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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Program by Continuing Education Events: Saturday, May 26, 2018


 

Special Event #13
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Opening Event and Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis Award Ceremony
Saturday, May 26, 2018
8:00 AM–9:20 AM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 7-13
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Marcus Jackson Marr, Ph.D.
Chair: Marcus Jackson Marr (Georgia Tech)
 
Humanitarian Award: The Power of Two: Families and Professionals Working as Partners for Children With Autism to Become Independent, Productive, and Happy
LILIANA MAYO (Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru)
Dr. Liliana Mayo received her doctoral training in the Department of Applied Behavior Science at the University of Kansas. She is the founder and executive director of Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru (CASP), in Lima, Peru, which serves more than 400 students with different abilities (especially those with the most severe limitations) and their families. Dr. Mayo is a professor of special education at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the Universidad Catolica, in Peru, and an Adjunct Faculty Member in the Department of Applied Behavior Sciences at the University of Kansas. Also she is a member of the National Council of Education in Peru. She is the representative of CASP in the formal cooperative agreement between CASP and the Schiefelbusch Institute for Research in Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas, in the United States. Dr. Mayo has received numerous awards and recognitions due to her contributions to the development of successful practices that promote progress and full inclusion of people with different abilities in society through the high participation of parents in the School of Families, and the implementation of effective educational programs following a Functional Natural Curriculum. Among them are the Queen Sofia of Spain 1999, Award for Rehabilitation and Integration, the International Dissemination of Applied Behavior Analysis award in 2000, the Peruvian Government that is the Order 'El Sol del Peru' in the Commander Grade in 2007. She was honored by the government of Panama with the Order 'Maria Ossa de Amador' in the Grade of Grand Medal in 2012 and for the government of Domenican Republic, with 'Christopher Columbus' Heraldic Order' in 2014.
Abstract: One key to the success of our students at the Centro Ann Sullivan in Peru- CASP is what we call the "Power of Two," where families and professionals work as a team. Dr. Mayo founded The School of Families of CASP 39 years ago with just 8 students and their families and now educates more than 450 families each year. At CASP, families are partners in the education of their children. Together with CASP professionals, they work as a team to provide the most comprehensive education for the students. CASP families receive a total of 171 hours of training annually, through group and individual sessions. Each family receives an Individual Educational Plan (IEP), updated annually, that outlines the skills they need to learn to be the best parents and teachers for their child. These skills are then taught in the classroom, in the community, and five times a year individual family training occurs in the home of the student. CASP believes the whole family is important to the success of the student and as such, twice a year more than 400 siblings of our students attend training to learn skills for how to be a sibling and also a teacher. As a result of many years of continuous training, some CASP families are now creating a multiplicative effect by training other families across Peru through the Mother-to-Mother Program and internationally through long distance education.
 
Scientific Translation: Lost in Translation
MICHAEL PERONE (West Virginia University)
Michael Perone earned his Ph.D. in 1981 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He was an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington before joining the faculty at West Virginia University in 1984, where he is a professor of psychology and an associate dean. Much of his current research is concerned with developing laboratory models of behavioral processes involved in problem behavior such as failures of self-control. He has served the field of behavior analysis as an associate editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and as President of ABAI. He currently serves as Coordinator of the ABAI Accreditation Board.
Abstract: Behavior analysis has been a translational science almost from the beginning. Even as Skinner warned against the mistake of allowing issues of application to affect the development of a science in its early stages (in Behavior of Organisms, 1938), he was already at work extending to human behavior the principles he had discovered with rats. This work would eventually appear in Science and Human Behavior (1953), Verbal Behavior (1957), and a series of papers on ways to increase the effectiveness of instruction (starting in 1954). At a more practical level, he invented the "air crib" to simplify infant care, a missile guidance system based on the visual acuity of pigeons, and a machine to promote student learning. Because translation is so deeply embedded in the behavior analytic Zeitgeist, it is easy to lose sight of it. In this brief talk, I will outline the development of behavior analysis as a translational science and describe some contemporary examples.
 
International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis: Carrying Science and Practice in the Suitcase
MARTHA COSTA HÜBNER (University of São Paulo)
Dr. Hubner is a professor of experimental psychology at the Institute of Psychology, University of São Paulo, and was coordinator of the graduate program in the experimental department from 2004 to 2010. She is also past president of the Brazilian Association of Psychology and of the Brazilian Association of Behavioral Medicine and Psychology. She conducts research at the Laboratory for the Study of Verbal Operants involving managing processes in the acquisition of symbolic behaviors such as reading, writing, and verbal episodes. She is currently immersed in three areas of research: investigating the empirical relations between verbal and nonverbal behavior, analyzing the processes of control by minimal units in reading, and studying verbal behavior programs for children with autism spectrum disorders.
Abstract: Under the leadership of its Executive Council, ABAI has been crossing geographical borders for more than four decades, disseminating behavior analysis globally. I have had the honor to be part of this dissemination, inspired by the belief that we can change lives all around the world. Although this award is for people or organizations demonstrating significant and sustained contributions to the dissemination/development of behavior analysis outside the United States, behavior analysts in the United States have long been role models for me; I have huge gratitude for these pioneers. Awareness of ABAI and of leading behavior analysts in the United States started early in my career: in 1982 I went to Harvard to meet B. F. Skinner, and in 1990 I was already a contact person in Brazil for ABAI. Brazilian professors in behavior analysis shaped my interest in international development, and Brazil now has one of the largest communities of behavior analysts. One of the ingredients of our success was the constant presence of model scientists and practitioners; North American behavior analysts were invited to visit our country to help build the field there. Fred Keller was the first, and we also benefited from the visiting professorships of such luminaries as Murray Sidman and Charles Catania all of whom made it clear that without science there could be no solid progress in our field; and without practice, no future. With these two elements in mind, we went abroad to convince people of the real importance of behavior analysis.
 
Enduring Programmatic Contributions in Behavior Analysis: Behavior Analysis in Brasilia
JOSELE ABREU RODRIGUES (Universidade de Brasilia), Carlos Cancado (Universidade de Brasilia)
Abstract: The Graduate Program in Behavioral Sciences (Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias do Comportamento, PPG-CdC,) of the University of Brasilia (UnB), Brazil awards both Masters and Ph.D. degrees. It has played a pivotal role in the establishment and development of behavior analysis as a science and as a profession in Brazil since 1964, then under the leadership of Fred S. Keller and Carolina M. Bori and the collaboration of Rodolpho Azzi, John Gilmour Sherman, Robert Berryman and James R. Nazzaro. Faculty members of the graduate program at UnB have a good record of publications in both national and international scientific journals in behavior analysis (including the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, the Brazilian Journal of Behavior Analysis, the Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis), further attesting to the enduring contributions of the graduate program to the development of behavior analysis.
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define and give two original examples of POAMs who are also BCBAs and be able to define BCBA; (2) understand the bidirectional nature of translational science; (3) understand Skinner's influence in establishing behavior analysis as a translational science; (4) identify and describe the importance of science and practice and the United States to the international development of behavior analysis; (5) describe the Principle 70/30 of CASP of Families participation; (6) know the number of hours of training each family receives in CASP; (6) summarize the history of behavior analysis at the University of Brasilia, from the beginnings of the graduate program to current days; (7) describe the main research areas and contributions of UnB faculty and students to the experimental, applied, and conceptual behavior analysis.
 
 
 
Symposium #14
CE Offered: BACB
CANCELED: The Scope of Practice of a Behavior Analyst
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:20 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom A
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Vanessa Patrone, M.A.
Chair: Vanessa Patrone (Daemen College)
Discussant: Deborah A. Napolitano (Hillside Children's Center)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is an effective approach for improving socially significant human behavior. There are many areas of application of ABA to improve the behavior of people with and without diagnoses. While ABA has become known to the general public as the treatment of choice for people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), it may be less known in the area of service delivery that ABA has been effective with a diversity of individuals. In this symposium, we will present a review of the diagnosis characteristics of the participants in the last decade of studies in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and a review of the application of ABA with people with Down Syndrome. The ethical implications of a restriction of the scope of a practicing behavior analyst will be discussed in light of recent licensure laws.
Keyword(s): Licensure, Scope, Service Delivery
Target Audience: Service providers, students, educators
Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to describe the potential scope of practice for a behavior analyst. Participants will be able to describe how ABA is applied with people with a diversity of diagnoses as evidenced in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Participants will be able to describe how ABA is applied with people with Down Syndrome. Participants will be able to describe how licensure laws have influenced the scope of practice in the area of service delivery.
 
CANCELED: Applied Behavior Analysis for Kids With Down Syndrome Too!
THERESA FIANI (City University of New York - The Graduate Center), Sally M Izquierdo (The City University of New York, Queens College and The Graduate Center), Emily A. Jones (Queens College, The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Nicole M. Neil (University of Western Ontario), Sara and Neal Bauer (The Graduate Center of the City University of New York)
Abstract: Behavior analytic interventions can be applied to address the needs of individuals with a range of disorders. Demonstrations of behavior analytic interventions with other populations exist, but recent literature is limited and larger scale efforts to aggressively and systematically address the needs of individuals with other developmental disabilities remain to be explored. Everyone has a right to effective treatments and those with other disabilities can benefit from behavior analytic interventions. In this presentation, we will discuss research related to ABA and children with Down syndrome including a review of the literature on communication interventions and a series of studies of behavior analytic interventions to improve communication and motor development. Results suggests that applied behavior analytic interventions are effective in addressing the needs of individuals with Down syndrome in the same manner as autism.
 
Diversity of Diagnoses Represented in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
VANESSA PATRONE (Daemen College), Vicki Madaus Knapp (Daemen College)
Abstract: A content analysis was completed on all studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis from Volume 40, Number 3 through Volume 50, Number 1 (2007 to present). A total of 849 research studies were reviewed and the diagnoses of the participants were coded as written in each article. A total of 90 articles (i.e., review papers, other) were excluded. The remaining 759 articles were analyzed. Of the 759 articles reviewed from each of the 40 journals, 12,698 participants were individually coded. Of the total number of participants, 513 (4%) were reported to have an ID/DD; 1,399 (11%) were reported to have an ASD; 1,582 (12%) were reported to be addicted to nicotine, gambling, or another substance; and 8,830 (70%) of the participants did not have a reported diagnosis. These participants included caregivers, staff, college students, and others. IOA was obtained for nine of the 40 journals (22.5%) and mean agreement was over 90%. This analysis may provide evidence to support the broad application of Applied Behavior Analysis, without restriction to a single diagnostic category.
 
 
Symposium #15
CE Offered: BACB
Repetitive Behavior in ASD: Current Trends in Research and Practice
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Grand Hall C
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Amarie Carnett, Ph.D.
Chair: Tracy Jane Raulston (Penn State)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Rigid and repetitive patterns and/or interests (RRBIs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In comparison to social-communication interventions for children with ASD, surprising little is known about the effectiveness, implementation, and current practices being delivered RRBIs. Several analytic practices show a strong evidence-base or promise in reducing RRBIs or other co-occurring maladaptive behaviors (National Autism Center, 2015). There are several areas of imperative inquiry. In this symposium, two studies will be presented. The first study will present data from an online survey of practices implemented by Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) for children (birth to age 8) across a variety of sub-topographies of repetitive behavior (e.g., stereotypy, insistence on sameness). The second study will present findings for a meta-analysis on interventions for vocal stereotypy with a focus on the implications of measurement differences. Discussed will be gaps in extant literature and implications of findings for science and practice.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): repetitive behavior, rigid behavior, stereotypy, vocal stereotypy
Target Audience: The target audience for this presentation are researchers and practitioners who work with individuals with autism who engage in rigid and/or repetitive patterns of behavior and/or interests.
 
Early Interventions for Repetitive Behavior in Autism: An Online Survey of Practices by Behavior Analysts
SARAH GRACE HANSEN (Georgia State University), Tracy Jane Raulston (Penn State), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon), Laura Lee McIntyre (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The evidence base of interventions to treat rigid and repetitive patterns of behavior and/or interests (RRBIs) in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is growing. Some researchers have asserted that some repetitive behavior can actually be adaptive for infants and young children and are present in typical development. However, as RRBIs are a core feature of ASD, the reduction of these behavioral topographies is often targeted in clinical practice. Yet, surprisingly little is known about what practices are actually being implemented in the field. An online survey was distributed to Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) who indicated that they worked with young children with ASD. A total of 128 BCBAs submitted complete entires. Survey items included BCBAs frequency of use of 15 practices including: antecedent-based embedded perseverative interests, consequence-based embedded perseverative interests, differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI), differential reinforcement of other or zero rates of behavior (DRO), differential reinforcement of variable behavior (DRV), environmental enrichment, functional communication training (FCT), noncontingent or time based schedules of reinforcement, overcorrection, physical exercise, response blocking, response cost, response interruption redirection (RIRD), sensory extinction, skill enrichment, visual and/or cues and 1 assessment (functional analysis). Additionally, we collected data on age ranges (i.e., birth to three year olds, three to five year olds, and five to eight year olds) with which BCBAs implemented or supervised implementation of each intervention and their perceptions of the effectiveness of each intervention. Finally, we collected a variety of demographic data. Preliminary analyses revealed that the most common practices implemented were: environmental enrichment, skill enrichment, visual and/or verbal cues, FCT, and RIRD. The interventions implemented the least were response cost, overcorrection, sensory extinction, and DRV. The interventions BCBAs rated the most effective were FCT, DRI, RIRD, and consequence-based embedded perseverative interests. The interventions that were rated the least effective were DRV, response cost, overcorrection, and physical exercise. Correlates to usage and perceptions of effectiveness including educational background, training, practice setting, and clientele will be discussed, as well as implications for future research and practice.
 
