Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details


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Poster Session #360
AUT Monday Noon
Monday, May 25, 2015
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
52. Inducing First Instances of Speech in Non-Vocal Children With Autism: A Replication of Sign Mand Training With Delayed Vocal Prompt Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India), Sridhar Aravamudhan (Behavior Momentum India), Karola Dillenburger (Queens University Belfast)
Abstract:

Stimulus stimulus pairing (SSP; Sundberg et al., 1996) and mand training (Tincani et al., 2006) are technologies that have proven effective in increasing vocalization in children with autism. Teaching manual signs and gestures for this population is also effective not only in symbol acquisition but also in related outcomes such as speech comprehension and production (Schlosser and Wendt, 2008a). In the current study, three children with autism aged between 4.5 and 5 with low vocal-verbal repertoire of between 0 and 2 syllables were undergoing sign mand training in conjunction with SSP and vocal prompting procedures. Acquisition of vocals was improving only marginally, therefore a prompt delay was introduced (Carbone et al, 2010) to test if that would be more effective in inducing vocalization. Vocals were emitted under relevant motivating operations and with vocal models in the very first session of prompt delay intervention by two participants and after 4 weeks by third participant. Over a 4 months period of continued training, all three participants acquired additional 9-14 novel sounds or word approximations prompted or independent.. At 4 week follow up, the specific vocal sounds had generalized to a total of 24-56 vocals including other operants, namely, tacts, echoics and intraverbals.

 
53. Effect of Instructional Control on Parental Confidence in Delivering Instructions to Adolescents with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GILAH HABER (Kerry's Place Autism Services), Jnnifer Fairfield (Kerry's Place Autism Services), Mary Konstantareas (Kerry's Place Autism Services)
Abstract: In the literature, there is a shortage of studies regarding competence and confidence in parents of youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who are exposed to skills training based on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). This study included 52 parents of youths diagnosed with ASD, ages 11-18 who were currently receiving ABA services at Kerry’s Place Autism Services, Toronto Region. Each parent completed the Self-Reported Levels of Competence and Confidence Parenting Questionnaire containing 11 questions in a multiple choice format. Data resulting from individual questions were put into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A series of ANOVAS revealed that the overall level of functioning, family size and location of the program had no significant effect on parent levels of competence or confidence. However, higher levels of competence and confidence, on specific questions were noted regarding child gender (i.e. boys), number of groups attended (by the child) and curricula used (social). This study confirms that self-reported parent competence and confidence levels directly correlate. Results also demonstrated that increased confidence directly correlated with increased competence, specifically to gain youths’ attention, deliver higher quality directions and to better follow through with original instructions.
 
54. Effects of using an activity schedule for children with autism spectrum disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUNGHA CHO (University of Tsukuba Graduate School), Shigeki Sonoyama (University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: An activity schedule is a set of pictures or words that cues someone to engage in a sequence of activities. The goal of teaching schedules use is to enable children with autism to perform tasks and activities without direct prompting and guidance by parents or teachers (McClannahan & Krantz, 2010). The current study examined the effects of using an activity schedule of off-task behavior (inappropriate behavior; for example, leave chair, making noisy, hitting, crying, biting etc.) for 2 children with autism spectrum disorders. All sessions were consisted of 4~5 tasks and were conducted in a playroom. A picture activity schedule was used for this intervention. The schedule consisted of a laminated card with Velcro pictures in the center of playroom. A visual timer was also used. A multiple baseline design was used. During the baseline and intervention phases, data were collected using partial interval recording for three minutes each task during sessions. And on-schedule behavior analyses to seventeen small steps. The time intervals were 10 second. As a result, Both of children were presented that as on-schedule behavior increasing, off-task behavior (inappropriate behavior) and their lever decreased. The results of this intervention supported previous research on the effectiveness of using a picture schedule for children with autism spectrum disorders to help decrease off-task behavior.
 
55. The Emergence of Oral Labeling Following Equivalence-Based Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY DELLA ROSA (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Following years of traditional, direct instruction to orally label numerals, an adolescent girl with autism could not orally label double-digit numbers. Despite this deficit, she could read any written word (e.g., the word thirteen) and had an intense interest in baseball and the names and team affiliations of baseball players. Past research has demonstrated that oral labeling can emerge following equivalence-based instruction (Groskreutz et al., 2010) so we designed an equivalence-based protocol to determine if oral labeling will emerge following training. We are using a pretest/posttest experimental design to examine the effects of teaching specific conditional relations among complex auditory visual stimuli (i.e., Class A is the written digit and the auditory word), the written word (Class B), and the corresponding written names of baseball players (Class C) on the emergence of untaught relations and the oral labeling of digits. The format used for training and testing sessions is a match-to-sample protocol using a one-to-many training structure. Stimuli are presented on PowerPoint slides on a touch screen computer that require the participant to engage in an observing response (i.e., touch the screen) to reveal the sample stimulus and to then select the correct comparison stimulus. Prior to teaching, pretests were conducted for all relations. The participant tested at criterion for A-C and B-A on the prestest. Following the pretest, A-B and B-C relations were trained. After each training session, a probe is conducted for oral labeling of digits and the percentage of correct responses during these tests are recorded. The participant was not able to orally label any of the numbers of the pretest. After four sessions of equivalence based training, the participant correctly labeled digits on 75% of the trials without being directly taught to label these digits. Posttest performance is at criterion for all relations. We plan to continue with this protocol and add additional sets of numbers when the current set is mastered.
 
