ensure individuals receives individualized appropriate sex education and provide adequate support of appropriate sexual behavior (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1996). Participants include one youth residing within a congregate setting diagnosed with ASD. Youth was an 18 years of age female who communicated in four-to-five-word sentences often scripted or prompted. During the time of the study youth was receiving Applied Behavior Analysis services paired with Speech therapy. Applied Behavior Analysis services was provided within the school and social skills groups within the congregate group home.

 
151.

A Systematic Approach to Pre-Session Pairing and Rapport Building in Programming for Individuals Receiving Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SUSAN FONTENOT MILLER (Butterfly Effects), Molly Ann McGinnis (Butterfly Effects), Ashley Juarez (Butterfly Effects), Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Endicott College, Butterfly Effects)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract:

Empirical evidence supports that pre-session pairing, or rapport building, between a clinician and client can increase clinical outcomes in ABA services. Kelly, Axe, Allen, and Maguire noted the effects of pre-session pairing on decreasing challenging behaviors in 2015 while Shillingsburg, Hansen, and Wright (2018) delineated 9 steps in the pairing process to best support children with Autism for in seat, at a table, discrete trial instruction. Furthermore, Lugo, King, Lamphere, and McArdle (2017) sought to operationally define the behaviors characteristic of pre-session pairing to then train staff to better implement these skills. This presentation explores the systematic approach to training BCBA supervisors and technicians in pre-session pairing and the addition of a “Rapport Building” curriculum to a client’s individualized learning program. The presenters will describe the training of clinicians across skills, review the development of a systematic pre-session pairing program, and compare clinical outcomes between clients whose programs include a systematic approach to pairing and those without. Finally, the presenters will examine the social validity from parents, payers, and technicians to support the pre-session pairing program.

 
153.

Telehealth Behavior Skills Training for Caregivers of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTANY T BATTON (University of Florida), Rachel Eve Kaplan (University of Florida), Kaci Ellis (University of Florida), Carla T. Schmidt (University of Florida)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract:

Access to ABA services is limited due to the number of certificated providers with waitlists nationwide. Access becomes even more limited for families in rural areas. Additionally, navigating schedules for busy families limits availability for services. For these reasons, a telehealth caregiver behavior skills training, the Online and Applied System for Intervention Skills (OASIS), was developed to teach parents to implement behavior analytic procedures with their children. This feasibility study sought to replicate research from the University of Kansas in another state and pilot procedures for future research. This single-subject design included 3 participant families. The participants were caregivers, specifically mothers, of young children (age 3-6 years) with ASD. Caregivers completed pre-assessments, 16 weekly modules with coaching from a certified OASIS coach/RBT, and post-assessments following completion of the program. Preliminary data suggests that parents demonstrated increases in self-efficacy, family quality of life, and knowledge of principles of ABA, as well as decreases in parent stress.

 
155. Promoting Effective Focused In-Clinic ABA Treatment for Young Adults with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RICK GUTIERREZ (Easterseals of Southern California), Joyce Chenchen Tu Battersby (Easterseals of Southern California), Shaji Haq (Easterseals Southern California), Ronald Francis Moreno (Easterseals of Southern California)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract: The participant in this study is an 18-year-old male diagnosed with autism. He engages in severe self-injurious behavior, aggression, disruptive behavior, and stereotypic behavior. The home environment was not suitable for a functional analysis assessment, in addition, the family also lacks dependable transportation and other resource in order for the participant to access health care, education, and leisure activities. The results show that it is necessary for the clinical team focused on social determinants of health including legal matters, transportation, and access to both insurance and generic resources to promote effective focused in-clinic ABA treatment.
 
157.

