Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #431
OBM Monday PM
Monday, May 25, 2015
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
49. Precision Teaching via eLearning:A Comparison of the Efficacy of 2 Evidence Based Teaching Methods Against a Traditional Training in a Classroom of 20 Blue-collar Workers
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Alessandro Valdina (AARBA), FABIO TOSOLIN (AARBA), Gaia Arrigotti (AARBA), Maria Gatti (AARBA), Paola Silva (AARBA)

Precision Teaching is a method widely experimented with clear evidences of advantages for trainees. The present experiment aims to confirm its superior efficacy against traditional training in the teaching of technical contents: the experiment compares the learning occurred in 2 groups of 10 people under 2 different experimental/control conditions. Assessment: 20 students (unemployed Spanish workers from 20 to 50 years old) underwent a pre-test about 2 subjects: 1) recognition of wood types, their family and color: 36 questions; 2) recognition of varnishing defects, related likely cause and solution: 27 questions. Researchers split 20 students in 2 groups with similar average in accuracy in the 2 tests. Results: In the 1st experiment, students in the experimental group, trained with hour of PT via eLearning about varnishing defects, learnt averagely about 2X in terms both of accuracy and fluency against the control group, trained with a classical lessons supported with slides and pictures held by an expert technician. Accuracy improve averagely of 12.2 correct answer in the PT group, against the 6.0 in the traditional training group (27 questions). In the 2nd experiments, the control group followed a frontal lesson about wood recognition made of choral responding: the technician provided pictures and questions to students by following some training paradigm as shaping, fading, and chaining (in 2 words, programmed instruction). The exercises were identical to the one provided in PT via eLearning. The results show that PT via eLearning is slightly more effective than the choral responding. The experiment has been conducted within the Tell Me project, a wide innovation program financed by European Commission.