56. An Evidence-based Practice Review: Animal Assisted Therapies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
KRISTINA BROOKSHIRE (Northern Arizona University), Madalyn Hungate (Northern Arizona University Student), Alex Davidson (Northern Arizona University), Heather Ramsden (Northern Arizona University), Maisie Wilson (Northern Arizona University), Keanaloha Covington (Northern Arizona University), Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University)
Abstract: A literature review/analysis of studies targeting the effects of animal assisted therapies (AAT) on the behavior of children with ASD was conducted. Accessible databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles using specific key terms. Only “data-based” articles identified were scored according to the 21 quality indicators outlined by Horner, et al (2005) for single-subject design studies. The search resulted in 45 articles identified as “data-based” and specifically related to AAT and ASD. Only 18 of these articles could be scored for quality indicators with 100% by two independent reviewers. Reviewers scored and compiled the 18 articles into a database with reliability and were deemed “acceptable” if the article included between 18 - 21 quality indicators (including all internal validity criteria). Articles that did not meet these criteria were deemed “not acceptable” (i.e. 17 or fewer quality indicators). Only three empirical articles investigating AAT with individuals with ASD were found to be “acceptable,” according to the Horner, et al. guidelines for evidence-based practices. These results suggest that there may be some emerging empirical support for AAT with individuals with ASD. However, issues in diverse methodologies, what constitutes “therapy” with an animal, and similar dependent variables need to be addressed in future research.
 
57. "Get Outta My Way:" The Assessment and Treatment of Dangerous Repetitive Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA HOLDEN (Bancroft), Jessica A Fedezko (Bancroft)
Abstract: Repetitive behavior is identified as one of the three main diagnostic criteria of Autism Spectrum Disorder, however it is widely understudied. Response blocking is widely used as a treatment for complex ritualistic behavior. Research has shown that the interruption of complex ritualistic behavior is correlated with other more severe problem behaviors (Hausman, Kahng, Farrell & Mongeon, 2009; Kuhn, Hardesty & Sweeney, 2009; Murphy, Macdonald, Hall & Oliver, 2000). The purpose of this study was to further investigate ways to extend a standard functional analysis of complex repetitive behavior. The study then used the information obtained from the functional analysis to identify a function-based treatment package for ritualistic behavior that cannot be safely treated with response blocking. A function based treatment package consisting of a verbal prompt to complete a behavior incompatible with ritualistic behavior and redirection to another task was then evaluated using a component analysis. Results indicated that the treatment package as a whole was successful in eliminating the participants complex ritualistic behavior. Reliability data was collected for 33% of Functional Analysis sessions, distributed across conditions with an average agreement of 93%. Reliability data was collected for 57% of treatment sessions with an average agreement of 99%.
 
58. Sustained and Selective Attention in Comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBREEN SHAHABUDDIN (Eastern Michigan University), James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have difficulties attending. While attentional characteristics have been identified in ASD and ADHD separately, research in comorbidity is limited. Children ages 8 to 10 years with ASD (n=16), ADHD (n=16), comorbid ASD+ADHD (n=16), and a control group (n=16) were administered the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT) to measure the quality of sustained and selective attention. The Conners-3 was completed by parents and teachers to examine reports of attentional problems. Results showed that errors of commission and omission were one standard deviation higher and more variable for the ASD+ADHD group (M=68.50, SD=8.89; M=62.62, SD=12.93) compared to the ASD (M=50.80, SD=8.17; M=51.28, SD=7.9), and ADHD groups (M=51.67, SD=7.81; M=54.57, SD=8.40). Parents reported elevated behaviors of inattention (M=81.37, SD=12.17) and impulsivity (M=82.47, SD=9.44) for the ASD+ADHD group, while teachers reported elevated behaviors of inattention (M=72.56, S=14.69). Significant correlations were found with parent and teacher reports of inattention [t(16)=.257, p=.336; t(16) =.104, p=.701] and impulsivity [t(16)=.585, p=.017); t(16)=.287, p=.281)] with CPT performance. Findings suggest that comorbid ASD and ADHD is characterized by greater impairments of inattention and impulsivity, indicating an additive co-occurrence, rather than a separate condition with a distinct pattern of deficits.
 