A Meta-Analysis of Automatically-Maintained Vocal Stereotypy in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
THEONI MANTZOROS (Pennsylvania State University), Ashley McCoy (Pennsylvania State University), David L. Lee (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Vocal stereotypy (VS) is a behavior of concern for many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Engagement in VS can be detrimental in that it may be stigmatizing in social settings and interfere with performance on academic and vocational tasks. A first step in treating VS is to determine function through a functional analysis or functional behavior assessment. Interventions can then be developed based on the specific function of the VS. Twenty-seven studies were identified incorporating 78 participants diagnosed with ASD who engaged in automatically-maintained VS. In this presentation the effects of the available treatments for automatically-reinforced VS will be discussed. Interventions include matched stimulation, differential reinforcement, response interruption and redirection (RIRD), and other punishment procedures. Preliminary analyses indicate that there are multiple interventions in the literature which are effective in decreasing automatically-reinforced VS, with Tau-U values suggesting treatment effects in the medium to large range. Results of RIRD were further assessed based on the data collection methodology utilized in individual studies which included whole session and interrupted session data collection. A limitation of the extant literature is the degree to which the groups vary within each intervention, as well as the limited number of participants per treatment. Implications for practice and future research will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #16
CE Offered: BACB
Beliefs, Deception, and RFT, Oh My! Teaching Complex Verbal Behavior to Children With and Without Autism
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom F
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: M. Fernanda Welsh, M.S.
Chair: M. Fernanda Welsh (The ABRITE Organization)
Abstract: There are many empirically supported procedures for teaching early verbal behavior to individuals. As the verbal behavior repertoire grows, so does the complexity of targets and teaching procedures. This symposium will present research evaluating assessment and interventions for complex verbal behavior in children with and without autism. The first paper will present a study investigating procedures using multiple exemplar training to teach children with autism to identify the false beliefs of others. The second paper will present data on using multiple exemplar training to teach typically developing children to understand the double meaning of jokes. The final paper will present a review and critical analysis of research on the PEAK Assessment and Curriculum.
Keyword(s): complex skills, perspective taking, RFT, ToM
Target Audience: BCBAs and BCaBAs
 
Teaching Children With Autism to Identify False Beliefs of Others
AZIZULL KAUR DHADWAL (Pepperdine University; Autism Behavior Intervention), Adel C. Najdowski (Pepperdine University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder have deficits in perspective taking abilities required to identify false beliefs of others (Baron-Cohen, Leslie & Frith, 1985). Research has demonstrated that children with autism can be taught to recognize the false beliefs of others using video modeling (e.g., Charlop-Christy & Daneshvar, 2003; LeBlanc & Coates, 2003). The current study extends behavioral research by teaching children with autism to identify false beliefs using a treatment package conducted in the natural environment with live people. Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design, this study evaluates the use of multiple exemplar training, prompting, and reinforcement to train identification of false beliefs in two tasks. Thus far, the data from participant one demonstrates that the treatment package was effective in teaching him to identify false beliefs across two false belief tasks (an appearance-reality task and unexpected transfer task). Generalization across people and untrained stimuli was observed. Furthermore, the participant improved from baseline to posttreatment on correct responding to the classic false-belief task known as the Sally-Anne task, which was never trained. Data are currently being collected with two additional participants.
 
VB, RFT, and LOL: A Behavior Analytic Approach to Teaching Humor Comprehension
ROCIO NUNEZ (California State University, Fresno), Marianne L. Jackson (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: The understanding of complex forms of verbal behavior, specifically jokes with double meanings, is a skill that has been suggested to emerge in typically developing children between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Given that humor has been documented to be an important element in social interactions, it would be beneficial to identify the specific skills necessary to establish the speaker and listener repertoire of humor in order to remediate deficits in this area for specific clinical populations (e.g. autism spectrum disorders). The behavioral literature on this topic is somewhat limited but suggests that such skills are learned operants that can be taught through the use of systematic teaching procedures. As such, the current study employed multiple exemplar training and a three-step error correction procedure, implemented in a multiple-baseline across participants design, to teach typically developing children, between the ages of five and six years, to understand double-meaning jokes. All four participants demonstrated low levels of comprehension of double-meaning jokes in baseline and met mastery criterion for comprehension and appreciation measures in post-intervention. Post-probes and maintenance results were mixed with two participants requiring re-introduction of the intervention before meeting criteria on follow-up measures.
 
Moving Toward Relational Complexity: Review and Critical Analysis of PEAK Research
ALEXANDRIA EMILY LEIDT (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract: The Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System (PEAK) was developed in 2014 to provide a curriculum based on the principles of behavior analysis to be used with individuals with autism or other developmental challenges. In this paper, we review and critically examine research on the PEAK curriculum from its beginnings in 2014 to the present. In addition, we analyze what potential limitations remain in the current status of research, as well as identify possible future directions for PEAK research. To date, most existing research compares the PEAK Relational Training System to other valid and reliable measures of learner ability, as well as evaluates how the PEAK system can be used to instruct daily skills, across a variety of domains. The presentation concludes with practical recommendations for practitioners.
 
 
Symposium #17
CE Offered: BACB
Assessment and Treatment of Elopement for Individuals With Disabilities
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom H
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Christina Fragale, Ph.D.
Chair: Tasia Brafford (University of Oregon)
Discussant: Christina Fragale (The University of Texas; The Meadows Center for the Prevention of Educational Risk)
Abstract: Elopement is a common topography of challenging behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities. Elopement can lead to exposure to dangerous situations, disrupt learning, limit access to residential services and community activities, and even lead to serious injury or death. A systematic literature search identified 18 studies published from 2009 to 2016 that evaluated interventions to decrease elopement. The studies were summarized in terms of (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessment procedures, (c) intervention procedures, (d) intervention results. Frequent interventions included functional communication training, differential reinforcement, and response blocking. Functional analyses were conducted for each participant with several methodological modifications to address difficulties associated with functional analysis of elopement. Functional analysis of elopement may be challenging as participant retrieval may be necessary for safety purposes, but could serve as a confounding variable providing attention across all conditions. Systematic replication of functional analysis procedures utilized by Lehardy et al. (2013) was implemented with a 5-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated elopement was maintained by access to tangibles. Functional communication training resulted in markedly reduced instances of elopement, confirming the results of the functional analysis. Implications and recommendations for practice will be discussed and suggestions for future research will be offered.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): elopement, FCT, functional analysis
Target Audience: Behavior analysts including clinicians, teachers, researchers, BCBAs, and BCaBAs.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) state common interventions in research for elopement and the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches; (2) recognize functional analysis procedures that can be used to identify the function of elopement behavior; (3) identify areas in need of further research on the assessment and intervention of elopement.
 
Systematic Review of Assessment and Treatment of Elopement in Individuals With Autism and Developmental Disabilities
Buket Erturk (University of Oregon), NICOLE O'GUINN (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Elopement is commonly occurring topography of challenging behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities. Elopement can disrupt learning, limit access to residential services, limit access to community activities, and in extreme cases lead to serious injury or death. A systematic literature search identified 18 studies published from 2009 to 2016 that evaluated interventions to decrease elopement. The studies were summarized in terms of (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessment procedures, (c) intervention procedures, (d) intervention results. Across the 18 studies, intervention was implemented across 27 participants with autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities, ages four to 47 years. Functional analyses were conducted for each participant with several methodological modifications to address difficulties associated with functional analysis of elopement. The most frequent interventions included functional communication training, differential reinforcement, and response blocking. Implications for practice will be discussed and suggestions for future research will be offered.
 
Evaluation and Treatment of Elopement Among Children With Developmental Disabilities
Nicole O'Guinn (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), VIDA CANESTARO (Baylor University )
Abstract: Elopement is a frequent problem among individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities. Elopement can lead to an individual being exposed to dangerous situations. Moreover, elopement can increase stress for caretakers. Functional analysis of elopement may be challenging due to the fact that participant retrieval may be necessary for safety purposes, but could serve as a confounding variable providing attention across all conditions. A review of the literature revealed a variety of functional analysis methodologies to address these difficulties associated with functional analysis of elopement. The current study is a systematic replication of functional analysis procedures utilized by Lehardy et al. (2013). This functional analysis methodology was implemented with a 5-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated elopement was maintained by access to tangibles. Functional communication training resulted in markedly reduced instances of elopement, thus confirming the results of the functional analysis. The results of this study, recommendations for practice, and suggestions for future research will be discussed.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #18
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Skinner's Operationalism, Selectionism, Loving Infinitely, and Building the Deepest Connection With Others in ABA Practice and ACT
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 7-9
Area: CBM
CE Instructor: Thomas G. Szabo, Ph.D.
Chair: Amy Murrell (University of North Texas)
THOMAS G. SZABO (Florida Institute of Technology)
Thomas G. Szabo, Ph.D., BCBA-D is a professor at Florida Institute of Technology. He graduated from the University of Nevada, Reno under the mentorship of W. Larry Williams and Steven C. Hayes. Over the last decade, Dr. Szabo has sought to develop iterations of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suitable to the needs of ABA practitioners and within their specialized scope of practice. He has offered ACT training to parents, children, senior executives and frontline staff, and couples learning effective partner skills. With his students, Dr. Szabo is currently investigating behavioral flexibility training and a variety of applied-RFT strategies to promote learning and improved performance. Dr. Szabo is also the second chair of an international non-governmental organization, Commit & Act, which teaches women, children, and couples in Sierra Leone behavior-based strategies for partnership and empowerment.
Abstract: In "The Operational Analysis of Psychological Terms," Skinner proposed that the science of behavior needs a contingency analysis of the contexts in which scientists use terms. A term is valid only when it increases the scientist's capacity for prediction and influence, and not merely when it produces socially mediated reinforcers such as the approval and agreement of other scientists. Years later, Skinner continued to evolve contingency analysis in terms of Darwinian theory, which involves variation, selection, and retention. In this talk, I will argue that the pragmatic aims of ABA hinge upon these two conceptual advances and that Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) offers practitioners a way to harness Skinner's conceptual horsepower in service of helping others. In the ACT approach, ABA workers start where folks are at and talk with them about what they value most. About love. Family. Pain. Laughter. Building this kind of connection with stakeholders in ABA is neither unprofessional, nor is using common sense language an invitation to mentalism. It is the catwalk from unworkable essentialism to pragmatic contextualism. In this talk, I will bridge the conceptual with the pragmatic by sharing single case design data from our work with parents and children.
Target Audience: BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, and others interested in bridging theory and practice.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify four arguments in Skinner (1945); (2) identify the main tenets of Skinner (1981); (3) examine a behavioral analysis of love and family connection; (4) evaluate the ACT approach to generating flexible patterns of behavior in challenging human contexts; (5) examine single case design data from two ACT ABA studies.
 
 
Panel #24
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
CANCELED: Work Hard, Play Harder: The Impacts of Provider Culture in the Workplace
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Marriott Marquis, Marina Ballroom E
Area: OBM/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Melissa Engasser, M.S.
Chair: Melissa Engasser (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center, Inc.)
KELLY O'NEIL (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center, Inc.)
PIERRE D. LOUIS (Bancroft)
BAHIJAH SHEIBANEE (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center, Inc.; Rider University)
Abstract: In the field of Applied Behavior Analysis is prone to having high-rates of burn out and staff turn over. This panel discussion attempts to discuss, what infrastructures can be embedded within an organization to sustain a healthy and productive work environment for service providers. These components will help address burn-out, staffing turn-over, and staff productivity
Target Audience: The targeted audience are BCBA's or BCBA-D's overseeing direct service provider staff , such as registered behavior technicians.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the panel discussion, the audience will be able to do exhibit the following: 1. Understand how to implement the appropriate ecological manipulations in the environment for creating a reinforcing environment 2. Effects of group contingency 3.How providing reinforcing work environments helps in decreasing staff turn-over.
Keyword(s): OBM, Culture
 
 
Symposium #26
CE Offered: BACB
Addressing Unique Referral Concerns: Assessment and Treatment of Idiosyncratic Target Behaviors in Outpatient Settings
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom C
Area: PRA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Amanda Zangrillo, Psy.D.
Chair: Amanda Zangrillo (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The functional analysis provides a means for practitioners to identify the variables maintaining destructive behaviors and, in turn, develop function-based intervention. The current symposium outlines three studies which employed functional analysis to assess and inform function-based treatment of idiosyncratic presenting concerns. First, Simmons, Akers, and Fisher conducted a functional analysis of covert food stealing for a 6-year-old neurotypical individual. The results of the functional analysis informed the application of a function-based intervention and multiple schedule to signal availability and nonavailability of food items. Similarly, Stuesser and Roscoe provided a novel extension of assessment and treatment methods. Authors evaluated medical nonadherence and problem behavior in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Functional analysis results informed a differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA) treatment alone and in combination with stimulus fading to increase adherence and decrease problem behavior. Last, DeLisle and Thomason-Sassi extended the use of denial-and-delay tolerance training (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014) for two individuals diagnosed with autism to automatically-maintained problem behavior. During this evaluation the authors taught the individuals to request permission to engage in the targeted behavior, and to refrain from behavior outside the permitted times. Finally, denial training, delay training, and fading therapist proximity were completed.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): denial-delay training, function-based treatment, functional analysis
Target Audience: Practitioners
Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will be able to describe assessment and treatment pertaining to covert behaviors. 2. Participants will be able to operationally define and describe implementation of DRA and stimulus fading. 3. Participants will be able to describe delay-denial tolerance procedures.
 
