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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Program by Day for Tuesday, November 14, 2017


 

Workshop #W1
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Using a Reinforcement Based Treatment Package to Increase Food Acceptance
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Studio AB, Niveau 2
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jessica Weber, Ph.D.
JESSICA WEBER (Els for Autism Foundation), Anibal Gutierrez Jr. (University of Miami)
Description: Selective eating or "picky eating" is often described as a reluctance to try new foods based on some dimension of the food. Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder frequently exhibit these types of selective eating behaviors. Rigidity or adherence to sameness is a defining feature of autism that may extend to feeding and lead to habits that are difficult for parents to break. These feeding difficulties may cause significant parent stress and could potentially lead to more severe mealtime behaviors in the future. Interventions to address feeding challenges, often incorporate the use of escape extinction. Escape extinction is a highly effective procedure that has demonstrated significant success, however, for children who display less severe feeding behaviors, the use of escape extinction may not be necessary. Moreover, parents are often hesitant to implement escape extinction when their child displays more mild feeding related behaviors. The treatment package presented has demonstrated success in increasing food acceptance by individuals diagnosed with ASD, without the use of escape extinction. This workshop will teach participants to implement the treatment package and provide results of a study evaluating the effectiveness of the procedure.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) describe the features of picky eating; (2) describe the steps in the Picky Eating manual; (3) administer the Picky Eating assessment tool; (4) implement the Picky Eating program steps to increase food acceptance; (5) train caregivers on the use of the steps in the Picky Eating program.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through lecture, video demonstrations, guided practice and role play.
Audience: The workshop is designed for providers, including BCBAs, BCaBAs and RBTs, who work with children with autism.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, food selectivity, picky eating
 
Workshop #W2
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Using Play-Based Discrete Trials to Teach Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers With Autism and Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Scene C, Niveau 0
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: E. Amanda Boutot, Ph.D.
E. AMANDA BOUTOT (Texas State University), SAMUEL DIGANGI (Arizona State University)
Description: Interventionists often find that more traditional formats of instruction associated with applied behavior analysis (ABA) (such as discrete trial training, DTT) may be challenging for very young learners (0-3 years). Practitioners report that physicians often recommend "FloorTime" as an alternative to ABA because of its focus on "play". The presenters have combined the concepts of play and the use of ABA principles, and specifically DTT, to teach very young learners functional skills within the context of play. This hands-on workshop will teach participants how to use play as a conduit for learning when teaching very young children with for autism or other developmental disabilities, even for children who are not yet proficient players. Based on 10 years broader practice and research supporting more naturalistic strategies, presenters will describe the rationale behind conducting discrete trials in a play-based format, as well as demonstrate and provide guided practice. Additionally, participants will learn the difference between "controlling reinforcers" and using play materials and activities as discrimintative stimuli in play-based DTT. We will discuss the concept of contriving the motivational operant, share tips on program development within the context of play as well as methods of data collection within a play-based environment.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the rationale behind using play as a basis for DTT for very young leaners; (2) Explain the concept of contriving the motivational operant as it relate to play-based DTT; (3) Explain the difference between "maintaining reinforcer control" and using play materials as discriminative stimuli in play-based DTT; (4) Demonstrate DTT using play materials or activities appropriate for infants, toddlers, or preschoolers; (5) List and describe specific strategies (tips) for program development and data collection that may be unique to a play-based format.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a combination of lecture, discussion, guided practice, small group breakout, and video observation.
Audience: Basic: appropriate for BCaBAs and BCBAs.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): early intervention, naturalistic instruction, preschoolers, toddlers
 