59. Video Self-Modeling Math Engagement Intervention for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROCHELLE SCHATZ (Indiana University-Bloomington), Rachel Peterson (Indiana University-Bloomington)
Abstract:

The researchers created a video self-modeling (VSM) intervention for increasing on-task classroom engagement for three elementary school males diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). VSM is a form of video modeling that enables the individual to perform specific, targeted behaviors by watching himself execute a positive behavior effectively. The effectiveness of VSM has been empirically validated by previous studies on youth with ASD, but few studies have investigated its usefulness in improving academic engagement. Numerous studies have shown that engaged time-on-task is directly related to higher levels of student achievement. Similarly, research has shown that off-task, unengaged students struggle academically, resulting in withdrawn, isolated, unmotivated, and failing students. For the purpose of this study, “on-task” is defined as attending to math worksheets by writing or focusing attention on worksheet instructions; raising hands for teacher assistance; or by preparing materials, such as sharpening pencils, opening binders, and putting worksheets away. The strong evidence-base for VSM for children with autism suggests that this intervention may promote appropriate classroom behavior. Results of the intervention, including data collected using a multiple baseline design from baseline to maintenance phases will be presented. Conclusions regarding intervention effectiveness, study implications, and future directions will be discussed.

 
60. Decreasing Overselective Stimulus Control through Differential Observing Response Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN CICOLELLO (New England Center for Children), Rachel Farber (Shriver Center, University of Massachusetts), William Dube (Shriver Center, University of Massachusetts), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Some individuals with autism have difficulty attending to all relevant stimuli in the environment, often referred to as overselective stimulus control. Two adolescent girls with autism (B68 and B69) and mean accuracy in the overselective range (75-77%) served as participants. In Study 1, a computer-presented differential observing response (DOR) was implemented to increase accuracy on a 2-sample delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task. The DOR was a compound simultaneous matching-to-sample task embedded within the 2-sample DMTS. Accuracy for B69 increased when the DOR was in effect, and accuracy for B68 increased when DOR was implemented with multiple exposures. In Study 2, the percentage of trials with the DOR was systematically decreased contingent on accuracy from the previous session. The DOR was thinned for both participants. A post-test following DOR thinning was administered to verify the level of support needed to maintain high accuracy on the 2-sample DMTS task. For B69, the DOR support needed was decreased to 25% of trials. For B68, the DOR requirement was completely eliminated, suggesting that overselective stimulus control can be decreased or eliminated with DOR training.
 
61. Treatment of food refusal using the teaching interaction procedure for individuals with autism spectrum disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Julide Saltuklaroglu (Autism Partnership ), Eric Rudrud (St. Cloud State University), JOHN JAMES MCEACHIN (Autism Partnership), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder frequently display food refusal and have a limited range of foods that they will consume. The majority of empirical support to treat food refusal for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities is escape extinction. One intervention which has been implemented to teach a variety of behaviors to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder but has not been implemented to treat food refusal is the teaching interaction procedure. The teaching interaction procedure is a multiple component procedure which consists of: (a) labeling and identifying the behavior; (b) providing a meaningful rationale; (c) breaking the skill down into smaller components; (d) the teacher demonstrating the behavior; (e) the student role-playing the behavior; and (f) providing feedback based upon performance. In this study, the researchers utilized a multiple baseline across foods design to evaluate the effects of the teaching interaction procedure to increase acceptance of new foods for a six year old child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Results showed that the participant increased his food acceptance following the implementation of the teaching interaction procedure over various food items. Additionally, the results showed that few maladaptive behaviors occurred with the implementation of the procedure.
 
62. Treatment of Anxiety and Severe Problem Behavior in an Individual with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FRANCES NIEVES SERRET (Crossroads School for Children), Keira M. Moore (Crossroads School for Children), William H. Ahearn (Western New England University)
Abstract: Anxiety is a cluster of responses that occur in the presence of a conditioned aversive stimulus that signals future presentation of an aversive stimulus. Although difficult to define and assess, anxiety affects many individuals and is prevalent in those with autism (Mayes et al., 2011). The purpose of the current study was to behaviorally measure anxiety, and to determine the effectiveness of an anxiety and functional communication treatment package in decreasing anxiety and severe problem behavior related to it. The participant was a 17-year-old male with autism who engaged in high-intensity aggression. A functional analysis was conducted and showed that biting was maintained by escape from loud noises. This was followed by an anxiety assessment, which confirmed the presence of anxiety in the participant. During the anxiety treatment, the participant learned to engage in an anxiety-reducing response while in the presence of loud noises. Once the anxiety treatment was completed, functional communication training was initiated, where the participant acquired a functional communication response, in which a sign approximation for stop terminated loud noises. Inter-observer agreement was collected for 33% of sessions and was above 80% for all measures. This treatment package reduced severe problem behavior and anxiety.
 