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Covert Food Stealing in an Outpatient Setting
CHRISTINA SIMMONS (Rowan University), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Covert food stealing is a serious problem behavior that can pose a health risk to the individual and can be extremely disruptive for caregivers. Previous research on food stealing has been primarily conducted with individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome or intellectual disability in intensive residential settings and researchers have not demonstrated maintenance of treatment effects on food stealing in the natural environment. We conducted a functional analysis of food stealing and determined that food stealing was a covert behavior that was not maintained by socially-mediated variables. A treatment package including discriminative stimuli to signal available and unavailable food items and contingent reprimands was effective in decreasing food stealing in a 6-year-old-child with typical development. The caregiver implemented the assessment and treatment in both clinic and home settings and rated procedures and outcomes as high in social validity. Treatment effects generalized to the home and maintained 8 weeks after in-clinic training sessions.
 
Use of Denial-Delay Tolerance Training in the Treatment of Ritualistic and Stereotypic Behavior
DEWEY DELISLE (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Jessica L. Thomason-Sassi (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: Denial-and-delay tolerance training (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014) is a treatment protocol that has been used to teach children to mand for socially-mediated reinforcers. Subsequent treatment components include a teaching of tolerance response when requests are denied, and working until a reinforcer is available. In the current study, we extended this treatment for socially-mediated behavior to the treatment of automatically maintained behavior. We utilized an alone screen to determine the function of behavior for two individuals diagnosed with autism. Next, we taught the individuals to request permission to engage in their behavior targeted for decrease, and to refrain from behavior outside of those permitted times. Finally, denial training, delay training, and fading therapist proximity were completed. Results showed that participants engaged in low rates of inappropriate behavior, and were able to tolerate a denied mand by engaging in increasing amounts of work. Interobserver agreement was collected on 30% of sessions for both participants, and averaged at 96.7% (range, 93.3-100).
 
Increasing Medical Adherence for Individuals With Autism
HAILEE STUESSER (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University ), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Abstract: Medical procedures such as routine physicals and blood work are often associated with nonadherence and problem behavior in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Previous research has shown the utility of behavior analytic interventions for increasing medical adherence. However, these interventions often include a combination of components making it difficult to discern whether all components are necessary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) without extinction alone and in combination with fading for increasing adherence and decreasing disruption during routine medical exams in four individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. An indirect assessment was conducted to identify routine medical exam steps. A functional analysis confirmed that problem behavior was maintained by escape from medical demands. We evaluated DRA alone and in combination with stimulus fading using multiple baseline across participants or reversal designs. DRA with fading was necessary for achieving clinically significant outcomes in three of the four participants. Interobserver agreement was assessed in 33% of sessions and averaged 91%.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #27
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
SQAB Tutorial: Relational Frame Theory: Past, Present, and Future
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Marriott Marquis, San Diego Ballroom B
Area: SCI
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Ph.D.
Chair: Michael J. Dougher (University of New Mexico)
DERMOT BARNES-HOLMES (Ghent University)
Dr. Dermot Barnes-Holmes graduated from the University of Ulster in 1985 with a B.Sc. in Psychology and in 1990 with a D.Phil. in behavior analysis. His first tenured position was in the Department of Applied Psychology at University College Cork, where he founded and led the Behavior Analysis and Cognitive Science unit. In 1999 he accepted the foundation professorship in psychology and head-of-department position at the National University of Ireland Maynooth. In 2015 he accepted a life-time senior professorship at Ghent University in Belgium. Dr. Barnes-Holmes is known internationally for the analysis of human language and cognition through the development of Relational Frame Theory with Steven C. Hayes, and its application in various psychological settings. He was the world's most prolific author in the experimental analysis of human behavior between the years 1980 and 1999. He was awarded the Don Hake Translational Research Award in 2012 by the American Psychological Association, is a past president and fellow of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science, is a recipient of the Quad-L Lecture Award from the University of New Mexico and most recently became an Odysseus laureate of the Flemish Science Foundation and a fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International.
Abstract: The seminal research on equivalence relations by Sidman (1994) and colleagues, which commenced in the early 1970s, led in the mid-1980s to the development of relational frame theory (RFT; Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001). The tutorial will present an overview of this 30 year-old unfolding research story and will consider some empirical and conceptual issues that appear to require focused attention as the story continues to unfold across the coming decades. In particular, the tutorial will commence by focusing on the historical and intellectual roots of RFT, identifying the work of Darwin, Wittgenstein, Skinner, and particularly Sidman as critically important. The basic units of analysis proposed by RFT, as a behavior-analytic account of human language and cognition, will then be considered. The impact these analytic units have had, and still have, on RFT research will also be reviewed. A relatively new RFT concept, known as the multi-dimensional multi-level (MDML) framework will be presented. A recent model of specific properties of relational framing, the differential arbitrarily applicable relational responding effects (DAARRE) model, will also be considered. Finally, a case will be made to integrate the MDML and the DAARRE model into a hyper-dimensional, multi-level (HDML) framework
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to (1) articulate the historical and intellectual roots of relational frame theory; (2) describe the basic units of analysis of RFT as presented in the seminal volume (Hayes, et al., 2001); (3) identify and explain the basic concepts presented in graphical representations of the MDML framework and the DAARRE model.
 
 
Symposium #28
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Strategies for Inclusive Settings
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Harbor Ballroom C
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jeremy H. Greenberg, Ph.D.
Chair: Jeremy H. Greenberg (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Abstract: In this symposium, we included three papers related to using behavioral analytic strategies in inclusive settings. The first presentation used peer-mediated strategies embedded in Lego activities to increase social initiation and responses for children with autism in an inclusive preschool setting. The second presentation used social narratives combined with behavioral strategies to improve oral narratives for a child with hearing impairments in various settings and evaluated the generalization effect an inclusive classroom. The third paper presents several behavioral strategies that can be used in inclusive settings for students with different ability levels.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: BCBAs, BCaBAs, special education teachers, general education teachers
 
Using Peer-Mediated LEGO Play Intervention to Improve Social Interactions for Chinese Children With Autism in an Inclusive Setting
XIAOYI HU (Beijing Normal University), Qunshan Zheng (University of Florida), Gabrielle T. Lee (Chongqing Normal University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a peer-mediated LEGO? play intervention on improving social skills for children with ASD in an inclusive preschool in China. Three boys with ASD and 13 typically developing children participated in this study. A multiple-probe across participants design was used. The intervention consisted of LEGO? construction activities incorporated with peer-mediated strategies for one child with ASD and two typically developing peers. The intervention sessions were conducted two sessions per week with a total of 28 to 31 sessions for each participant. Results indicate that all three children with ASD increased their social initiations and responses following the completion of the intervention. Social validity was also obtained.
 
An Intervention Study of Story Grammar Instruction Based on Picture Books on the Oral Narrative Ability of a Student With Hearing Impairments in a General Education Classroom
Huan Li (Southwest University, Chongqing, China), Zhengting Feng (Southwest University, Chongqing, China), XIAOYI HU (Beijing Normal University, China)
Abstract: Oral narrative ability exerts a major impact on the cognitive development, interpersonal communication and verbal learning of hearing-impaired students learning in regular class. Through a cross-situation multi-baseline research on a single subject, the study employs story grammar instruction based on picture books as the plan for intervening oral narrative ability of the student in communicating with family members, a private tutor and strangers. It is found that the intervention method leads to significant improvements in story length and story grammar concerning the oral narrative ability of the hearing-impaired student in the three communication situations. As for the effect of the intervention on discourse coherence in the student's oral narration, further studies are still needed. In view of those findings, the study puts forward corresponding suggestions on the application of picture-book-based story grammar instruction in actual situation.
 
Applied Behavior Analysis as a Teaching Technology for Inclusion
Amoy Kito Hugh-Pennie (The Harbour School & HKABA), Hye-Suk Lee Park (KAVBA ABA Research Center), Nicole Luke (Surrey Place Centre), TRACY YIP (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis is known as an effective way to address the needs of people with autism spectrum disorders. The layperson may also associate behavior analysis with forensic psychology through their experience of crime dramas such as Criminal Minds: Behavior Analysis Unit. However accurate or simplified these portrayals they are a very narrow view of the larger field of behavioral science. Behavior analysis has a host of applications in the real world. Some of these applications include but are certainly not limited to the determination of social policies, advertising, policing, animal training, business practices, diet and exercise regimens and education. In this chapter the authors will focus on how applied behavior analysis can be used as a teaching technology from the behavioral and educational literature that has the potential to help lead the way out of the educational crisis faced in the United States of America and abroad.
 
 
Symposium #29
CE Offered: BACB
There's More Than One Tool in the Toolkit: Statistics for Behavior Analysts
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Harbor Ballroom D-F
Area: TBA/PCH
CE Instructor: Zachary H. Morford, Ph.D.
Chair: Zachary H. Morford (Zuce Technologies, LLC)
Abstract: The field of behavior analysis has traditionally eschewed the use of statistical tests in the analysis of single-case experimental design (SCED) data. In particular, behavior analysts have argued against parametric statistics (e.g., t-tests and ANOVAs) for multiple reasons. Rather than use statistical tests, behavior analysts have relied upon inter-ocular trauma tests, where the visual analysis of SCED results hits you right between the eyes. The field has, generally speaking, overlooked the fact that parametric tests are only a few hammers in a much larger toolkit of statistical procedures. It is possible and beneficial for behavior analysts to use both methods—visual analysis and statistical tests—in conjunction with one another to analyze their data. In this symposium, the presenters will review three different non-parametric statistical tests that can be used in basic and applied behavior analytic research: Randomization tests, general estimating equations (GEE), and multilevel modeling. Each has its own unique merits and uses within SCEDs, and can function to augment other methods of analysis and replace more commonly used statistical tests.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Research methods, Single-case designs, Statistics, Visual analysis
Target Audience: Master's level and doctoral level BCBAs; Graduate Students in Behavior Analysis; Basic Researchers; Applied Researchers; Scientist-Practitioners
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) select statistical tests that supplement visual analysis; (2) design single-case experiments for the purposes of applying statistical tests to the data acquired; (3) increase the internal validity of single-case designs by randomly assigning treatments to observation occasions.
 
Randomize, Test, Re-Randomize, and Infer: A Statistical Test for Single-Case Designs
(Basic Research)
KENNETH W. JACOBS (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The frequent and repeated measurement of behavior often precludes behavior analysts from making statistical inferences about data obtained from single-case experimental designs (SCED). Parametric tests assume a random sample, independent observations, and a normal distribution. SCEDs violate one or more of these assumptions, and even worse, are considered quasi-experimental because subjects are not randomly sampled from a defined population or randomly assigned to treatments. Recent advances in computing, however, have brought an old and readily applicable test of significance to fore: Randomization Tests (Fisher, 1935; Pitman, 1937). Unlike conventional Null Hypothesis Significance Tests (NHST), randomization tests are non-parametric, distribution-free tests of statistical significance. They are particularly applicable to SCEDs, so long as treatments are randomly assigned to observations. The requirement that SCEDs include random assignment increases their methodological rigor by controlling for unknown variables and addresses the charge that SCEDs are quasi-experimental. While randomization tests cannot supplant the experimental control already built into SCEDs, they can certainly supplement the conclusions behavior analysts might make about treatment effects. The purpose of this presentation, then, is to elucidate the origins of randomization tests, explicate their applicability to SCEDs, and warn against the pitfalls of NHSTs when making inferences.
 
Using Multilevel Modeling to Quantify Individual Variability in Single-Subject Designs
(Basic Research)
WILLIAM DEHART (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute), Jonathan E. Friedel (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), Charles Casey Joel Frye (Utah State University)
Abstract: The field of Behavior Analysis has historically been conflicted over the use of inferential statistical methods in the analyses of data from single-subject designs. Valid concerns with the use of inferential statistics include the suppression of important behavioral variability at the individual level and the over-reliance on and misinterpretation of the p-value. This conflict has commonly resulted in two strategies: first, reliance on visual analyses and the out-right rejection of any inferential statistics, or second, the application of more "basic" inferential tests that may or more not be appropriate for single-subject design data. Multilevel modeling (e.g., mixed-methods or hierarchal regression) is a more advanced statistical analysis that addresses many of the concerns that the field of Behavior Analysis has with inferential statistics including quantifying the contribution of individual behavioral variability to the results and the compression of many data-points into a single comparison. The benefits of multilevel modeling will be demonstrated using several single-subject design datasets. A guide of how researchers can implement multilevel modeling including a priori recommendations before beginning data collection will be offered.
 