50. Research Assistants. Curse or Blessing?
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARLIES HAGGE (Western Michigan University), Joshua Turske (Western Michigan University), Mark Daly (Western Michigan University), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Research assistants are a vital part of every experimental research and play many roles in literature reviews and other aspects of a smooth running laboratory. Their roles vary in regards to tasks, responsibility depending on their experience. Recruiting, managing and mentoring undergraduate and graduate research assistants takes up substantial amount of time from graduate students or professors, yet is crucial for success in research. This poster will discuss how to approach and organize these tasks and suggests handy tools to minimize effort and challenges. Creating a research assistant system and applying process design tools as well as performance management is crucial in accomplishing major research undertakings with a large number of students. The benefits and challenges of working with a large number of research assistants are discussed. These topics are presented based on a case study in which 30+ undergraduate research assistants have assisted with data collection and analysis for a dissertation project on Behavior Based Safety.
51. Data Collection and Management Solutions. Incorporating technology and templates into the data process.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARLIES HAGGE (Western Michigan University), Kellie Skiba (Western Michigan University), Kelsey Haverkamp (Western Michigan University), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Collecting, organizing and analyzing data are essential for the evaluation of data driven experiments. Data collection can be facilitated by using means of technology such as applications or website forms that can easily be accessed remotely via the internet. This electronic data collection has its advantages in providing interactive, adaptive and guided data collection and immediate analysis tools. Possible disadvantages lie in the availability and functionality of programs including false security of data reliability. Organizing the data and in-depth analysis of large data samples can be aided by excel templates and research assistants, but the human factor and potential error is a continuum that remains present. Reliability between the original and the manipulated data is a crucial component in ensuring accurate data analysis. These challenges and opportunities are discussed based on a case study in which 30+ undergraduate research assistants have assisted with data collection and analysis for a dissertation project on Behavior Based Safety.
52. The Beginning Phases of a Program in Organization Behavioral Management
Area: OBM; Domain: Theory
NADIA ASHOUR (University of Nevada, Reno), Norah Al-Subaie (university of Nevada, Reno), Molli Luke (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The effectiveness and maintenance of an organizational behavior management (OBM) program or intervention, has shown to be not only dependent upon the intervention but also upon other aspects of the program development, such as involving staff in the design and having staff implementing the program (Siggurdson & Austin, 2006). Similarly, Redmon (1991), articulated a concern with the lack of emphasis on the early phases of organizational behavior management consulting, which he termed the “entry” and “organizational entry” phases. Although both articles pointed to the value of these early phases in successful interventions, there is still a focus in the OBM research on the implement phase of an intervention and little focus or evaluation is conducted on the work conducted prior the implementation. Therefore, this poster will highlight the importance of research on these early phases, discuss the research that has been conducted thus far, and develop an outline of these phases as a means for future research.
53. Promotion of accurate narrative A-B-C recording by staff in a Japanese children’s home
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
GINGA SASAKI (University of Tsukuba), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: It is an important issue to implement accurate descriptive analysis that develops effective intervention plans for children. In the present study, we evaluated the accuracy of narrative A-B-C recording for children’s support targets by staff in a Japanese children’s home. We used the data tool that recorded in narrative A-B-C formats and automatically displayed in the pop-up window for the definitions of A-B-C recording during the baseline. As the intervention for the accuracy of A-B-C recording, we conducted on-the-job training that classified the statements for children’s support targets by staff into three items of A-B-C recording during the monthly meetings. Result, the accuracy of “Behavior” was low during the baseline, and then the accuracy of all items for A-B-C recording improved during the intervention. The accuracy decreased, however, when the children’s support targets were changed. Therefore, our findings showed that the effects were different according to the characters of support targets that were recorded, though the classification of the statements for children’s support targets was effective for improving the accuracy of narrative A-B-C recording.
54. A Survey of Staff Training and Performance Management Practices: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
AMY J. HENLEY (The University of Kansas), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Research has shown that important consumer outcomes (e.g., quality of life, Jahr, 1998; consumer engagement, Szczech, 2008) may be compromised when staff receive poor training and insufficient performance management practices, underscoring the importance of ensuring that direct-care staff are well-trained. A host of empirically supported training and performance management practices exist, however, the extent to which organizations adopt these practices is unknown. This study documented staff and supervisory training and performance management procedures offered to 382 Behavior Analysis Certification Board® certificants and aspirants working in applied settings who responded to an anonymous online survey. Participants were asked questions regarding demographic information, pre-service training, ongoing training, the use of incentives, and if applicable, supervisory training. Notably, only 54.71% of respondents indicated they received an initial orientation or training before working independently, a majority (71%) indicated their current place of employment offers ongoing training, roughly 25% indicated their employer offers incentives, and 66.30% of respondents reported their employer did not provide training about effective supervision practices. Identifying practices adopted by organizations may inform ways to address the research-to-practice gap and possibly stimulate research to tackle the real-world needs of practitioners.
55. An Evaluation of Pyramidal Training to Teach Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE MARTOCCHIO (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Pyramidal training is a method of teaching in which one experienced professional teaches a skill to a group of individuals, who then teach that skill to another group of individuals. This model has been successfully used to teach parents, teachers, and direct care staff to use behavioral procedures including the implementation of preference assessments, functional analyses, and specific behavioral intervention programs. The purpose of the present study was to extend the application of pyramidal training to teaching the implementation of the first four phases of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to university students. Eight graduate and undergraduate students comprised three tiers of our pyramidal training model. We used a multiple baseline across participants design (Tier 1 and 2) and a non-concurrent multiple baseline design (Tier 3) to demonstrate the efficacy of this model. Results indicate that pyramidal training is an effective method to teach implementation of PECS. To demonstrate reliability of our results, interobserver agreement data was collected and an overall mean agreement of 92% (range, 60-100%) was obtained. Implications of our results and suggestions for future work will be discussed. Keywords: pyramidal training, picture exchange communication system, university students, behavioral skills training
56. Training and Event-Related Factors Affect Observer Error When Using an Interval Sampling Method
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW A. TAYLOR (The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Oliver Wirth (The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )
Abstract: Observation-based interval sampling methods are commonly used to estimate duration of a target event; however, it is unclear to what extent the observer introduces error into the estimates by scoring events incorrectly. In the current study, participants used computer software (Praxis PinPoint) to score video material using a momentary-time sampling procedure with 30-s intervals. During each interval, participants were shown body segments (e.g., knee, elbow, neck, or wrist) in ergonomic postures that were defined as either safe or at-risk. Variations in the postures were quantified in degrees of joint angles, which allowed for a fine-grained assessment of observer error (i.e., incorrect classification of safe and at-risk postures). Observer error was assessed across two levels of training: minimal and rigorous. With minimal training, participants were simply shown a diagram of the safe and at-risk zones of posture. With rigorous training, participants were required to classify many examples across the range of safe and at-risk postures with 100% accuracy. Observer error was also assessed across other factors, such as range of motion and joint angles associated with the postures, how close the target postures appeared to the observer, and the duration of the target postures. Findings show that observer error was consistently greatest with minimal training and when differences in joint angles were small. Additional findings will be reported and discussed. Overall, the results suggest that observer error was most affected by training and event-related factors that made discrimination difficult.



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