63. Building Bridges: Outcomes of a Social Skills Group for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and their Typical Peers Utilizing Parent Education.
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
JASMINE TEJWANI (In Stepps), John Garlock (In Stepps), Elise Landgraf (In Stepps)
Abstract: This poster examines the efficacy of combining brief parent training sessions along with the Teaching Interaction Model (Autism Partnership, 2012), and the Children's Friendship Training (Frankle, 2002) for three social skills training groups. Group 1 contained 5 children total (ages 4-5 years): 2 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, 1 child with selective mutism, 1 child with social deficits that do not meet the requirements for autism spectrum disorder, and 1 neurotypical peer. Group 2 contained 7 children total (ages 8-9): 6 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, and 1 neurotypical peer. Group 3 contained 7 children total (ages 6-7): 6 diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and 1 neurotypical peer. Each group utilized the Teaching Interaction Model which teaches social skills by describing the behaviors, segmenting the skill into smaller steps, modeling the behavior, then having the child role play the behavior, and providing feedback. Small group parent training was provided at the end of each social skills class in order to facilitate generalization outside of the teaching environment though parent mediated skills training. Data taken on body orientation, on- topic conversation, responding to peers, joining conversation, initiating conversation, and joining peers in play showed significant gains in all areas. Data on skill use outside of the teaching environment shows successful generalization. Parents of participants also reported that socially significant skill gains were observed.
 
64. Using an Abbreviated Assessment to Compare the Effectiveness of Different Error-Correction Procedures on Skill Acquisition for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University), Brad Joachim (West Virginia University), Jennifer Owsiany (West Virginia University), Jessica Morgan (West Virginia University), JESSICA CHEATHAM (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Previous research supports the use of a variety of error-correction procedures to facilitate skill acquisition during discrete trial instruction. At present there is no quick and easy way for caregivers to determine which error-correction procedure is most effective for an individual learner. In the current study we used an abbreviated assessment to rapidly compare the effects of five error-correction procedures on skill acquisition for two children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. First, we conducted an abbreviated assessment exposing participants to 36 to 48 trials of each error correction procedure. Next, we conducted validation assessments and compared the effectiveness of the different error-correction procedures. Finally, we assessed participants’ preference for the different error-correction procedures using a concurrent-chains assessment. The results showed a high level of correspondence between the abbreviated assessment, validation assessments, and concurrent-chains assessment. Overall these findings suggest that an abbreviated assessment consisting of 36 to 48 trials may be useful for identifying the most effective error-correction procedure for individual learners.
 
65. Improving the Conversation Skills of a College Student with High-Functioning Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHARLOTTE MANN (Western New England University), Amanda Karsten (Western New England University)
Abstract: While intellectually capable of meeting the academic demands of college, many individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) struggle with social deficits which are characteristic of their diagnosis (Nuernberger, Ringdahl, Vargo, Crumpecker, & Gunnarsson, 2013; Pinder-Amaker, 2014). Few studies have examined tactics to assess and improve the social skills of young adults with HFA (i.e., engaging in reciprocal conversations and interpreting nonverbal cues.) The purpose of this study was to improve the conversation skills of a college student diagnosed with HFA. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package on increasing both the frequency and quality of questions, percentage of appropriate initiations and interaction endings in the context of a conversation. Interobserver agreement (IOA) was collected for 40% of sessions (mean = 95.98).
 
66. A Methodology for Conducting Functional Analyses to Confirm Hypothesized Tangible Function of Food Stealing
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CORMAC MACMANUS (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children), Sean Heaney (University of Ulster)
Abstract: Food stealing is a common disruptive behavior among individuals with developmental disabilities. Research is lacking in determining the function of this behavior to better inform effective treatment. Functional analysis is used to test the sensitivity of responding to three main types of reinforcement contingencies: social positive, social negative, and automatic. The current study assessed hypothesized tangible functions of food stealing for two individuals with autism. Food stealing was defined as actual or attempted taking of food without permission from a present teacher. Test-control functional analyses were conducted in which access to food was contingent on engaging in the response in the test condition. Noncontingent food was delivered on a fixed time schedule in the control condition. This timed delivery of food was based on the average inter-response time as measured in the first test condition conducted with each participant. Results showed high responding in the test condition and zero to low rates of responding in the control condition.
 
67. Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Occurring during Transitions from Activity to Activity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STACY COHEN (New England Center for Children), Clelia Deltour (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Children with autism and related disabilities may present difficulties with transitions, both between locations and between activities (Davis, 1987). As behavior analysts, we aim to identify the conditions under which problem behavior occurs and its maintaining variable. The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct a functional analysis of problem behavior occurring during transitions for two participants with a disability. First, we identified for each participant several preferred, neutral, and non-preferred activities using caregiver surveys and a structured assessment. Second, we conducted a preference assessment to further clarify the results obtained using the caregiver surveys and structured assessment and identify one preferred, one neutral and one non-preferred activity for each participant. Finally, we conducted a functional analysis of problem behavior occurring during transitions between the activities previously identified. The preliminary results obtained suggest that problem behavior occurred when the transition involved a worsening in the reinforcement condition, for example terminating one activity to initiate a non-preferred activity (negative reinforcement contingency). Interobserver Agreement (IOA) was collected for over 30% of the sessions and averaged over 90% for all scored responses.
 