Comparing General Estimating Equations to Standard Analytic Techniques for Delay Discounting Data
(Basic Research)
JONATHAN E. FRIEDEL (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), William DeHart (Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute), Yusuke Hayashi (Penn State Hazleton), Anne Foreman (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), Oliver Wirth (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Delay discounting continues to be a rapidly growing area both within behavior analysis and in other fields, in part because differences in the degree of discounting are routinely found across populations of interest. There are often acknowledged and unacknowledged challenges in analyzing delay discounting data because the data frequently violate the assumptions of the statistical tests or there are no appropriate equivalent non-parametric tests. General estimating equations (GEE) are regression techniques that can handle many of the difficulties associated with delay discounting data. Using an iterative Monte Carlo procedure with simulated choice data sets, the results obtained with GEEs were compared to the results obtained with traditional analyses (e.g. t-tests, ANOVAs, Mann-Whitney U, etc.) to assess the similarities and differences in the techniques. The GEEs and traditional techniques produced similar patterns of results; however, GEEs obviate the need for conducting multiple tests, tolerate violations of normality, and account for within-subject correlations making GEEs a viable and more flexible approach for analyzing choice data.
 
 
Symposium #30
CE Offered: BACB
Improving Observational Learning in Children With Autism and Social Delays: Recent Advances in Research and Practice
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Grand Hall D
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jaime DeQuinzio, Ph.D.
Chair: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The focus of this symposium will be to present recent research that has focused on improving observational in children with autism and social delays both in-vivo and with video models. The first paper evaluated the effects of teaching children with autism to engage in self-echoic responses during in-vivo observational learning on the learning of tacts. Both participants learned the picture labels faster in the condition where they were taught to engage in self-echoic responses than in the condition where they were not required to use the self-echoic responses. In the second paper, three children with autism learned to engage in sharing responses during play with the successive introduction of observational learning presenting on video plus verbal coaching while viewing the video. Participants in this study also generalized sharing responses to non-teaching conditions including novel toys, in the absence of a teacher, and to siblings. In the third study, participants with social delays showed improved performance with sequencing pictures and learned to tact two and three-digit numbers during in-vivo observational learning but not via video. Participants in the video condition showed improved performance of known tasks but did not learn new responses. In the final study, the authors assessed the direct and indirect effects of training by assessing observational learning before and after instruction across tasks and task variations during both in-vivo and video model probes. All participants acquired the prerequisite skills and demonstrated observational learning during probes of directly-trained tasks, but generalization was variable.
Keyword(s): learning/ performance, observational learning, video modeling
Target Audience: BCBAs, practitioners, researchers, graduate students, teachers
 
Evaluation of the Effects of Teaching Self-Echoic Responses on Observational Learning in Children With Autism
JAIME DEQUINZIO (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Observational learning is essential for a child with autism to learn academic responses and to reduce reliance on one-to-one instruction. Imitation of the responses observed during observational learning contexts may facilitate OL and research indicates that typically developing children engage in verbal rehearsals (self-echoics)to facilitate recall of responses. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-echoic responses on learning picture labels via observational learning. In one condition, participants were taught to engage in self-echoic responses (i.e., repeat the modeled response three times, first out loud, then using a whisper, and finally to mouth the response) immediately after the adult modeled the picture label. In the probe condition, participants did not learn self-echoic responses. Both participants learned the new picture labels faster in the self-echoic condition compared with the probe condition. Areas for future research and practice implications will be addressed.
 
Observational Learning of Social Responses by Children With Autism: Evaluation of Video Modeling and Verbal Coaching
Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group), Elliot Recchia (Alpine Learning Group), STEPHANIE VENTURA (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in social responses such as sharing. Past research has demonstrated that children with autism can learn academic responses via observational learning, however to date learning social responses via observational learning has not been demonstrated. The purpose of the current study was to use a multiple-baseline design to evaluate the effectiveness of observational learning via video and verbal coaching on teaching sharing to three children with autism during play. During baseline, no participants shared when they entered a room with others playing. During intervention, participants viewed a video in which a peer earned reinforcement for sharing with the person who had no toys. We also used verbal coaching with rules while the participants watched the video. Sharing increased for all three participants with generalization of sharing responses to toys never associated with training, when the teacher was not present during playtime, and to siblings.
 
The Effects of Peer Monitoring on Observational Stimulus Control in Preschoolers With and Without Social Delays: In-Vivo Versus Video and Learning Versus Performance
Bianca Vassare (Columbia University, Teachers College), JESSICA SINGER-DUDEK (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: A peer-monitoring intervention in both in-vivo and video conditions, counterbalanced across participants, was implemented with 12 preschoolers to induce observational stimulus control. In the first experiment, only participants who had completed the intervention in-vivo acquired both observational learning and performance capabilities. Completing the intervention in the video condition alone was not effective in inducing observational learning, but was effective in establishing observational performance. Both in-vivo and video pre-intervention probes were conducted in the second experiment; results were similar to those found in Experiment 1. These findings demonstrate that the peer-monitoring intervention led to the emergence of observational performance, however, the presence of a peer audience was the necessary component to induce observational learning. Furthermore, participants who were in the presence of a peer audience emitted higher frequencies of social contact in a free operant play setting than their peers who lacked a peer audience during the intervention.
 
Teaching Observational Learning to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: An In-Vivo and Video-Model Assessment
ELIZABETH MCKAY SANSING (University of North Texas), Karen A. Toussaint (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Observational learning (OL) occurs when an individual contacts reinforcement as a result of discriminating the reinforced and nonreinforced responses of another individual. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have deficits in observational learning, and previous research has demonstrated that teaching a series of prerequisite skills (i.e., attending, imitation, delayed imitation, and consequence discrimination) can facilitate observational learning. We sequentially taught these prerequisite skills for three young children with ASD across three play-based tasks. We assessed OL before and after instruction across tasks and task variations (for two participants) during in-vivo and video-model probes using a concurrent multiple-probe design. All participants acquired the prerequisite skills and demonstrated observational learning during probes of directly-trained tasks. Generalization results varied across participants. Generalization occurred during the in-vivo probe for both participants for whom we assessed this response. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #31
CE Offered: BACB
Managing Generative Processes in the Development of Early Verbal Behavior Repertoires
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom G
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Sara Garbarini, M.Ed.
Chair: Kalle M Laitinen (Personalized Accelerated Learning Systems)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: The purpose of this symposium is to present data that suggests how clinicians might best organize their programming to produce generative effects in their learners. The first study, Revisiting Verbal Behavior Development: A Two Year Follow Up, is a two-year follow up presentation of a young learner who scored in low level I of the VB-MAPP -- without an echoic repertoire -- and is currently learning relational intraverbals such as the deitics (here/there, I/you), ordinals (first, middle, last) and Crels such as "name/sound". The second study, Establishing Stimulus Control Over Echoic Behavior to Teach the Mand, discusses implementing procedures to effect stimulus transfer control across Mand types. The third study, Teaching Learners Who Use a Speech Generator Device to Mand for Information-Asking Questions About Hidden Objects, is about teaching children who use a speech generator device, to ask questions. The fourth study, Decreasing Echolalic Responses by Teaching a Conditional Response to the Autoclitic OR When Differentially Tacting From Two Options, presents data on a procedure to increase comprehension and decrease echolalia by teaching the appropriate control of the autoclitic "or" to establish differential tacting of available choices. These four studies illustrate different aspects of the organization and management of programming to produce generative speaker/listener competencies.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: This symposium has been designed for intermediate level professionals. Preferably for an audience of graduate ABA professionals. Professionals at the undergraduate level will greatly benefit too.
Learning Objectives: 1. Clinicians will learn to organize their programming to produce generative effects in their learners. 2. Clinicians will see examples as to how to produce generative speaker/listener competencies 3. Clinicians will be exposed to a variety of interventions to solve various problems
 
Revisiting Verbal Behavior Development: A Two Year Follow Up
Jessica Fernandez (Fit Learning Aptos), Richard E. Laitinen (Peronalized Accelerated Learning Systems), SHUBHRA GHOSH (Educational and Developmental Therapies, Inc.)
Abstract: This paper is a two year follow up presentation of a six-year old learner who scored in low level I of the VB-MAPP, and initially did not have an echoic repertoire. His first year of progress was presented at the 2017 ABAI conference. In his second year of therapy the learner made significant gains in all verbal behavior repertoires: tacts, intraverbals, mands and echoics and his listener skills improved as well, positively impacting social skills. His language is becoming more fluent and his mean utterances has increased too. He is beginning to interact more in his natural environment as he independently reads books, plays with puzzles, is beginning to build more complex structures with wooden blocks, indicating that his nonverbal imitation is improving too. He is currently learning relational intraverbals such as (here/there, I/you), ordinals (first, middle, last) and Crels such as "name/sound.? Further relations, such as comparatives, spatials and temporals will be addressed as programming progresses.
 
Developing a Vocal Manding Repertoire: Establishing Stimulus Control Over Echoic Behavior to Teach the Mand
CHARLENE GERVAIS (Portia Learning Centre; Porita International)
Abstract: Many children with autism do not have an established echoic repertoire. Imitating vocalizations is an important skill for learning to vocally mand. Pairing procedures have been shown to increase vocalizations in some limited research studies, however, there is no evidence to suggest that pairing words with reinforcement reliably establishes echoic behavior. We examined the use of two procedures to establish echoic stimulus control and eventually establish a manding repertoire using stimulus control transfer procedures across verbal operants. We were successful in establishing vocal manding with the participant, a young boy with autism. Both procedures used direct reinforcement for echoic behavior, however, the second procedure included the use of visual cues. Establishing stimulus control over echoic behavior led to an increase in mand and tact repertoires. Results suggest that stimulus control transfer procedures across verbal operants, combined with careful analysis of current skills and barriers may increase success when attempting to establish vocal verbal behaviour. More research is needed to identify which procedures or combination of procedures are most effective for certain profiles.
 
Teaching Learners Who Use a Speech Generator Device to Mand for Information-Asking Questions About Hidden Objects
SARA GARBARINI (David Gregory School ), Maria DeMauro (David Gregory School)
Abstract: This study investigated if learners using a speech-generator device (SGD) could learn to mand for information, asking questions about hidden objects. We replicated the study by Williams, Perez-Gonzalez & Vogt (2003) with four learners who attended a program for children with special needs and who used the SGD but never used it to mand for information. The results indicated that learners can learn to use the SGD to ask questions when taught under the appropriate conditions of deprivation and systematic fading of textual and model prompts. We also measured generalization to untaught objects across settings.
 
Decreasing Echolalic Responses by Teaching a Conditional Response to the Autocliticor When Differentially Tacting From Two Options
GLADYS WILLIAMS (Centro para la Investigacion y Ensenanza del Lenguaje), Sara Garbarini (David Gregory School ), Goldean Lowe (IMUA Family Services, Maui, Hawaii), Monica Rodriguez Mori (Centro para la Investigacion y Ensenanza del Lenguaje), Kenya Velazquez (Centro Altum)
Abstract: It is common for children who present with a dominant echolalic repertoire to respond with an echoic when presented with an autoclitic form of instruction requesting a tact or mand-response, as in, for example, "Is this an apple or an orange?" or "Would you like to eat cake or spinach?" The current study analyzed the effectiveness of a procedure that incorporated already established tacting, matching and reading repertoires to increase differential tacting based on an "or" relation between two options. We measured if this acquired skill decreased echolalia and generalized to untrained settings. The data suggested that the learners in this study learned to tact differentially from two options that were presented with the autoclitic. We also measured if the acquired skill generalized to natural settings.
 
 
Symposium #32
CE Offered: BACB
Considerations Regarding the Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Coronado Ballroom AB
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Valerie M. Volkert, M.A.
Chair: Caitlin A. Kirkwood (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Valerie M. Volkert (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Children are diagnosed with a feeding disorder when they do not eat an adequate quantity or variety of foods, sustain an appropriate weight, or grow (Palmer & Horn, 1978; Piazza & Carroll-Hernandez, 2004). Feeding disorders are reported to occur in 2% to 35% of typically developing children and 33% to 80% of children with developmental disabilities (Bachmeyer, 2009; Burklow, et al., 1998; Palmer & Horn, 1987). Applied behavior analytic interventions have proven effective in the treatment of pediatric feeding disorders (Bachmeyer, 2009). A multi-component intervention combining differential positive reinforcement and escape extinction has the most empirical support (Volkert & Piazza, 2012). However, escape extinction is not always feasible, and using extinction as a treatment for inappropriate mealtime behavior can be associated with extinction bursts, emotional responding, and extinction-induced aggression (Lerman, Iwata, & Wallace, 1999; Volkert & Piazza, 2012). The current symposium reviews the prevalence of extinction bursts and examines the use of antecedent-based approaches to treat inappropriate mealtime behavior with and without escape extinction. Finally, the current symposium reviews the findings of a trial-based functional analysis of inappropriate mealtime behavior and function-based treatments compared to a traditional functional analysis of inappropriate mealtime behavior (Piazza et al., 2003).
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): antecedent-based approaches, escape extinction, feeding disorders, functional analysis
Target Audience: Researchers and clinicians interested in learning more about the assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders.
Learning Objectives: 1) The listener will be able to identify when a child is at risk for a feeding disorder. 2) The listener will be able to identify and explain the application of antecedent-based approaches to feeding disorders. 3) The listener will be able to identify behaviors often associated with extinction bursts during the treatment of inappropriate mealtime behavior.
 