Workshop #W3
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Using Video Modeling Techniques to Improve Social Behaviors of Preschoolers With Autism
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Scene DEF, Niveau 0
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kathleen McCabe-Odri, Ed.D.
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners In Learning, Inc.), LAUREN DEGRAZIA (Partners in Learning, Inc.), NICOLE M. RZEMYK (Partners in Learning, Inc.), JENNIFER CORNELY (Partners in Learning, Inc.), LORI LORENZETTI (Partners in Learning, Inc,)
Description: Video modeling (VM), in which the subject is shown a video version of a behavior he/she is to imitate, is a well-researched method used to improve a variety of deficits for learners with autism, particularly in the area of social skills (Charlop, 2007). Some benefits of video modeling are:
  • Faster acquisition/better generalization than in vivo modeling
  • Accentuates certain stimulus features
  • Minimizes distracting/irrelevant features
  • Is an engaging medium for longer attending
  • Does not require social interaction during learning
Video modeling offers options for intervention, specifically: peer modeling, self-modeling, and video point of view. Peer modeling utilizes same age/sex peers proficient in performing the skill. Video self-modeling uses the learner and editing processes as the model. Video point of view shows the video version of the behavior from the subject's visual perspective. Combining VM with other evidence-based practices provides learners with a comprehension plan to improve a variety of social behaviors. Today's technology makes video programming user-friendly. This workshop demonstrates via case studies how preschoolers with autism benefit from VM to increase play, respond/initiate conversation, and improve participation in social activities within an inclusive preschool. Participants have the opportunity to learn to use current apps/devices via hands-on tutorials and sample VM options.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) define the major types of video modeling options; (2) match video approach to address specific target skill deficits; (3) define and measure subject's progress with video modeling protocols; (4) implement video modeling intervention using current technology,including editing simple video clips.
Activities: The format combines lecture, video demonstration, hands-on tutorial instruction and discussion
Audience: BCBAs, junior BCBAs
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W4
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Designing Individualized Treatment Programs for Adolescents and Adults Across the Autism Spectrum
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Forum Auditorium, Niveau 1
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jennifer Yakos, M.A.
JENNIFER YAKOS (Institute for Behavioral Training (IBT)), CECILIA KNIGHT (Institute for Behavioral Training)
Description: As the population of individuals with ASD continues to grow, treatment planning for teenagers and adults is becoming a top priority for many clients, caregivers and professionals. While the number of older adolescents and adults with ASD is rising, most treatment options are aimed at early intervention, or the treatment of young children. Support services for adolescents and adults with ASD are scarce, and often times do not reflect the vastly different needs of individuals on all levels of the spectrum. This workshop will discuss the importance of developing individualized ABA treatment of older individuals with ASD, through appropriate assessment and prioritization of needs. Additionally, several specific treatment models with goals and strategies will be discussed to address the varying needs for teenagers and adults on the autism spectrum. Specifically, programming options for teaching adults who are mildly, moderately and severely affected will be reviewed, including programming to teach higher order social skills and perspective taking, skills for independent living and vocational success, and skills for functional communication and self-care. This presentation will also address specific ethical considerations for treating older children and adults, specifically how to protect client dignity and facilitate clients into decision making and management of their own treatment.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) Identify specific factors to consider when assessing and prioritizing the needs of adolescents and adult clients with ASD; (2) Identify and review several programming options for older individuals with ASD according to varying levels of need, including advanced social skills instruction, independent living and vocational skills instruction, and functional communication and self-care; (3) Identify relevant treatment goals and intervention strategies for clients within several case study vignettes; (4) Identify specific ethical considerations regarding the treatment of adolescents and adults with ASD including the promotion of client dignity and self-advocacy.
Activities: Workshop activities will include lecture, discussion, video demonstration, and small group breakout tasks.
Audience: This workshop would be appropriate for BCBAs, therapists, educators, administrators, caregivers, or other professionals involved in the treatment of adolescents and adults with ASD.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism adolescents, autism adults, individualized treatment
 
Workshop #W5
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Cultivating Workplace Wellbeing With Behavioral Science
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Studio F, Niveau 2
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Julie M. Slowiak, Ph.D.
JULIE M. SLOWIAK (University of Minnesota Duluth; InJewel LLC)
Description: Workplace stress, driven by a variety of factors, can have a direct and negative impact on employee wellbeing and, consequently, an indirect and potentially negative impact on those with whom employees interact (e.g., coworkers, clients, family members, friends) (Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 2016). This workshop is designed to provide behavior analysts with knowledge, tools, and techniques that will allow them to make a noticeable, positive impact on their own wellbeing, on the wellbeing of their employees or clients, and ultimately, on society as a whole. An understanding of the dimensions of wellbeing that tie to both individual and organizational values will assist behavior analysts' efforts to design interventions that promote sustainable behavior change. The workshop instructor will provide an overview of the basic wellbeing concept, introduce attendees to dimensions of wellbeing, describe self-management tools and provide tips to promote healthy and productive lifestyle behaviors, and describe and share data from recent research aimed at promoting and supporting wellbeing in the workplace. The workshop instructor will guide participants through a series of exercises that will allow participants to both identify specific, values-based goals that they would like to work toward and to develop an action plan for change. This workshop is designed to be highly interactive; participants will receive feedback from the workshop instructor, be asked to engage in large and small group discussions, and be asked to share their goals and action plans with other workshop participants.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the basic wellbeing concept; (2) Describe at least six dimensions of wellbeing; (3) Describe at least five self-management tools and techniques to improve wellbeing; (4) Describe recent findings from research aimed at promoting and supporting wellbeing in the workplace; (5) State at least one specific, values-based goal for improving personal wellbeing; (6) Describe an action plan for pursuing their values-based wellbeing goal.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a balanced presentation of lecture, guided practice/exercises, and small and large group discussion. Core content will be taught through lecture and demonstration of strategies will be provided. Supplemental materials for identifying personal levels wellbeing, developing goals, and designing an action plan will be provided in order to support participant learning.
Audience: This workshop is designed to provide those with a basic understanding of behavior analysis and those currently practicing as behavior analysts with knowledge, tools, and techniques that will allow them to make a noticeable, positive impact on their own wellbeing, on the wellbeing of their employees or clients, and ultimately, on society as a whole.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): organizational health, sustainable change, values, wellbeing
 