69. Comparing Treatment Options for Decreasing Inappropriate Vocal Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER CRONER (Temple University), Matthew Tincani (Temple University), Amanda Guld Fisher (Temple University)
Abstract: Inappropriate vocal behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement is associated with negative outcomes including slowed skill acquisition and stigmatizations (DiGenarro Reed, Hirst, & Hyman, 2012; Liu-Gitz & Banda, 2010; MacDonald et al., 2007). Several behavioral interventions have been research to reduce inappropriate vocal behavior. Two consequence-based interventions response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) have shown some promise with this reduction. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of these interventions to reduce inappropriate vocal behavior in one young adult with intellectual disabilities. The results of this study suggest that DRO was slightly more effective during the alternating treatments design, and during the best treatment phase reduced levels of inappropriate vocal behavior further; this reduction was maintained as the DRO interval was increased.
 
70. Teaching Facial Expressions to Children with Autism in Naturalistic Settings Using Video Modeling
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANA BIBAY (IME MAIA - Paris, France), Neal N. Fleisig (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of video modeling to teach facial expressions to two school-age children with autism. The students are enrolled in a day school program in Paris (France). A multiple probe across responses design was used to evaluate the effects of video modeling on correctly responding to facial expressions. This study supports early research indicating that the use of video modeling procedures can increase correct responding to facial expressions in children with autism. The study also indicates that responses in naturalistic settings can be trained concurrently with the intervention to improve outcomes in terms of generalization.
 
71. A review of the various models of home-based interventions in Behavior Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AARTI HARESH THAKORE (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Ashley Whittington (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Abstract There are different types of treatment options for children diagnosed with Autism, and most can be classified as home-based, clinic-based, and interventions in school setting. Few studies have suggested that 35-40 hours per week of early, home-based intervention has a significant impact on the learning and development of children diagnosed with Autism (e.g., Lovaas, 1981; Sheinkopf and Siegel, 1998). Consequently, many organizations begin to provide home-based services to the families of children diagnosed with Autism. However, the nature and prevalence of home-based intervention is not yet clearly understood. Some in-home therapy is conducted by parents who are trained in ABA by BCBAs, whereas some in-home services are provided by a team of paraprofessionals who would conduct therapy under the supervision of a BCBA. Thus, this review will be an attempt to gather data on how many agencies across the U.S. provide in-home services, using the Google search engine. These data will be analyzed further to understand the nature of the advertised in-home services and role of BCBA supervision involved in the dissemination of home-based therapy.
 
72. Decreasing Self-Stimulatory Behaviors utilizing Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL) and Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates (DRD) in individuals with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY N. FIORILLI (Applied Behavior Consultants), Casey Dudley (Applied Behavior Consultants), Andrew R. Weiher (Applied Behavior Consultants Inc./ St.Cloud State)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often display self-stimulatory behaviors that interfere with social skills and may even lead to more intense behavior excesses. Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) define DRL as reinforcement being delivered for the occurrence of the target behavior that is spaced from previous response by a minimum interresponse time. It is noted that the application of DRL should be linked with behaviors that occur too frequently but can remain in the individual’s repertoire. DRD occurs when the individual contacts reinforcement at the end of a predetermined interval contingent upon the specific criterion of target responses and then number of responses by a gradually decreasing criterion. The purpose of the intervention is to determine the effectiveness of these procedures for decreasing self-stimulatory behaviors. The procedures were effective in decreasing self-stimulatory behavior across all three participants. The procedures were successfully implemented by two different direct staff members. Staff was able to implement the individual’s regular ABA programming while collecting data on the DRD and DRL procedure.
 
73. Assessment of Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Receiving EIBI Services in a Bilingual, Centre-Based Environment
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HAYLEY VININSKY (Gold Learning Centre), Ali Dussault (ABIL-T ABA Programme), Nathalie Garcin (Abe Gold Learning and Research Centre)
Abstract: In May 2011, a bilingual (French and English) multicultural centre-based, non-profit EIBI centre was built to meet the needs of children aged 18 months to-6 years in a large urban area. Given results of EIBI on various variables in other jurisdictions, our team sought to assess several outcomes related to the receipt of EIBI services, and to ascertain whether they replicated what was indicated in the primarily American literature. Children aged 18 months to 6 years received at least 20 weekly hours of centre-based EIBI services. At intake, and each following year, parents completed two questionnaires: the PDDBI and the PSI. In addition, children’s progress was evaluated using the VB MAPP. Paired samples t-tests were used to evaluate changes in parental stress, autism symptomatology, problem behaviour, barriers to learning, language, and academics. Results indicated that there are no significant differences in parental stress following both one and two years of services. Significant differences were found in VB MAPP scores. Additionally, ANOVA results indicated no significant differences in VB MAPP scores between children of different linguistic backgrounds, suggesting all children, regardless of linguistic background, highly benefited from the intervention.
 