Effects of a High-Probability Instructional Sequence and Response-Independent Reinforcer Delivery on Pediatric Food Refusal
SYDNEY BALL (University of North Carolina Wilimington), Melanie H. Bachmeyer (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Ashleigh Leuck (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Casey Ogburn (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Elizabeth Gonzalez (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Previous investigators have shown that a high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence may be effective without escape extinction (EE) or result in beneficial effects when combined with EE to treat the feeding problems of some children (e.g., Patel et al., 2006; Patel, Reed, Piazza, Mueller, & Bachmeyer, 2007). Bullock and Normand (2006) showed that compliance increased for 2 children using either a high-p instructional sequence or a fixed-time (FT) schedule of positive reinforcement. We used a combined multielement and reversal design to compare the effects of a high-p instructional sequence and response-independent delivery of positive reinforcers to treat the food refusal of 2 children. Compliance with low-probability demands (bite presentations) increased using either the high-p instructional sequence or an FT schedule of positive reinforcement for both children. Compliance with low-p demands was higher and inappropriate mealtime behavior was lower in both conditions compared to EE alone with the child for whom EE was necessary. These findings suggest that the response requirement arranged in the high-p instructional sequence may not be necessary to increase compliance with the low-p demands. Two independent observers collected data during at least 33% of sessions and agreement was above 80%. We will discuss conceptual and clinical implications of these findings.
 
Prevalence of Extinction Bursts During Treatment of Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior
CHRISTOPHER W ENGLER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Suzanne M. Milnes (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Vivian F Ibanez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kathryn M. Peterson (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Extinction bursts are commonly identified as a side effect of extinction when treating problem behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). Lerman and Iwata (1995) found that 27 of 113 data sets (24%) in studies that included extinction as treatment for problem behavior displayed an extinction burst. In a subsequent analysis, Lerman, Iwata, and Wallace (1999) found that 39% of 41 data sets in studies that included extinction as treatment for self-injurious behavior found an extinction burst. Even though extinction is a well-established treatment for food refusal (Volkert & Piazza, 2012), no studies to date have examined the prevalence of extinction bursts during the treatment of inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) for children with feeding disorders. The current study evaluated the presence of extinction bursts during treatment of IMB, using the criteria delineated by Lerman and Iwata, with 88 children with food refusal, liquid refusal, or both. Results of 133 data sets (74 and 59 datasets for solid and liquid intake, respectively) indicated the overall prevalence of extinction bursts was 12%. We will discuss these findings and the results of additional analyses, including limitations and implications.
 
An Evaluation of Stimulus Fading in the Treatment of Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
ELIZABETH GONZALEZ (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Ashleigh Leuck (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Kyndra Lawson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sarah Teague (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Food selectivity is a common problem in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Schreck & Williams, 2006). Escape extinction (EE) is an effective and often necessary intervention, but it is associated with negative side effects, such as extinction bursts, emotional responding, and extinction-induced aggression (Lerman, Iwata, & Wallace, 1999; Volkert & Piazza, 2012). Therefore, additional research identifying antecedent treatments that may be effective alone or attenuate the side effects of EE are warranted. We used a combined multielement and reversal (ABAB) design to evaluate the effects of stimulus fading with simultaneous presentation of preferred and nonpreferred foods to treat the food selectivity of a child with ASD. Initially, inappropriate mealtime behavior decreased and acceptance and mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing) increased using fading without EE. However, it was necessary to combine EE with stimulus fading to maintain high levels of acceptance and mouth clean. Consumption of nonpreferred foods alone did not increase until after stimulus fading. Additionally, inappropriate mealtime behavior, negative vocalizations, and expulsions remained low throughout stimulus fading. Two independent observers collected data during at least 33% of sessions and agreement was at or above 80%. We will discuss the conceptual and clinical implications of these findings.
 
An Initial Evaluation of Trial-Based Functional Analyses of Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior
ABBY HODGES (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Supriya Radhakrishnan (Baylor University), Kristin O'Guinn (Baylor University)
Abstract: In order to address feeding problems such as food refusal and selectivity, is important to consider the variables maintaining inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the trial-based functional analysis of IMB and assess correspondence of the results with the traditional functional analysis. The participants were two boys, ages 3 to 5 years old, diagnosed with developmental disabilities. A trial-based functional analysis and traditional functional analysis of IMB were conducted with each participant, with the order of functional analyses counterbalanced across participants. The trial-based functional analysis resulted in differentially higher levels of IMB in one or more test conditions, indicating a social function of problem behavior for both participants. In addition, the results of the trial-based and traditional functional analysis corresponded for both participants. The subsequent function-based intervention resulted in a decrease in IMB and an increase in appropriate feeding behaviors for both participants, providing additional evidence that the trial-based functional analysis resulted in the accurate identification of the function of IMB for both participants. The results of this study provide initial support for the use of trial-based functional analysis to assess the function of IMB.
 
 
Symposium #33
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Novel Behavioral Economic Approaches to Assessing and Treating Substance Abuse
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, America's Cup A-D
Area: CBM/BPN; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Tyler Nighbor, Ph.D.
Chair: Sarah Martner (University of Florida)
Discussant: Shrinidhi Subramaniam (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Substance abuse is a major public health crisis that is costly both in terms of health care expenditures and the resulting poor health outcomes for individuals and their families. In the current symposium, a series of talks will address different behavioral economic approaches to assessing and treating health behavior related to substance abuse. Strategies that will be presented include 1) the use low-risk behavioral economic assessments to predict treatment outcomes among pregnant women undergoing smoking-cessation treatment, 2) improving effective contraceptive use among opioid-maintained women of reproductive age using financial incentives, 3) assessing whether electronic cigarettes are viable behavioral substitutes to cigarettes, and 4) the use of a soft-commitment approach to reducing cigarette use. All presentations highlight the use of established principles of behavioral economics to address serious health concerns.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): health behavior, incentives, smoking cessation, technology
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.
Learning Objectives: they are optional for those requesting BACB or QABA.
 
Remote Delivery of a Soft Commitment Approach to Smoking Cessation
DIANN GAALEMA (University of Vermont), Irene Pericot-Valverde (University of Vermont), Howard Rachlin (Stony Brook University)
Abstract: As technology continues to permeate the market the opportunity to disseminate interventions remotely increases as well. In the current study the use of “soft commitment” was tested to support smokers interested in quitting. Smokers were enrolled for 60 days and were randomized to either a control condition where they reported their smoking daily online or to an experimental condition. In the experimental condition smokers also reported smoking online but were alternated between “free days” where they chose how much to smoke and “matching days” where they were asked to smoke the same number of cigarettes they had in the prior “free day.” Currently 30 participants have been randomized in this protocol. The intervention has been well-received with most people successfully logging their smoking online and returning for the follow-up assessment. Reductions in cigarettes per day in the experimental condition is twice that of control (4.3 vs. 2.1). However, the difference is not significant due to the small sample size and high variability. Additional participants are being enrolled. Also, behavioral economic measures were used to predict quitting outcomes. Overall, Delay Discounting predicted quit attempts (duration and number) while Cigarette Purchase Task indices (pmax and omax) predicted confidence and intention to quit.
 
Real-Time Measures of Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking: How Do Vaping and Smoking Interact?
SARAH MARTNER (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: Whether electronic cigarette use promotes smoking cessation is still hotly debated. We measured smoking and electronic cigarette use (“vaping”) in real-time during a quit attempt. During a one-month period, 12 smokers interested in quitting submitted twice-daily breath CO samples. Additionally, vaping was measured with an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) that recorded puffs per day and duration of puffs. During monitoring, participants were instructed to smoke as usual 2-8 days. Participants were then given a quit date and told to use the ENDS as needed. Half of the participants were instructed to use the ENDS and received a contingency management intervention for smoking during the 14 days following monitoring (i.e., they received vouchers contingent on negative breath samples), then used the ENDS without contingency management for 14 days. The other half of participants used the ENDS alone for 14 days, followed by ENDS plus contingency management. Frequent use of ENDS was associated with lower CO values. The results of this study suggest that electronic cigarettes may serve as an imperfect substitute for conventional cigarettes.
 
Examining Interrelationships Between Delay Discounting and Simulated Demand for Cigarettes Among Pregnant Women
TYLER NIGHBOR (University of Vermont), Ivori Zvorsky (University of Vermont), Stephen T. Higgins (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is overrepresented among economically disadvantaged women, and smoking during pregnancy is the leading cause of poor pregnancy outcomes in the U.S. Two common low-risk experimental arrangements used in the study of cigarette smoking among pregnant women are the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) and delay discounting (DD). Few studies have evaluated whether combining CPT and DD may enhance understanding of smoking beyond observations with either alone. The current investigation evaluated the interrelationship between CPT and DD performance of pregnant women by examining associations with the likelihood of making antepartum quit attempts, a strong predictor of response to formal smoking-cessation treatment. Data from 114 women enrolled in an ongoing smoking-cessation clinical trial were analyzed. Intensity, Omax, and breakpoint were significantly and inversely associated with antepartum quit attempts. DD by itself was not significantly associated with antepartum quit attempts nor was it associated with the CPT indices. Considering the predictive CPT indices and DD together revealed a conditional relationship wherein associations between DD and quit attempts were conditional on Intensity and Omax level. That is, among those with relatively high demand Intensity or Omax DD was not associated with quit attempts, while among those with relatively low demand Intensity or Omax steep discounting was associated with a lower proportion of quit attempts. These results suggest that the influence of DD among pregnant smokers is mostly limited to lighter smokers or, said differently, heavy smoking appears to override any influence of DD on quitting smoking during pregnancy.
 
Increasing Effective Contraceptive Use Among Opioid-Maintained Women at Risk for Unintended Pregnancy
CATALINA REY (University of Vermont), Sarah Heil (University of Vermont), Alexis Matusiewicz (University of Vermont), Heidi Melbostad (University of Vermont), Stacey C. Sigmon (University of Vermont), Gary J. Badger (University of Vermont), Stephen T. Higgins (University of Vermont)
Abstract: Nearly 80% of opioid-exposed pregnancies are unintended, due in part to alarmingly low rates of effective contraceptive use among opioid-using women (<10%). We developed and are evaluating an intervention to increase prescription contraceptive use by opioid-maintained (OM) women. Usual care in many OM clinics involves distribution of contraceptive information and referrals to community family planning providers. The intervention adds (1) the World Health Organization’s (WHO) contraception protocol and (2) financial incentives for attendance at follow-up visits. Pilot data strongly supported the initial efficacy of this intervention, with 5-fold higher rates of self-reported prescription contraceptive use in the experimental vs. control conditions at the end of the 6-month intervention (94% vs. 13%). A fully randomized controlled Stage II trial is now ongoing to rigorously evaluate the efficacy of the different components of this innovative intervention. Preliminary results suggest a graded effect, with 13% vs. 39% vs. 59% verified prescription contraceptive use at 6 months across the three conditions, respectively. Preliminary results suggest both experimental interventions increase prescription contraceptive use and decrease pregnancy, but that financial incentives provide added efficacy.
 
 
Symposium #34
CE Offered: BACB
Make the World Sustainable Again: Behavior Analysis and Climate Change
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Marriott Marquis, Marina Ballroom F
Area: CSS/PCH
CE Instructor: Richard Wayne Fuqua, Ph.D.
Chair: Richard Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Robert Gifford (University of Victoria)
Abstract: Evidence of climate change is abundant and persuasive, from rising global temperatures, to shrinking snow cover and sea ice, to the increasing frequency and intensity of weather events related to climate change. Evidence that human activities, especially the emission of greenhouse gases, are important contributors to global warming is also persuasive. The founding principles of applied behavior analysis emphasis the importance of behavioral issues that are important to society and the development of effective strategies to manage behaviors that improve quality of life. It is difficult to imagine a behavioral challenge with more far-reaching consequences than climate change yet behavior analysts have been relatively slow to adopt climate change as a focus of research and theory. In this symposium, we will review some of the conceptual and practical contributions, both at the individual and systems level, that behavior analysts (and other social scientists and policy makers) can make to developing an effective strategy and research agenda to address climate change.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): climate change, conceptual analysis, public policy, sustainability
Target Audience: This presentation is appropriate for behavior analysts with interest in social issues, climate change, sustainability, evidence based public policy and organizational behavior management. This presentation will cover: a) conceptual issues, such as behavioral economics, b) practical interventions at the individual and system level as well as c) dissemination of behavior analysis to the public and other professionals.
Learning Objectives: 1. Identify the behavioral practices and patterns contributing to climate change. 2. Identify the behavioral processes that contribute to the persistence of behaviors that impact environmental sustainability. 3. Identify the contributions of behavioral economics and behavior analytic concepts to the development of evidence-based public policy to address climate change.
 