Workshop #W6
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Providing an Effective Curriculum for Children and Adults With Limited Skill Repertoires and Problem Behavior
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Forum ABC, Niveau 1
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Patrick E. McGreevy, Ph.D.
PATRICK E. MCGREEVY (Patrick McGreevy, Ph.D., P.A.), TROY FRY (Patrick McGreevy, Ph.D., P.A)
Description: Those working with children and adults with limited skill repertoires and problem behavior often find that selecting targets for skill acquisition is extremely challenging. They are often provided with developmental curricula (e.g., the VB-MAPP, ABLLS-R, or Denver Early Start Model) designed primarily for young children with autism or delays in language and social skills, who acquire intraverbal repertoires and experience stimulus generalization and novel responses. Skills that are part of these curricula are often not functional for children or adults with limited skill repertoires or problem behavior. This workshop will describe the difference between developmental and functional skills (for example, the difference between rote counting and counting objects) and why functional skills are important for these children and adults. This workshop will then provide a review of the available functional skills curricula and an analysis of these instruments with respect to the principles and procedures of our science. This workshop will also describe how teaching functional skills improves the teaching repertoires of behavior analysts.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) describe the difference between developmental and functional skills; (2) describe three developmental and three corresponding functional skills; (3) describe why children and adults with limited skill repertoires and problem behavior should be taught functional, rather than developmental, skills; (4) describe how teaching teaching functional skills improves their overall teaching repertoire.
Activities: This workshop will include lecture, demonstrations, and guided practice for participants.
Audience: The target audience is BCBAs and BCABAs with limited experience, who are being asked to provide intensive instruction for children and adults with limited skill repertoires and problem behavior.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Developmental skills, Functional skills, Generalization, Language skills
 
Workshop #W7
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Reconsidering Our Approach to Supervision: What Every Behavior Analyst Needs to Know About Delivering Effective Supervision
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Loft GH, Niveau 3
Area: OBM/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Alyssa N. Wilson, Ph.D.
ALYSSA N. WILSON (Saint Louis University), HEATHER LYNN LEWIS (Saint Louis University)
Description: Behavior analytic research on supervision has identified the effectiveness of using behavioral applications (e.g., behavioral skills training) to teach competent trainees. Supervisors may need additional assistance with identifying evidence-based practices when it comes to implementing effective and competency-based supervision, particularly when supervising large groups of trainees. Therefore, the current experiential workshop seeks to assist supervisors who a) work with multiple trainee's in a given period of time, and b) collaborate with outside corporations, including Universities, in order to provide attendee's an opportunity to refine their supervision skill sets. The workshop will highlight 5 domains of the supervision process: (1) supervisor-trainee relationship during and after supervisory period, (2) delivering competency-based supervision, (3) successful tips for managing independent and group supervision, (4) organization strategies (e.g., evaluation rubrics, mapping clinical projects, goal setting, etc.), and (5) shaping professional behavior. Attendees will be provided supplemental materials during the workshop, to practice the skills presented. The workshop will use in-vivo training paired with problem-based learning paradigms to assist attendee's with acquiring skills discussed during the workshop.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) List important features and elements of supervision; (2) Determine best-practices for supervision; (3) List aspects of appropriate supervisor-trainee relationships throughout various phases of supervision; (4)Demonstrate competency-based supervision skills; (5)Demonstrate skills for conducting individual and group supervision; (6) Design and implement organization strategies.
Activities: The workshop will use lecture, discussion, video observation, in-vivo modeling, rehearsal, and feedback to assist trainees with achieving the learning objectives. Problem-based learning (e.g., small groups work through a supervision issue/problem) will be used to assist attendees with putting the discussed skills into practice. In-vivo and video demonstrations of strategies will be conducted with group discussions and role-play to ensure skill acquisition. Supplemental materials will be provided to support attendee learning during the workshop. Attendees will also be able to use the supplemental materials after the workshop, as an example/guide for the supervision process.
Audience: The nature of the workshop is geared towards behavior analysts who are new to supervision or whom have previous supervision experience. The content of the workshop will be focused on the foundation of all effective supervision strategies (i.e., reliance on basic concepts of behavior), and will be tailored to establishing best practices.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): behavior analysis, Supervision
 