74. Matrix Training of Verbal and Nonverbal Greetings with Primary School Students with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Malarie Thompson (Stephen F. Austin State University), GINGER KELSO (Stephen F. Austin State University), Glen L. McCuller (Stephen F. Austin State University)
Abstract: By increasing a student’s repertoire of social skills, they will be better able to develop interpersonal relationships and be potentially more successful in the academic process. Matrix training, an approach that requires training to be framed around a matrix, intended to result in some information being taught and some being generalized, was utilized to develop a training format for two primary school aged boys with autism and in self-contained classrooms. A 4x4 matrix was set up to organize a training schedule for the boys, in which they would be taught to respond with the appropriate social greeting to an appropriate and familiar school staff member. The participants were taught four combinations of social greetings to four pictures of familiar school personnel. At the end of the study, matrix training was shown to facilitate generalization to untrained social greetings and to the actual school staff. This study demonstrates that matrix training is an effective and efficient means of teaching social skills, particularly social greetings, to primary aged children with autism.
 
75. The Effects of Auditory Matching Protocol on Echoics in Students Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Speech/Language Delays
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Suzzanna Javed (Teachers College, Columbia University), LEANNA MELLON (Teachers College, Columbia University), Georgina Kemp (Teachers College, Columbia University), Nelcy Garcia (Rockland BOCES)
Abstract: We tested the effects of an auditory match-to-sample protocol on the emission of echoics. The participants selected for the study were four elementary school students diagnosed with autism. Three participants functioned at the emergent listener/emergent speaker level of verbal behavior, and one participant functioned at the listener/ emergent speaker/pre-reader level of verbal behavior. All participants were selected because they did not emit vocal verbal operants with point-to-point correspondence to the vocal stimulus of another person. The independent variable was the implementation of the basic auditory match-to-sample protocol. The basic auditory match-to-sample protocol requires the participant to correctly match auditory stimuli when presented with a correct exemplar and a non-exemplar. The dependent variables were the emission of full echoics, partial echoics, and incorrect echoics. A time lagged multiple probe design was implemented. Results demonstrated the implementation of auditory matching protocol increased full echoics and partial echoics for all participants. Keywords: auditory match-to-sample, naming, verbal behavior, tact, learn unit, echoics
 
76. Contingent adult vocal imitation promotes reciprocal vocal imitation for children with autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUKA ISHIZUKA (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract: Several studies suggested that for children with autism, contingent adult imitation increase non-vocal communication such as attention and proximity to adult. However, few studied showed the effect of contingent adult imitation for vocal communication such as vocal imitation and vocal turn taking in children with autism. The previous study was to examine whether contingent adult vocal imitation increase vocal communication compared with contingent response. Six children with autism (CA: 36-63months) participated in alternating treatment design composed of contingent imitation condition and contingent response condition. One block composed of 4 sessions and two minutes session were conducted both conditions and lasted four blocks. During contingent imitation condition, adult imitated children’s vocal response immediately. During contingent response condition, adult didn’t imitate but responded their vocal response immediately. Children increased the number of vocal imitation and vocal turn taking between experimenter and participant compared with contingent response condition. The result showed that contingent imitation produced reciprocal vocal imitation and promoted vocal communication in children with autism. It is considered that contingent imitation was effective strategy for early intervention in children with autism.
 
77. Generative Language Learning in Severe Autism: Matrix Training through a Mobile Application
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
OLIVER WENDT (Purdue University), Ning Hsu (Purdue University), Amber Torelli (Purdue University), Katelyn Warner (Purdue University)
Abstract: Non-verbal individuals with autism who use tablet devices to communicate often do not surpass single-word responses for requesting and labeling with limited vocabulary. A mobile application, SPEAKmore!, was developed to carry out matrix training, an intervention to systematically build up vocabulary and teach longer word combinations. Linguistic elements (e.g., nouns, verbs) are presented in systematic combination matrices, which are arranged to induce generalized rule-like behavior. A-B designs were replicated to assess the acquisition of action-object combinations on a tablet device. Generalization probes were taken during intervention to assess performance on combinations not taught before. This design is currently implemented with five participants, 8-12 years old, with an official diagnosis of severe, non-verbal autism according to CARS-2 and ADOS-2 scores; these have no more than 10 spoken words, and communicate primarily on a tablet. Preliminary results for two participants (Figure 2) show performance measured as percentage of correct symbol combinations. Both participants demonstrate a similar pattern of successful acquisition during the intervention condition and subsequent generalization to untrained stimuli. Effect sizes measured by the Non-overlap of all Pairs Index indicate medium-strong and strong effects. Results, with considerable, but limited confidence given the pre-experimental nature, suggest matrix training through a mobile application may be a promising approach. To further investigate the robustness of this technology intervention, findings need to be replicated using (a) full experimental designs, and (b) different language targets (e.g., agent-action, adjective-object combinations).
 