Understanding Climate Change Denial and Inaction: Does Behavior Analysis Have Anything to Add?
(Theory)
CYNTHIA J. PIETRAS (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A growing proportion of Americans are acknowledging the danger posed by a warming climate, few are worried that climate change will threaten them personally, and few are taking direct action.��Scholars from various disciplines have explored the psychological processes -- including verbal processes -- that contribute to climate change denial and inaction, and at least three books have been recently published on the topic (Marshall�s�Don�t even think about it: Why our brains are wired to ignore climate change, Stoknes��What we think about when we try not to think about global warming,�and Hoffman�s�How culture shapes the climate change debate).��These works examine reasons for climate inaction/denial from an eclectic perspective (e.g., cognitive, social, and evolutionary psychology) and offer suggestions for how to change people�s opinions and induce sustainable actions.��Some behavior analysts have researched ways to increase sustainable behavior, but such efforts have been relatively limited.��Furthermore, behavior analysts have offered little in the way of conceptual analyses of verbal behavior related to climate change.��The purpose of this talk is to review these books with the goal of identifying ways in which behavior analysis might contribute to this discussion.
 
Can Games Save the World From Global Warming?
(Theory)
JOHN W. ESCH (Esch Behavior Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: The United Nation’s 5th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported in 2014 that global warming due to increases in greenhouse gases (GHG) caused largely by human activities threatens world populations and requires immediate world action (IPPC, 2014). The report recommended several governmental adaptation and mitigation policies, e.g., building seawalls, reducing GHG. Most world governments have responded positively, whereas the US government has done little and recently denied the existence of any danger. Several books have described this inaction in cognitive terms suggesting ways to change one’s thinking so that people can make more appropriate responses to global warming. An alternate approach is to change behavior directly. Behavior analysis has been quite successful at changing behavior irrespective of verbal behavior. This talk will consider the behavior analytic use of current technology, specifically, gamification to change behavior with respect to climate warming. Recently an increasing number of apps and serious games have been developed to change health and fitness behaviors and to teach language (e.g., Fitbit, Duolingo). However, few apps have been developed to save the planet from GHG. We will suggest possible independent variables (Michie et al. 20??) needed for such an app and dependent variables recommendations to reduce GHG (Hawken, 2008).
 
Influencing Cultural Selection: Evidence-Based Policy and Behavior Analysis
(Theory)
BRANDON MARTINEZ-ONSTOTT (Western Michigan University )
Abstract: Why should Behavior Analysts get involved in changing policy, creating evidence-based policy, and how does policy influence responding of both the individual and the group? Our society evolves when social values and corresponding response patterns, "contribute to the success of the practicing group in solving its problems" (Skinner, 1981). Evidence-based policy, is policy that is empirically supported, and is also sensitive to social concerns. How better to improve society, then to influence policy through applied behavior analytic research, and evidence-based practice? "Better applications, it is hoped, will lead to a better state of society, to whatever extent the behavior of its members can contribute to the goodness of a society" (Baer, Wolf, Risley, 1968). Climate change is a real problem that needs all scientists to contribute to forming policy that best supports our culture's survival. It is hypothesized that policy restricts responding of the group and potentiates certain response classes, likened to that of an instructional stimulus SDi, increasing the probability of certain responses occurring within the context of an individual analysis of behavior. By changing the environment in which our culture responds in, through the establishment of evidence-based policy, behavior analysts may have a significant impact on the survival of our culture and our species.
 
Behavioral Economics as a Framework for Empirical Public Policy on Climate Change
(Theory)
STEVEN R. HURSH (Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc.)
Abstract: Behavioral economics provides an empirical framework for evaluating how individual human behavior is affected by policy decisions and how policy should be adjusted to recognize important functional relationships centered on human behavior and choice. I will approach this topic from the larger perspective of “empirical public policy” – that is, how policy can be formulated to be responsive to data, especially data on how people behave. I will describe how two agencies – the FDA and the FAA – currently use data on human behavior to adjust policy, and how, in general, behavioral economics can be the conduit for empirical public policy for other agencies, such the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy relative to climate change. I will illustrate how data at the micro-level derived from research using hypothetical demand curves can be extrapolated to more macro-level implications for public policy.
 
 
Symposium #35
CE Offered: BACB
Effects of English and Spanish Languages on Responding: Cultural Accommodations for Learners With Disabilities
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom DE
Area: DDA/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Rocio Rosales, Ph.D.
Chair: Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Effective accommodations for bilingual learners with disabilities are needed in the field of behavior analysis. This symposium includes four studies on how English and Spanish language influences responding, and the accommodations practitioners make to be more effective with bilingual learners with disabilities. This symposium will give the audience tools and techniques to apply in practice with bilingual learners. The purpose of the first study was to assess the influence of language preference among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or other intellectual disorders who have been exposed to more than one language. This study evaluated language preference during play contexts followed by evaluating language preference within instructional contexts and the individual's compliance with instructions. In the second study, researchers developed a questionnaire for behavior analysts to use as a guide when choosing culturally adapted functional communication response (FCR) for Hispanic children. It was devised and pre-tested to choose FCRs for Hispanic families. Results from the questionnaire and feedback from the experience survey will be presented. The third study builds off the previous study by using the questionnaire identify an FCR that matched cultural values. The subjects were taught to emit a culturally adapted and non-culturally adapted FCR. Parents' preference for each FCR was evaluated after they were trained to implement both FCR responses. Finally, implementation of the preferred FCR was carried out by parents. The final study compared skill acquisition of Spanish-language-dominant caregivers during behavioral skills training (BST) to teach differential reinforcement, guided compliance, and BST by English and Spanish speaking therapists. In the English condition a translator was used, for the Spanish condition a bilingual therapist administered the BST. Rates of acquisition were compared and a social validity survey was administered to the caregivers. Implications of these studies on the practice of behavior analysis will be discussed.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Communication training, Language accomodation, Language preference, Spanish Language
Target Audience: Students, researchers, and practitioners.
 
The Effects of Language Preference Among Bilingual Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Intellectual Disabilities
KARLA ZABALA (University of Georgia), Kara L. Wunderlich (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with ASD who have been exposed to more than one language do not experience any additional language delays compared to their monolingual peers (Hambly and Fombonne, 2011), and of previous studies that have been reviewed, there has been no indication of negative outcomes associated with language abilities among bilingual/multilingual children with ASD (Drysdale et al., 2015). A majority of the research surrounding bilingual or multilingual individuals diagnosed with autism or other developmental disabilities have focused more on conducting communication assessments to assess participant's psychometric performance in these assessments but research on language preferences alone among these individuals is scarce. The purpose of the current study was to assess the influence of language preference among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or other intellectual disorders who have been exposed to more than one language. The research study consists of two parts: Study 1 evaluates language preference during play contexts and study 2 evaluates language preference within instructional contexts and the individual's compliance with instructions.
 
Adapting Functional Communication Responses to Parents’ Cultural Values: A Questionnaire
MARLESHA BELL (University of South Florida), Anna Garcia (University of South Florida), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), Claudia Campos (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The guidelines to conduct functional communication training (FCT) state that functional communication responses (FCRs) should be of low response effort, easily acquired, and easily recognizable by the community (Tiger et al., 2008). They also state that FCRs should be socially significant, meaning they are found acceptable by parents and the community. However, the guidelines do not mention the need to consider the clients’ cultural background when choosing an FCR. In this study, a questionnaire was developed for behavior analysts to use as a guide when choosing culturally adapted FCRs for Hispanic children. It was devised using literature that has identified specific behavioral manifestations of cultural values among the Hispanic population. Additionally, behavior analysts and parents who pre-tested the questionnaire completed experience surveys about their opinions and experience using the questionnaire to choose FCRs for Hispanic families. Results from the questionnaire and feedback from the experience survey will be further discussed.
 
Culturally Adapted Functional Communication Training
ANNA GARCIA (University of South Florida), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), Claudia Campos (University of South Florida), Jennifer Rebecca Weyman (University of South Florida), Marlesha Bell (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Disparities in the use, quality, and outcomes of treatments, and the barriers that deter Hispanics from receiving healthcare services have been widely studied. Yet, similar efforts have been slow in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). A way to decrease treatment disparities is to assess the influence of cultural variables in behavior analytic interventions, and to evaluate whether manipulations to these variables improve the overall results of the interventions among Hispanic families. During this study, behavior analysts used a questionnaire to conduct an interview with parents to identify a functional communication response (FCR) that matched their cultural values. The subjects were taught to emit a culturally adapted and non-culturally adapted FCR. Parents' preference for each FCR was evaluated using a multiple-baseline design across participants in which they were trained to implement both FCR responses. At the end of the study, parents implemented the FCR of their choice. These results have important implications for ABA because it will support research in assessing cultural variables in interventions and services, and it will encourage behavior analysts to consider their clients' culture when providing services.
 
An Evaluation of Culturally-Based Accommodations for Behavioral Skills Training
JULIANA HOYOS (University of Missouri), Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri), Emma Keicher (Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders), Miriam Tye (Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders), Jayme Murphy (University of Missouri)
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to evaluate cultural accommodations (bilingual clinician, translated documentation) and a lack of cultural accommodations (English speaking clinician with video interpreter). We compared skill acquisition of caregivers during behavioral skills training (BST) program for differential reinforcement, guided compliance, and BST with and without cultural accommodations. We found BST with improved cultural accommodations was more effective than without cultural accommodations.
 
 
Symposium #36
CE Offered: BACB
Transferring Successful Skill-Based Treatments to Caregivers
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Grand Hall A
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Florence D. DiGennaro Reed, M.S.
Chair: Shannon Ward (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (University of Kansas)
Abstract: One of the primary goals of applied research is to identify efficacious treatments for problem behavior that relevant caregivers can implement in relevant settings. In this symposium, we will review efficacious strategies for treating problem behavior and specific methods that will assist in training caregivers on the implementation of those strategies. First, an assessment and treatment model for treating feeding problems in the home setting will be reviewed in which caregivers were involved from the initial assessment through a 12-month follow-up. Next, we will review a skill-based treatment for food selectivity in an adolescent diagnosed with autism who engages in problem behavior, without evoking problem behavior throughout the teaching process. Then, an efficacious training program will be reviewed in which parents were taught to implement a comprehensive treatment for socially mediated problem behavior with their child. Finally, the utility of a training rubric will be reviewed as a tool for successfully transferring skill-based treatments to parents and caregivers in the treatment of socially mediated problem behavior.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): caregiver training, food selectivity, parent training, problem behavior
Target Audience: Graduate students, practitioners, researchers
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the symposium, participants will be able to: 1. Describe an assessment and treatment model for treating food refusal in home-based settings. 2. Describe a skill-based treatment for food selectivity for a child with autism without evoking problem behavior throughout treatment. 3. Describe strategies that will lead to the successful transfer of efficacious treatments to parents and relevant caregivers for treatment of socially mediated problem behavior.
 
Caregiver Involvement, Implementation, and Longer Term Adherence in the Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Sarah Leadley (University of Auckland), JAVIER VIRUES ORTEGA (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Multiple reviews focusing on the treatment of severe feeding disorders have recommended an increased focus on caregiver implementation, and nutritional and social outcomes. However, research continues to concentrate on the analysis of specific treatment procedures implemented by trained therapists during treatment admission. In this study, a home-based behavioural assessment and treatment model was evaluated for nine children with tube dependency. Caregivers informed assessment conditions, participated during experimenter-led sessions, and then received sequential phases of training to implement treatment protocols. We monitored caregiver implementation until the child's treatment goal was achieved (tube feeding cessation), then during follow-up visits conducted up to 12 months following the study. By the final follow-up, six of nine children had ceased tube feeding. We discuss the impact of caregiver participation on child performance, training requirements, and procedural integrity. In addition, we highlight barriers to longer-term adherence and recommendations for future research.
 
Meals Without Tears: The Treatment of Food Selectivity in Children With Autism
JULIANA MARCUS (New England Center for Children), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Kyle Sears (Western New England University), Holly Gover (Western New England University), Kelsey Ruppel (Western New England University), Christine Ann Warner (New England Center for Children )
Abstract: Between 67 and 89% of individuals with developmental disabilities have feeding problems (Silbaugh et al., 2016). This study describes a skill-based treatment to address food selectivity in children with autism who engage in problem behavior. An assessment was conducted with the participant's caregivers to identify foods to use in a preference analysis and to identify possible reinforcement contingencies influencing food refusal. Results were used to design a functional analysis of refusal. The reinforcement contingency shown to influence refusal in the analysis was then arranged to strengthen more appropriate food refusal behaviors. A contingency-based delay fading procedure was used to thin the schedule of reinforcement for appropriate refusal while suppressing inappropriate refusal and problem behavior and increasing mealtime requirements prior to reinforcement. By the end of this study, the participant consumed small meals consisting of multiple bites of a variety of foods that he did not eat previously, but that caregivers had reported wanting him to eat. Treatment was extended to caregivers in relevant environments. Interobserver agreement averaged 92% (range, 85% to 100%) for all variables measured. The results of this study suggest that these procedures may be useful for treating food selectivity without evoking problem behavior in children with autism.
 