Workshop #W8
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Root Cause Analysis and Behavior Analysis: Applying Root Cause Analysis to Incidents and Assessment of Problem Behavior
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Forum GHIJ, Niveau 1
Area: PRA/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Merrill Winston, Ph.D.
MERRILL WINSTON (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.), LARAINE WINSTON (Life Targets, LLC)
Description: Root cause analysis has been used for decades to analyze the causes of major disasters and is used by agencies such as the NTSB to determine the cause(s) of airline disasters but it is also used for any industry that requires a detailed analysis of the chain of events that led to a particular outcome. This workshop will apply this type of analysis to behavioral incidents as well to the analysis of problem behavior
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) conduct a root cause analysis; (2) apply a root cause analysis to a behavioral incident; (3) apply a root cause analysis to assist in the understanding of all the causes for a given behavior problem.
Activities: The workshop will be comprised of lecture and then the participants will be broken into groups and given sample incidents for which they will conduct their own root cause analysis. This will be followed up by more lecture. Participants will also be given sample behavior problems and the function(s) of the behavior and will attempt a root cause analysis to help explain why a particular function has taken dominance in the maintenance of the behavior
Audience: The target audience is practicing behavior analysts who wish to augment their ability to track down numerous variables that all contribute to behavior problems and/or behavioral incidents
Content Area: Theory
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Functional Assessment, Root Cause
 
Workshop #W9
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Standard Celeration Charting
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Studio DE, Niveau 2
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Abigail B. Calkin, Ph.D.
ABIGAIL B. CALKIN (Calkin Consulting Center), Kristine F. Melroe (Morningside Academy)
Description: The workshop will review the uses of the standard celeration chart (SCC) across the past 50 years with emphasis on its scientific charting and analyses of human performance in education and in other areas such as inner behavior and areas that impact society. The behavior charts shown will be individual and systemic. Participants will review writing precise performance statements (pinpoint behaviors), standard charting conventions, the three important dimensions of behavior to monitor--frequency, celeration, and bounce, and how to analyze data on the chart to assist in decision making. Some of the research and articles shared will be analyses and publications in international journals of educational research and behavior analysis. The guidelines and standards followed are those set by universities, school districts and communities for improvement in performance and learning. Attendees bringing their computers will assist in individual learning.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) state and analyze the content of the data on an SCC in terms of its frequency, celeration, and bounce (variability) in 1 minute; (2) make data-based decisions off of a variety of charts in educational and social (including inner behavior) fields; (3) state his/her new area of expertise and will list what kinds of decisions s/he will assist others to make once back at work after ABAI-Paris; (4) write new workshop learnings to facilitate practicing them once home.
Activities: Instructional strategies include lecture with slides to impart knowledge, videos of people in learning situations for examples, and small group sharing of ideas about solutions. Activities to meet workshop objectives will include lecture, video observations, practice of chart interpretation, and written plans for implantation of workshop learning. Supplemental materials will be available online at the time of and after the workshop. The format will include lecture, guided practice, many frequency building exercises, and brief small group discussions.
Audience: This workshop assumes the participants have a basic knowledge of the standard celeration chart and that they have used it. This workshop will be given an intermediate level and is designed to provide information on chart-based decision-making to advance the skills of the participants.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): precision teaching
 