78. Analyzing the relationship between social skills and success with a video-modeling intervention technique
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LOGAN MCDOWELL (Florida International University), Anibal Gutierrez Jr. Jr. (Florida International University)
Abstract: This study analyzed the effectiveness of video-modeling (VM) and live-modeling (LM) procedures for teaching imitation to young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little research exists examining what predictors may impact success with VM, however age, social skills, attention, and imitation have all been suggested as potential factors. This study aims to explore a subset of these factors as they relate to a VM intervention for teaching imitation. Participants in this study included 6 children under the age of 4 with a diagnosis of ASD. All were taught to imitate two equivalent behaviors, one using LM and one using VM. Pre-treatment Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) assessments were used to analyze the social skills of each participant. We hypothesize that those children with fewer social skills, as evidenced by higher social affect totals on the ADOS, will be more successful with the VM intervention. The results of this study will add to the available literature on VM by providing potentially valuable information about the impact of this individual variable.
 
79. Effects of Instructional Videomodeling on Teaching Behavioral Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Through Caregivers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ADRIANO ALVES BARBOZA (Universidade Federal do Pará), Romariz Barros (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Abstract: Currently, the Autism Spectrum Disorder data has increased in prevalence rates in a manner that establishes an emergent need to disseminate the intervention based in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), considering that some countries do not have enough financial support or amount of behavior analysts dedicated to that cause. This paper shows results of a research aiming to teach behavioral skills to children with ASD by teaching caregivers using instructional videomodeling. Three children and their caregivers are participating in this research. The tasks to be taught are a preference assessment and two intervention programs based on the children assessments, using a multiple-baseline design. The performance on the preference assessment increased from 0% to 91% for Alice and from 19% to 99% for Cassio. The intervention programs performance increased from an average of 5% to 91% for Alice and from 35% to 98% for Cassio. We observed the generalization of this repertoire (90% for Alice and 91% for Cassio). The intervention is still in course with one more participant. By these data, the instructional videomodeling shows itself as a promising tool to teach caregivers of children with developmental disabilities and to disseminate the Behavior Analytic-based Intervention with good quality and lower costs.
 
80. Video Modeling Intervention for a Elementary Students Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINA GILIC (St. John's University)
Abstract: Video modeling can impact positively on social behaviors in students with autism. Specifically, video modeling was implemented for a young elementary student with ASD. This study was conducted in a reversal design, in which the student demonstrated an increase in social skills after presentation of the video model. The intervention data show that the students behavior decreased by three to five times from baseline. During the return to intervention, target behaviors had occurred between 0 to 2 times a day, a decrease of 3x from baseline. This data from the intervention suggests that the duration of the video and frequency viewed may influence its effectiveness as a teaching tool. Video modeling shows to have been a tool used to further improve this students behavior.
 
81. Visual Scene Displays vs. Exchange- Based Communication for Children with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTI MORIN (Texas A&M University), Jennifer Ganz (Texas A&M University), Ee Rea Hong (Texas A&M University), Whitney Gilliland (Texas A&M University), Nicole Svenkerud (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: Visual scene displays (VSDs) are a novel type of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) that have recently been investigated as an alternative to traditional, grid-based systems. However, most of the limited research on VSDs has focused on typically-developing populations. In addition, a limited range of communicative functions has been explored (i.e., requests). This study sought to expand on the existing literature on VSDs by investigating the differential impact that VSDs versus traditional, grid-based systems have on the number of spontaneous comments and correct answers to questions made by two male, preschool children with autism who exhibited different levels of functional speech. The participants in the current study were exposed to two conditions—a VSD condition and an exchange-based communication (EBC) condition—in an alternating treatment design. The results indicated that VSDs may be more appropriate for children who display echoic and matching-to-sample skills prior to being exposed to a VSD.
 