A Technological Description of Teaching Parents to Implement Skill-Based Treatment of Socially-Mediated Problem Behavior
ROBIN K. LANDA (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Adithyan Rajaraman (Western New England University)
Abstract: Problem behavior that occurs exclusively with parents during a functional analysis (e.g., Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014; Ringdahl & Sellers, 2000) necessitates that parents serve as the sole interventionists. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-implemented treatments can be successful; however, prior research in this area is limited by (a) the incompleteness of the treatment evaluated (Marcus, Swanson, & Vollmer, 2001; Wacker et al., 2005) (b) the lack of technological descriptions of parent training (e.g., Hanley et al., 2014), or (c) the absence of treatment fidelity data (e.g., Hanley et al., 2014). We evaluated the efficacy of a training program consisting of instructions, textual models, feedback, and shaping in teaching parents to serve as interventionists for children who exhibit severe problem behavior sensitive only to parent-mediated reinforcement. The training program resulted in correct implementation of the skill-based intervention and elimination of errors (e.g., coaxing, arguing). The parent-implemented intervention led to a reduction in the child’s problem behavior and acquisition of functional communication responses, tolerance responses, and compliance. Interobserver agreement was assessed for more than 20% of sessions with a minimum agreement of 80%.
 
Utility of a Training Rubric for Transferring Successful Skill-Based Treatment of Problem Behavior to Caregivers
KELSEY RUPPEL (Western New England University), Adithyan Rajaraman (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Robin K. Landa (Western New England University), Holly Gover (Western New England University)
Abstract: Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) described a comprehensive, efficacious functional assessment and treatment process for the severe problem behavior of three children with autism. Although the authors presented child behavior data following caregiver training and implementation of treatment in the participants’ homes, they did not provide a detailed description of the caregiver-training process. We replicated the Hanley et al. assessment and treatment process with two young children who lacked diagnoses but were reported to engage in intolerable levels of problem behavior. After clinic-based behavior analysts obtained similar effects to those reported in Hanley et al., we trained caregivers using behavioral skills training and a performance rubric. We present a technological description of the parent training process, as well as parent treatment integrity data and child behavior data. Results show that parents learned to implement the treatment with integrity, children demonstrated improved social skills, and child problem behavior was substantially reduced or eliminated while parents implemented treatment.
 
 
Symposium #37
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Advances in Basic and Applied Research on Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Procedures
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Coronado Ballroom DE
Area: DEV/PRA
CE Instructor: Jessica Becraft, Ph.D.
Chair: Chris Krebs (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Jessica Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) schedules are designed to reduce, not eliminate, targeted responses. The studies presented in this symposium provide exciting new data showing some extensions of commonly-used DRL schedules in both basic and applied contexts. The first two talks provide data on the use of spaced-responding DRL. Emma Gillespie will describe how avoidance behavior that limited access to positive reinforcement in a human-operant task was reduced and Laura Neal will describe how a spaced-responding DRL embedded within a group contingency reduced excessive requests for attention from children in a Year 4 classroom in South Wales. The next two studies provide data on the use of full-session DRL. Andrew Bonner will describe how severe problem behaviors (e.g., self-injurious behavior) of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities were reduced and Chris Krebs will describe how excessive requests for attention by adults with intellectual disabilities working at an adult-day-training center were reduced. A discussion will follow these four talks to promote an exchange of ideas for future translational research on DRL schedules and similar applications.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): full-session DRL, spaced-responding DRL
Target Audience: Applied Behavior Analysts Practitioners
Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will be able to describe recent research-based advances in spaced-responding DRL 2) Participants will be able to describe recent research-based advanced in full-session DRL 3) Participants will be able to describe better the conditions under which spaced-responding or full-session DRL can be used to successfully reduce social significant behavior.
 
The Effects of Spaced-Responding Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding on Avoidance Reduction in Humans
(Applied Research)
EMMA GILLESPIE (University of South Wales), Ioannis Angelakis (University of South Wales)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of a spaced-responding DRL schedule on decreasing avoidance in humans. Participants played a game where they could earn or lose points by clicking on different countries on a map. In training sessions, participants could access safe periods by pressing a foot pedal, which turned a red bar (i.e., warning signals) into blue (i.e., safety signals) for 9-s. In test conditions, participants could change the red bar into blue only after 2-s had elapsed from previous presses (DRL-2s). A progress bar initially indicated the time until after pedal presses had an effect on accessing these periods. The bar disappeared after three consecutive correct responses, whereas three additional consecutive correct responses doubled the DRL requirement. Participants completed 4- 5 sessions lasting 20 min each. Responding quickly matched the DRL requirement (up to 64 s) for all participants. Percentage of correct presses varied slightly per participant, and incorrect responses tended to be more frequent as the DRL schedule increased. However, all participants achieved 100% correct responses in their final sessions. These findings may have important clinical implications for identifying strategies to decrease excessive avoidance that limits access to positive reinforcement.
 
Effects of Class-Wide Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behaviour on Reducing Children's Requests for Teacher Attention
(Applied Research)
LAURA NEAL (University of South Wales), Hayley Wells (University of South Wales), Jennifer L. Austin (University of South Wales), Ioannis Angelakis (University of South Wales)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) is frequently used as an intervention when a behaviour is problematic due to the frequency with which it occurs. DRL schedules are effective as reducing engagement to more acceptable levels. In applied settings, most investigations of DRL have focussed on evaluating session and interval DRL arrangements, whereby limits are placed on the number of responses that will be reinforced in a given time period. Spaced-responding DRL, whereby responses are reinforced only after a specific inter-response interval has elapsed, are much less common. The current study applied a space-responding DRL within a group contingency arrangement to decrease excessive student requests for attention in a Year 4 classroom in south Wales. As requests for attention may include requests for assistance, we also measured whether decreases in requests for adult attention produced corresponding changes in children accessing help from sources other than the teacher (e.g., referring to a book or printed instructions for completing the task). Results showed that the DRL schedule reduced attention seeking to levels deemed appropriate by the teacher, as well as increasing children's independent working skills. Both children and teachers reported liking the intervention and thought it helped them do better work.
 
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Schedules Reduce Severe Problem Behavior
(Applied Research)
ANDREW C BONNER (University of Florida ), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules are reinforcement contingencies designed to reduce response rates. A common variation of the DRL arrangement is known as full-session DRL (f-DRL), in which a reinforcer is presented at the end of an interval if the response rate during that interval is below a predetermined criterion. Prior human operant research involving arbitrary mouse clicks has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce target responding to near zero rates. Similarly, applied research has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce minimally disruptive classroom behavior. There are, however, relatively few successful applications of the f-DRL to severe forms of problem behavior (e.g., self-injurious behavior). Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of f-DRL on the severe problem behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. For four participants, the f-DRL reduced severe problem behavior by clinically significant levels. Furthermore, results of a contingency strength analysis showed a strong negative contingency strength between target responding and reinforcer delivery for all participants. Key words: differential reinforcement of low rates, severe problem behavior, contingency strength.
 
Reducing Requests for Attention by Adults With Intellectual Disabilities Using a Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Schedule
(Applied Research)
CHRIS KREBS (Florida Institute of Technology), Pablo Otalvaro (Florida Institute of Technology; Roe & Associates Integrated Behavior Supports Incorporated), Adam Thornton Brewer (Florida Institute of Technology), Yanerys Leon (Florida Institute of Technology), Jason Steifman (Roe & Associates Integrated Behavior Supports Incorporated)
Abstract: Differential-reinforcement-of-low rate (DRL) schedules are often used to reduce, not eliminate, behavior. The current study examined effects of a full-session DRL on the number of requests for attention by two adults with intellectual disabilities working at an adult-day-training (ADT) program. The full-session DRL arranged for the delivery of a reinforcer at the end of a session if the number of requests for attention was less than a specified number during the entire session. Requests for attention, up to a specified number were also reinforced. In addition, a non-targeted behavior, duration of task (i.e., work) engagement, was measured. The full-session DRL reduced the number of requests for attention for both participants, and these effects were maintained during a generalization phase. Future research could extend the generality of these findings to other work-related behaviors and populations.
 
 
Symposium #38
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching and Assessing Mathematics, Writing, and Problem Solving With Typical and Near-Typical Learners
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Regatta ABC
Area: EDC
CE Instructor: Kent Johnson, Ph.D.
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Discussant: Nancy Marchand-Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: The four presentations in this symposium illustrate how evidence-based practices in instructional design and Precision Teaching can be combined in new ways to teach and assess core instructional objectives in mathematics, writing, and problem solving to typical learners of all ages, including elementary, middle school, high school, and college students. In the first presentation, Marianne Delgado will describe research that investigated the effectiveness of sentence combining procedures on the syntactical maturity of middle school students' compositions, using a multiple baseline design across classrooms. In the second presentation, Amanda VanDerHeyden will describe a comprehensive, research-based, Response To Intervention (RTI) implementation management tool for monitoring the progress of elementary and middle school students' acquisition and fluency of mathematics concepts and skills. In the third presentation, Nicole Erickson will describe and illustrate a procedure for teaching students to provide delayed prompting with their peers during the course of learning mathematics. In the fourth presentation, Traci Cihon will describe a measurement tool designed to capture the interlocking behavioral contingencies between dyad members, and its application in a research study that evaluated the effectiveness of a procedure to teach college students active problem solving behaviors.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: behavior analysts and other psychology and educational professionals
 
Development of Spring Math: A Web-Based Tool for Response to Intervention for Mathematics
(Service Delivery)
AMANDA VANDERHEYDEN (Education Research & Consulting, Inc.)
Abstract: Spring Math (SM) is a comprehensive assessment, intervention and Response To Intervention (RTI) implementation management tool for mathematics for grades K-8. SM improves mathematics achievement by: (1) applying research-based decision rules to identify specific skill deficits for students found to be at risk during universal screening, (2) selecting an intervention that is aligned with student need, and (3) reducing implementation error by providing antecedent and consequent supports for correct use of the tool. SM directs screening of all classes in mathematics in a school, interprets the data, and recommends class-wide or individual intervention for specific students. Decision trees specify a sequence of skills and score ranges at fall, winter, and spring for grades K-8 to determine initial skill placement and intervention strategy. Intervention packets contain intervention protocol, all materials needed to conduct the intervention, and follow-up sub-skill and generalization skill assessments. The teacher enters the weekly assessment score to view summary reports of student progress and to obtain new intervention materials for the next week. A coach dashboard tracks consistency of SM use, rate of progress for classes and students within a school, and populates a list of actions that coaches should take to facilitate intervention effects in the school.
 
The Application and Adduction of Sentence-Combining Skills of Middle School Students Using Curriculum Based Assessment
(Applied Research)
MARIANNE DELGADO (Morningside Academy), Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy), Geoffrey H. Martin (Morningside Academy), Emily Nordlund (Central Washington University )
Abstract: The presence of 12 sentence combining skills denoting syntactic maturity was tracked every 2 weeks, using 13-minute curriculum-based writing assessments (CBAs) with middle school students. Skills tracked, in order of increasing complexity, were use of adjectives, compound subjects, and compound predicates; adjectival, adverbial, participial, and infinitive phrases; parenthetical expressions; and adjectival, adverbial, and noun clauses. 24 students from four different classrooms participated, all using Arthur Whimbey’s Keys to Quick Writing Skills, and Morningside’s Advanced Sentence Combining Fluency. Correct Writing Sequence scores from a standard writing CBA were used to select six students (two high, two medium, and two low) from each class. A multiple baseline design across the 4 classes was used to investigate the effectiveness of the programs. Data was recorded on a Standard Celeration Chart that plotted phase change lines as instruction on different skills occurred. Skill acquisition was analyzed for application (occurring as a function of prior instruction) or adduction (unique combinations and blends from many instructional lessons). Skills acquisition was compared across skill levels (high, medium, low), classrooms, and periods of instruction. Developing a twice-monthly method of assessing syntactic maturity provides timely and useful feedback to teachers to help them provide effective instruction.
 
Peer Delayed Prompting With a New Math Curriculum
(Service Delivery)
NICOLE ERICKSON (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: At Morningside Delayed Prompting procedures are used to help students answer questions that require applying concepts taught in reading, writing, and math. During instruction, the teacher asks a question and provides a six-second delay for the student's answer. If the answer does not meet criterion, the teacher provides successive organization, language, content, and definition prompts until the student gives the correct answer. After three prompts the teacher provides a model to imitate. In this innovation, the teacher teaches students to use the delayed prompting procedure to prompt one another as they learn from a new math curriculum. The teacher partners middle level performers with other middle level performers, or middle level performers with high-level performers, allowing for the best results in concept acquisition. The teacher designs a sheet that coincides with the new math curriculum using a series of concrete, pictorial, and abstract prompts. The students use this sheet to identify the error being made and prompt their partner in order to correct that error. This presentation will present both teacher and student delayed prompting data, and videos of the students using the technology.
 