The Effect of Self-Management Strategies Using High Technology on Geography Lessons Outcomes for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BINYAMIN BIRKAN (Biruni University), Ali İrfan ÇAKA (Binyamin Birkan Academy)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

In this study, the effect of self-management strategies presented to a student with autism spectrum disorder with a high technological device on the achievements of geography lesson was investigated by using a single-subject research design, a multiple probe design across behaviors. For this purpose, a 19-year-old early student who was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Three of Turkey's seven geographical regions (Marmara, Black Sea and Mediterranean) were chosen for geography lesson outcomes. In the implementation phase of the research, it was observed that the participant achieved the geography lesson achievements at a level that met the predetermined criteria and could generalize to different conditions. In addition, it was observed that the participant continued the gains obtained in the probes taken in the 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks after the intervention ended. The findings of the study indicate that self-management strategies using high technology are effective on the achievements of geography lessons. Inter-observer reliability data were collected at each stage of the study. Inter-observer reliability data for all phases is between 80% and 100%.

 
159. Class-Wide Implementation of Universal Activity Schedules
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COURTNEY LYNNE BRIGHT (May Institute ), Katharine Davies (May Institute), Emily Sullivan (Western New England ; May Institute), Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc. )
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Activity schedules are a tool used to teach individuals with autism to engage in a chain of meaningful activities to promote greater independence. The literature shows success of implementation with a variety of individuals in numerous settings. However, implementation of evidence-based practices on a wide scale is a challenge in applied settings. The present study introduced a universal activity schedule package in an intensive behavioral classroom of 6 participants with autism and developmental disabilities ages 17-20, all of whom engaged in severe problem behavior. The package included gaining participant assent, cooperation with 1-5 meaningful activities, and checking in with an adult following schedule completion. The universal activity schedule package was selected from the site’s shared CentralReach program library and data collection occurred entirely using CentralReach. Each participant demonstrated over 90% assent to sessions, quickly mastered between 1-5 meaningful alternative leisure activities, generalized those skills to novel activities and staff, and made progress towards their individual IEP goals. Additionally, staff and parent social validity data suggest the class-wide universal activity schedule package was easy to implement and produced meaningful acquisition of functional skills for each student. These results show the benefits of leveraging electronic databases to disseminate evidence-based practice.
 
163. The Effects of a Text Message Script Intervention on Conversational Speech Between Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Julia Blanco (Claremont McKenna College), MARJORIE H. CHARLOP (Claremont McKenna College), Alanna Dantona (Claremont Graduate University), Catherine Lugar (Claremont Graduate University), Brianna Waterbury (Claremont Graduate University ), Jaime Diaz (Claremont Graduate University), Katherine Emery (Scripps College), Rachel Podl (Claremont McKenna College)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Autistic children typically display difficulty in making appropriate initiations and responses during conversations. While previous research has shown the benefits of using written scripts to facilitate conversational speech, limited research has been conducted using technology to increase these verbal-social interactions between children. Additionally, some script programs are obvious and perhaps intrusive in a natural context. In the present study, a text message intervention (TMI) procedure using scripted language to teach conversational speech between four autistic children was studied. A multiple baseline design across dyads was used. A text message intervention consisting of “in the moment” contextually relevant scripts sent via cell phone to the autistic children during play sessions was assessed. Results demonstrated an increase in appropriate conversational speech through the TMI procedure and an increase in unscripted speech following the intervention. The participants generalized the behavior across typically developing peers and settings as well as during follow-up.
 
165. Addressing Prompt Dependency in the Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Tangible Items
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jennifer Rebecca Weyman (University of Missouri), MADISON HALE IMLER (University of Missouri ), Danielle Ariana Kelly (University of Missouri)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The present study extends the results of Gorgon and Kodak (2019) by evaluating the effectiveness of utilizing differential reinforcement, prompt fading, and extended response intervals to address prompt dependency in the treatment of problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items for Scarlett, a 16-year-old female with autism spectrum disorder. During functional communication training, a progressive prompt delay was utilized to fade out prompted functional communication responses. The therapist then found that as the delay to the prompt increased functional communication responses decreased which led the therapist to determine that Scarlett was prompt-dependent (i.e., waiting for the therapist to provide a prompt before responding). In addition to delaying Scarlett’s skill acquisition, her prompt dependency decreased her opportunities for independence. Therefore, a prompt dependency assessment was then conducted to increase independent functional communication responses. During the prompt dependency assessment, we compared the effects of differential reinforcement, full physical prompts, vocal prompt fading, and extended response intervals (no prompt) on independent functional communication responses. The results of the study suggest that the prompt dependency assessment was effective in increasing independent functional communication responses for one individual with autism spectrum disorder.
 