82. Treatment Comparison between the Picture Exchange Communication SystemTM and Proloquo2Go for Manding Behaviour in a Young Boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What does the data tell us?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHRYN MANN (Monarch House), Tracie L. Lindblad (Monarch House)
Abstract: There has been a growing body of literature examining the use of various augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). There exists emerging evidence to support the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and equivocal evidence for speech generating devices (SGDs) such as an iPadTM with Proloquo2Go to support functional communication skills in non-vocal/minimally vocal individuals. A young boy with ASD and limited vocal-verbal behaviour was taught PECS from Phase I to Phase IV to mastery. Parents and a Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) from the local AAC clinic recommended transition to an SGD using Proloquo2Go. Baseline data regarding the number of sessions to mastery for PECS, frequency, and percent correct of mands were collected prior to transition to the SGD. Implementation of the SGD mirrored the implementation of PECS with corresponding data collected for treatment comparison purposes. The results showed that the frequency of manding favoured the SGD while the percentage of correct responses slightly favoured PECS. Clear differences existed in the number of sessions to mastery for Phase IV between the systems. Furthermore, generalization from one system to another was not automatic. Accordingly, data-based decisions are required when implementing and selecting a functional communication system.
 
83. Using Demand Fading Sets to Decrease Multiple Problem Behavior For Adolescents with Autism: Group Study.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID BARTON (Firefly Autism), Kenneth G. Winn (Firefly Autism)
Abstract: An FBA was conducted on 6 individuals with developmental disabilities where instructional (demand) situations were the common antecedent to escape maintained behaviors consisting of loud vocalizations, physical aggression, dropping, self injurious behavior and property destruction among other behaviors. Treatment included a demand fading protocol where demands were graded based on difficulty and placed into demand sets that were ordered and introduced according to predetermined mastery criteria of low rates of problem behavior. Demand fading protocol resulted low rates of problem behavior across multiple individuals.
 
84. Reinforcing Short Latency to Task Completion to Treat Noncompliance.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SARA JEGLUM (The University of Iowa), Deva Carrion (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), James Green (University of Iowa), Gunsung Lee (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: Some children with autism spectrum disorder struggle with staying on task. It may be due to excessive slowness. This excessive slowness may function in a social capacity, such as to avoid demands (i.e. long latency to task initiation). This poster presents a case study of an 8-year-old male, Tim, diagnosed with autism referred to a two-week Day Treatment clinic for noncompliance, aggression and destruction. To treat problem behavior, we implemented a work then break schedule. We saw noncompliance ascend over several sessions. To treat noncompliance, we then implemented a schedule in which Tim had a discrete time (i.e. 10 minutes) to complete a work task that was observed to take him 3 minutes when compliant. Once he completed the work, he had the remaining balance of time to play. Thus, short latency to task completion was reinforced. We saw a significant decrease of noncompliance. These results expand on Tiger et al. (2007)s work. Limited research has evaluated interventions to accelerate task completion. Further research concerning response-dependent reinforcement should be considered.
 
85. Assessment and Treatment of Inappropriate Sexual Behavior in a Hispanic Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NORMA ROJAS (The University of Texas-Pan American), Daniel Gonzalez (The University of Texas-Pan American), Noemi Trevino (The University of Texa- Pan American), Zina A. Eluri (The University of Texas-Pan American)
Abstract: This poster focuses on the assessment and treatment of inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB) in a 4-year old Hispanic child with autism. A functional analysis was conducted and it was determined that inappropriate sexual behavior was maintained by multiple reinforcers including attention, escape from demands, and tangible items. Based on the results of the functional analysis and the nature of the behavior, treatment involved a discrimination training procedure. This procedure used a discriminative stimulus to indicate whether or not the behavior was appropriate in a specific location. The child was taught that he could engage in the behavior in the presence of a green stop sign and that he should not engage in the behavior in the presence of a red stop sign. This behavior was ignored throughout treatment. Treatment involved permitting the child to engage in ISB, as indicated by the green stop sign, for approximately 50% of the sessions. Reductions in this behavior were observed and continued to decrease when transitioned into the home setting.
 
86. Dissemination of Evidence-based Intervention Strategies: Examining the Effectiveness of Performance Feedback
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ATSUKO MATSUZAKI (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract: Evidence has demonstrated that early intervention based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) improved several functions of children with autism spectrum disorders. Studies of dissemination to community settings are now needed. The authors examined the effectiveness of performance feedback by comparing two groups. Twenty-one specialists, such as special education teachers, staff at regional support centers, and clinical psychologists, were assigned to a lecture with performance feedback group or a lecture only group. Both groups received a three-hr didactic lecture which explained the basic knowledge of ABA, intervention techniques, and intervention skills. The lecture with performance feedback group consequently received 30-min performance feedback, which applied modeling, verbal instructions, and immediate reinforcement, on one-to-one intervention setting. The participants intervention skills were assessed with a 20-item fidelity list, and their knowledge was assessed with a 20-question knowledge examination which the authors had developed. The results showed that (a) both groups increased their fidelity scores after the training, (b) the averaged post-training fidelity score was higher in the lecture with performance group than the lecture only group, and (c) the both groups increased their knowledge scores after the training. Implications in relation to the effectivity and feasibility of the performance feedback will be provided.
 
 

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