An Ongoing Investigation of How to Teach and Measure Problem Solving
(Applied Research)
WILLIAMS ADOLFO ESPERICUETA (University of North Texas), Tomas Urbina (University of North Texas), Andrew R. Kieta (Morningside Academy), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas), Awab Abdel-Jalil (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Whimbey and Lochhead (1999) described how problem solving can be taught if the component repertoires are brought to an overt level. One challenge university instructors face is determining when the desired repertoire has been achieved. The pilot study focused on the creation of an instructional sequence based on the work of Whimbey and Lochhead. The instructional sequence was piloted with one undergraduate student dyad and experimenters evaluated the effectiveness of the instructional sequence with a measurement tool designed to capture the interlocking behavioral contingencies between dyad members. The results suggested that the instructional sequence could be used to develop both Problem Solver and Active Listener repertoires as measured by the aforementioned tool; however, the effects were demonstrated with only one dyad and only one researcher. In the current study, experimenters assessed the generality of the instructional sequence and measurement tool with additional undergraduate student dyads. Two different graduate student researchers implemented the instructional sequence and took data on the resulting repertoires. The results suggest that the instructional sequence was transferable across researchers and that data could be collected using the measurement tool with reliability. Further, undergraduate students acquired the desired repertoires, as measured by our tools.
 
 
Symposium #39
CE Offered: BACB
Psychotropic Medication and Applied Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom B
Area: PRA/TBA
CE Instructor: Chrystal Jansz Rieken, Ph.D.
Chair: Chrystal Jansz Rieken (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Clients benefit most when all members of a collaborative team combine their expertise to consider all possible interventions and outcomes (Zarcone, 2008). With increased calls for behavior analysts to participate in collaborative teams for clients receiving psychotropic medications as part of treatment, it is important to identify current training opportunities for behavior analysts in this area, and consider further opportunities that might be needed. It is also important to review how prescribers are making pharmacological treatment decisions, and how the behavior analyst can contrite to that process. This 4-paper symposium will focus on two related areas. First, two papers will review education and training opportunities available to behavior analysts, as well as BCBAs perceptions on training and collaboration opportunities. Second, two papers will summarize factors that influence prescriber decision making, and how behavior analysts can contribute to that process. A case study demonstrating successful collaboration between behavior analysis and psychiatry will be described.
Keyword(s): collaboration, psychotropic medication, training
Target Audience: Practicing behavior analysts
Learning Objectives: 1. Discuss perceptions within the field on the role, preparedness, and needs of behavior analysts contributing to psychotropic medication management of client behavior. 2. Describe the training-practice gap in applied behavioral pharmacology 3. Describe how factors that influence prescribing practices may be relevant for behavior analysts.
 
Board Certified Behavior Analysts and Psychotropic Medications: Results of a Survey
(Service Delivery)
ANITA LI (Western Michigan University), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: There has been an increasing pattern of psychotropic medications prescribed to treat problem behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and other intellectual disabilities (Park et al., 2016). Recent papers (Brodhead, 2014; Newhouse-Oisten, Peck, Conway, & Frieder, 2017) have provided recommendations on interdisciplinary collaboration yet there is little known involving the current practices of Board Certified Behavior Analysts® on the monitoring and evaluation of psychotropic medications as it pertains to behavioral interventions. Board Certified Behavior Analysts® were e-mailed an anonymous web-based survey regarding such practices. Results of the survey indicate that a majority of practitioners work with individuals prescribed at least one psychotropic medication, and that many practitioners do not work in settings that involve interdisciplinary collaboration.
 
Training Opportunities for Behavior Analysts in Psychotropic Medication Treatments in ABAI-Accredited Graduate Programs
(Applied Research)
Annette Griffith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), CHRYSTAL JANSZ RIEKEN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Krystle Lee Curley (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jessica Calixto (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: In recent years, there have been calls for behavior analysts to become more involved with issues related to psychotropic medication, both clinically and in research (van Haaren & Weeden, 2013), and to specifically consider effects of psychotropic medications during clinical assessment and intervention, to participate in the medication management process, and to participate in pharmacological research. Despite these calls, it has been suggested that the majority of behavior analysts may not have the knowledge or skill to work in these areas (Christian, Snycerski, Singh, & Poling, 1999; Wyatt, 2009). Although informal reports and reviews of behavior analytic training programs support this assertion, there is no known research that specifically seeks to determine what the current state of training may be for behavior analysts, in relation to psychopharmacology. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the medication/pharmacology-related training available within accredited training programs, and identify the rationales for the current state of offerings. Discussion will focus on the training opportunities and how they prepare behavior analysts for collaboration with prescribers.
 
Psychotropic Medication Prescription Practices in Autism Spectrum Disorder
(Applied Research)
CHRYSTAL JANSZ RIEKEN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Annette Griffith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jacqueline Huscroft-D'Angelo (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Wesley H. Dotson (Texas Tech University), Stacy L. Carter (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: There has been an increasing pattern of psychotropic medications prescribed to treat problem behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and other intellectual disabilities (Park et al., 2016). Recent papers (Brodhead, 2014; Newhouse-Oisten, Peck, Conway, & Frieder, 2017) have provided recommendations on interdisciplinary collaboration yet there is little known involving the current practices of Board Certified Behavior Analysts® on the monitoring and evaluation of psychotropic medications as it pertains to behavioral interventions. Board Certified Behavior Analysts® were e-mailed an anonymous web-based survey regarding such practices. Results of the survey indicate that a majority of practitioners work with individuals prescribed at least one psychotropic medication, and that many practitioners do not work in settings that involve interdisciplinary collaboration.
 
Medication and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Prescription for Best Practice
(Service Delivery)
JENNIFER QUIGLEY (Melmark), Elizabeth Dayton (Melmark), Anna Marie DiPietro (Melmark), Timothy Nipe (Melmark), Rebekah Hinchcliffe (Melmark), Amanda Gill (Melmark), Amanda Marie Finlay (Melmark), James Chok (Melmark Pennsylvania)
Abstract: In clinical practice, psychiatric practitioners and board certified behavior analysts (BCBA) may make changes to an individual’s medication and behavioral treatment packages independent of one another. The potential benefits of collaboration between psychiatry and behavior analysis include more complete designs to evaluate treatment effect and more in-depth measures of behavioral changes and side effects (Blum et al., 1996). Data will be presented from a residential treatment facility that used this collaborative approach. A combination of systematic manipulations of medication packages and implementation of intensive behavioral interventions led to a reduction in challenging behavior, polypharmacy, and the occurrence of metabolic syndromes.
 
 
Symposium #40
CE Offered: BACB
Advancements in Emergent Responding Research for Children With Autism
Saturday, May 26, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Grand Hall B
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Andresa De Souza, Ph.D.
Chair: Andresa De Souza (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University)
Discussant: David C. Palmer (Smith College)
Abstract: Understanding the conditions under which novel speaker and listener skills emerge without direct training is paramount for increasing efficiency of intervention programs for children with autism spectrum disorder. This symposium will explore procedures to promote the emergence of novel speaker (i.e., intraverbals) and listener (i.e., following instructions) responses in children with autism. First, Hanne Augland will present a study that evaluated the effects of listener training on the emergence of two types of intraverbal task. Next, Sarah Frampton will examine the effects of instructional feedback during listener training on the emergence of intraverbal relations. Third, Andresa DeSouza will present a study that demonstrated the emergence of multiply-controlled intraverbals after training on a sequence of prerequisite skills. The final presenter, Megan Vosters will discuss the effects of echoic rehearsals on the acquisition and emergence of completing action-object instructions. David Palmer will serve as discussant.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): emergent reponding, intraverbal, joint control, verbal behavior
Target Audience: Graduate students in applied behavior analysis programs; practitioners working in early intervention settings; educators in special education and language delayed population.
Learning Objectives: - Attendees will be able to identify strategies to promote the emergence of intraverbal responses through listener training; - Attendees will be able to identify the prerequisite skills to promote acquisition and emergence of multiply-controlled intraverbals; - Attendees will be able to describe the role of joint control in the emergence of novel instruction following.
 
Establishment of Listener Behavior May Result in Emergent Intraverbal Behavior in Children With Developmental Delays
HANNE AUGLAND (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Inger Karin Almas (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Svein Eikeseth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: This study examined the extent to which teaching listener behavior would facilitate the emergence of intraverbal responding in a preschool aged boy with autism. Two types of intraverbal classes were evaluated: Saying the correct category of targets (Study 1) and answering "when" questions (Study 2). We used a multiple-probe-design across three stimulus sets for Study 1 and a multiple-baseline design across three stimulus sets for Study 2. Before starting the study, the participant was able to tact all stimuli involved in the listener training. Listener training consisted of teaching the child to identify correct pictures in response to the same questions used to assess the emergence of intraverbal skills. That is, for category questions, an example of listener training was touching the picture of a hamburger in response to the question "What is food?" For "when" questions, an example of listener training consisted of touching the picture depicting night when asked "When do you go to bed?" Once listener behavior was established, we tested for transfer to intraverbal behavior. For both studies, the listener training resulted in some emergent intraverbal responding. The participant responded to criteria during intraverbal "when" questions but not during intraverbal category questions.
 
Promoting the Emergence of Untrained Intraverbals Using Instructive Feedback
SARAH FRAMPTON (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center; Emory School of Pediatric Medicine)
Abstract: Identifying procedures that lead to the emergence of untrained skills is a priority for clinicians serving individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study extended work by Shillingsburg, Frampton, Cleveland, and Cariveau (2017) by demonstrating the emergence of intraverbal relations following delivery of instructional feedback (IF). As in Shillingsburg et al. (2017), three sets of three classes of stimuli were developed for participants with ASD. The treatment, listener by name trials with IF related to the feature/function of the target stimulus, was provided for three sessions with set 1. Next, probes were conducted to assess emergence of untrained relations within set 1. If emergence of set 1 intraverbals was observed at mastery level, probes were conducted to evaluate relations across all sets (1–3). This process was repeated with the remaining sets. Results indicated that for both participants emergence of untrained intraverbal relations was observed following listener trials with IF alone. No additional relational training was required. These results highlight the possible efficiency of using a least restrictive procedure, such as IF, to produce untrained relations.
 
Facilitating the Emergence of Convergent Intraverbals in Children With Autism
ANDRESA DE SOUZA (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Acquiring intraverbal relations under the control of multiple variables is critical to language, social, and academic development. Sundberg and Sundberg (2011) identified prerequisites that may engender the emergence of novel, multiply-controlled intraverbals. We used a multiple-probe design with both nonconcurrent (across participants) and concurrent (across sets of stimuli) components to evaluate the effects of training these prerequisite skills on the emergence of untrained intraverbals with four children with autism. Specifically, we taught participants to (a) tact multiple categories of stimuli (e.g., tact zebra as "mammal" and "from the desert"); (b) select stimuli when presented with category names (e.g., select zebra and gorilla upon hearing "Point to all mammals"); (c) provide exemplars belonging to categories (e.g., say "zebra and gorilla" after the instruction "Tell me some mammals"); and (d) select the target stimulus when presented with a instruction under multiple control (e.g., select zebra upon hearing "Point to the mammal from the savanna"). Participants showed the emergence of convergent intraverbals at mastery levels after they displayed mastery performance on all of the prerequisite skills identified by Sundberg and Sundberg. We will discuss these findings in terms of operant mechanisms that may facilitate the development of generative language.
 
Emergent Instruction Following via Joint Control
MEGAN E VOSTERS (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Houston-Clear Lake), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Teaching procedures that facilitate the emergence of novel responses allow for increased efficiency (Grow & Kodak, 2010), which is critical when providing early-intervention services to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We taught three children diagnosed with ASD, between 5 and 6 years old, to engage in echoic rehearsals (i.e., repeat the instruction aloud) over delays to simulate the time required when searching for objects in a room to complete an instruction. A multiple baseline across participants demonstrated experimental control over the effects of teaching echoic rehearsals on the acquisition and emergence of completing novel combinations of action-object instructions (e.g., “Take out book; Put the cup on the table”). Following teaching, we observed a high level of correct responding with novel instructions for all children. Next, an experimental analysis of the two sources of stimulus control facilitating joint control, the skills to rehearse the instructions and tact the objects, confirmed their necessity in producing correct instruction following. We then assessed generalization across setting and people, including the children’s caregivers. Implications for designing early intervention programming using a conceptual analysis of joint control is discussed.
 
 
Panel #42
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
The Key Performance Indicators To Rapidly Scale A Human Services Business With Quality
Saturday, May 26, 2018
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Marriott Marquis, Marina Ballroom E
Area: OBM/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Brett DiNovi, M.A.
Chair: Pierre Louis (Brett DiNovi & Associates)
BRETT DINOVI (Brett DiNovi & Associates, LLC)
MATTHEW LINDER (Brett DiNovi & Associates, LLC)
JOSEPH KENDORSKI (Brett DiNovi & Associates, LLC)
Abstract: Pinpointing, measuring, and changing behavior that impacts key performance indicators (KPI's) to rapidly grow a human service organization is achievable through the use of behavioral science. In fact, when executed with precision, this can result in massive scaling of services to impact many lives while creating economic opportunity for many employees. This panel is comprised of practitioners that are CEO's and executives that are doing this on a daily basis and provides specific actionable leadership behaviors that achieve massive organizational growth while maintaining the utmost quality through precise measurement of KPI's. Executives on