Workshop #W10
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
The Acquisition of Behavioral Cusps as the Basics to Develop Language
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
7:00 AM–9:00 AM
Forum EF, Niveau 1
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Richard E. Laitinen, Ph.D.
GLADYS WILLIAMS (CIEL, SPAIN), RICHARD E. LAITINEN (Personalized Accelerated Learning Systems (PALS))
Description: The purpose of this workshop is to discuss the acquisition of behavioral cusps as basic elements to develop language. Research has shown that basic prerequisites greatly enhance an individual's ability to develop functional language. In this workshop we will provide an overview of the teaching procedures designed to develop these basic skills and tactics to strengthen observational learning in the individual. We will discuss several strategies developed to bring vocal emissions under stimulus control. This discussion will include some basic strategies for teaching tacts as well as a detailed outline of the Rapid Tacting protocol. Building on that knowledge we will introduce a structure that contains elements of Direct Instruction (DI), Precision Teaching (PT) and Relational Frame Theory (RFT), designed to gradually increasing the sophistication and complexity of language with the goal of becoming a functional speaker.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: 1. Identify and describe pre-listener skill repertoires; 2. Identify and describe listener repertoires; 3. Identify and describe speaker verbal repertoires; 4. Practice use of strategies to teach basic speaker verbal repertoires; 5. Identify and describe repertoires that support language flexibility; 6. Identify what describe component skills of each verbal repertoire.
Activities: Combines- lecture, discussion, small break out-group, video observation, and targeted reading.
Audience: Intermediate
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, behavioral cusps, skill acquisition, verbal behavior
 
Workshop #W11
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Exploring the Systematic Use of Self-Monitoring as a Behavioral Intervention: The Self & Match System
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Forum Auditorium, Niveau 1
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Katharine M. Croce, Ed.D.
KATHARINE M. CROCE (Chicago School of Professional Psychology; Bucks C), JAMIE SIDEN SALTER (San Diego County Office of Education)
Description: This interactive and hands-on workshop will provide an excellent opportunity for individuals to learn a well-defined, systematic self-monitoring intervention and motivational system. Participants attending this workshop will leave with a comprehensive tool in hand to implement immediately. This session will explore peer-reviewed research that supports the implementation of self-monitoring systems for students of various ages and developmental levels. A discussion of self-monitoring procedures incorporating a match component will be presented, with specific focus on the Self & Match System, a user-friendly, easy to implement, empirically-supported system. Participants in this training will acquire a systematic guide to planning self-monitoring systems, as well as a Self & Match manual with substantial training materials. Additionally, participants will strengthen their knowledge of necessary considerations prior to implementing any self-monitoring or motivational system. The Self & Match System has been used internationally to support individuals with emotional behavior disorders, autism, learning disabilities, and unidentified students in general education. The Self & Match System can be incorporated into individualized behavior systems or class-wide and school-wide management procedures as a part of school-wide PBIS. It has been successfully implemented in a variety of settings, including public and private schools, clinics, homes, and recreational settings.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) identify the research-based benefits of self-monitoring; (2) effectively apply, individualize, and monitor progress of a self-monitoring system; (3) identify the necessary components of an effective motivational system; (4) identify the importance of pre-treatment planning on the effectiveness of intervention; (5) identify the basic components of the Self & Match System; (6) systematically individualize an intervention based on collaborative and critical thinking; (7) create a Self & Match self-monitoring system to implement in their workplace; (8) systematically consider function in the development of self-monitoring interventions and reinforcement opportunities.
Activities: During the course of this hands-on workshop, participants will strengthen the skills needed to effectively develop self-monitoring behavioral interventions incorporating a match component. This workshop will review the purpose/rationale of self-monitoring, the benefits of self-monitoring, and the components of an effective Self & Match system. Additionally, participants will interactively complete a systematic considerations guide prior to implementation to lead them on their way to creating their own Self & Match System. The format combines lecture, small group collaboration, small group discussion-oriented activities, whole group responding utilizing interactive digital polling software, and interactive dialogue. Core content will be taught through a combination of lecture, video examples, data analysis, and guided practice.
Audience: This workshop is designed for behavior analysts, consultants, school psychologists, autism specialists, special educators, teachers, administrators, parents, students, and/or others who primarily support individuals from pre-K to 21 in school, home, or clinic settings. This is a great workshop for individuals and/or teams.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autism, Behavior Intervention, School, Self-monitoring
 