167. Using an Activity Schedule to Increase Appropriate Play Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAITLIN BELTRAN (Millstone Township School District), Jillian Behan (Millstone Township School District)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by challenges in social skills, repetitive behaviors, and communication. Children with autism often do not follow the typical pattern of play development, particularly in imitative and imaginary play. Play can positively affect academic, social, and cognitive learning. Research has demonstrated that strategies based on applied behavior analysis are effective for increasing appropriate play behaviors; however, there is little research on using activity schedule format to teach appropriate play skills. The current study examined the effects of using an activity schedule with systematic prompting and differential reinforcement to increase appropriate play skills of using toys according to correct function (e.g., arranging toy food on a plate, brushing a doll’s hair). The participant was able to acquire multiple appropriate play skills for varied sets of materials within this context. Generalization with novel instructors and play materials was also observed. Additional research is required to assess generalization to natural play environments.
 
169.

Use of Token Economy With Response Cost Guided by AIM Cirriculum to Decrease Dangerous Behavior and Increase Adaptive Skills

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jacy Reed-Robles (FABA; Butterfly Effects), CLAIRE SPIELER (Butterfly Effects), Molly Ann McGinnis (Butterfly Effects)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Research supports the use of token economy systems for increasing desired behaviors in children with autism and also indicates use of response cost can function as effective punisher for undesired or dangerous behavior. Mark Dixon's AIM curriculum includes a daily point system that is intended to combine components of ACT into a functional behavior plan. At this time, there is limited research on the effectiveness of the AIM curriculum, with the exception of a study demonstrating the effectiveness of the curriculum to teach job performance skills to children with autism (Issen, Himan, & Dixon, 2021). In the current study, the AIM daily point system was used as a guide to incorporate engagement in targeted, functional replacement behaviors (adaptive skills) and coping skills, while also effectively punishing high intensity, dangerous behavior via response cost. The hexaflex behaviors were operationally defined for the child and the therapy team, and use of these supplemental skills resulted in the delivery of reinforcement. Additionally, AIM daily activities were used as supplemental activities to target replacement skills such as non-preferred task completion, requesting help, requesting break, and using age-appropriate coping skills. This intervention was used in addition to continued 1:1 instruction of replacement behaviors and supplement skills, and consistent caregiver training, to decrease frequency of elopement, tantrum, and aggression. As a result of the treatment package, all targeted behaviors have decreased to near zero levels and independence with adaptive skills has increased. The full treatment package was successfully faded and the acquired skills are maintaining, and have generalized across several people and settings.

 
171.

Recent Adaptation to the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA): Performance-Based Procedures

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AARON LEYMAN (queens college, CUNY), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York), Tess Fruchtman (Queens College, City University of New York), Natasha Raghunauth-Zaman (Queens College)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Behavioral intervention for problem behavior often relies on the results of a functional analysis to identify environmental contributors. The interview-informed, synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) is a specific functional analysis format developed to be of practical value among clinicians. Adaptations to the IISCA procedures have since been discussed to further improve acceptability and accessibility by (a) introducing evocative events following periods of calm to reduce dangerous escalation, (b) including moment-to-moment measures of problem behavior to allow for ongoing visual analysis of data, and (c) maintaining measures of positive affect. The format including these adaptations has been termed the performance-based IISCA and has yet to be empirically evaluated. We conducted the performance-based IISCA with six participants who engaged in problem behavior. During the analysis, the reinforcers were presented contingent upon problem behavior and removed following 30 s of calm behavior. Overall, the performance-based IISCA required 8.33 min to conduct and functionally related environmental events were identified without any bursts in problem behavior. In addition, all the participants spent the majority of the time exhibiting calm and engaged behaviors. The results suggest that the performance-based IISCA may be a safe and efficient format for clinicians to consider.

 
 

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