Workshop #W12
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Preference and Reinforcement: The Keys to Maximizing Productivity With Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Scene C, Niveau 0
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Richard B. Graff, Ph.D.
RICHARD B. GRAFF (The May Institute)
Description: Behavior analyst practitioners, teachers, and parents use reinforcement-based procedures with individuals with autism spectrum disorder and developmental and intellectual disabilities to increase desirable behavior and to reduce undesirable behavior. The ultimate success of these procedures depends on the clinician's ability to a) identify effective reinforcers and b) arrange their delivery in an effective fashion. Understanding how to identify reinforcers, which is critical to designing and implementing effective reinforcement-based interventions, requires a working knowledge of preference and reinforcer assessments. This workshop reviews different preference assessment methods that have been published in the behavior analytic literature, how to identify stimuli to include in assessments, and the prerequisite skills required for each assessment. Variables that influence preference assessment outcomes are then reviewed, including the effects of pre-assessment motivating operations and differential consequences following selection responses. A brief introduction to different methods commonly used to assess reinforcer efficacy is provided, and variables that influence the effectiveness of reinforcers are reviewed. Next, recently published peer-reviewed research on innovative methods to train staff and parents how to implement commonly used preference assessment procedures will be reviewed; protocols and data sheets for implementing these assessments will be provided to attendees.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) describe three different preference assessment methods; (2) describe the prerequisite skills required for each preference assessment; (3) describe three different reinforcer assessment methods; (4) name at least two factors that affect the efficacy of reinforcers; (5) describe potential solutions to changes in reinforcer value.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a balanced presentation of lecture, group discussion, and live and/or video demonstrations. Supplemental materials will be provided in order to support participant learning.
Audience: This workshop is designed for behavior analyst practitioners who work with individuals with autism spectrum disorder and developmental and intellectual disabilities.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W13
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Following a Safer and More Efficient Functional Analysis and Treatment Model
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Scene DEF, Niveau 0
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Mahshid Ghaemmaghami, Ph.D.
MAHSHID GHAEMMAGHAMI (University of the Pacific), JESSICA SLATON (Nashoba Learning Group, Western New England University)
Description: Functional analysis is a powerful methodological tool that can provide an effective and humane treatment for problem behavior (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Despite its growing empirical support, a recent survey (Oliver, Pratt, & Normand, 2015) suggests that the majority of practicing behavior analysts are not conducting functional analyses to inform treatment considerations. Practitioners may be avoiding the functional analysis because of concerns that it places the patient or clinician in a dangerous environment and requires too much time or resources. We will be teaching the audience how to conduct an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis that takes an average of 25 min (e.g., Jessel, Hanley, & Ghaemmaghami, 2016; Ghaemmaghami, Hanley, & Jessel, 2016), and presenting a collection of replications from clinical practice. We will then discuss how to use the results of the functional analysis to design effective, function-based treatments that include the teaching of complex and developmentally appropriate functional communication skills, and skill-based delay tolerance procedures that increase other social behaviors such as compliance, task engagement, and social interaction, in order to affect more global changes in the functional repertoires needed to be successful in contextually complex environments with natural reinforcement contingencies. Both socially mediated problem behavior and automatically maintained non-injurious stereotypy will be discussed.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) design and conduct an interview-formed synthesized functional analysis of problem behavior in approximately 25 minutes, (2) teach complex functional communication skills, (3) teach toleration for delays and denials to reinforcement, (4) program for generalization and maintenance of these skills.
Activities: The workshop format will include lecture and discussion of material, small group activities, and guided activities from a workbook on designing functional analysis and function-based treatment.
Audience: BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, BCaBAs, licensed psychologists, and other behavior analytic providers interested in learning a fast and safe approach to assessing and treating problem behavior.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): FCT, problem behavior, synthesized FA, tolerance training
 
Workshop #W14
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Beyond Mand Training: Increasing Meaningful Social Behaviour in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Studio AB, Niveau 2
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Susan E. Tirella, M.Ed.
SUSAN E. TIRELLA (Forest Bridge School), Sarah Walker (Forest Bridge School)
Description: While traditional applied behaviour analysis programs are often extremely effective in increasing communication skills and remediating repetitive, stereotyped behaviours in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder; many fail to address social skills beyond initiating social interactions through mand training. This workshop will review the application of Teaching Interactions (Leaf, et al., 2009), and how to implement them while following a comprehensive social skills curriculum (Winner, 2005) for individuals with high-functioning Autism. Participants will learn how to increase appropriate social behaviours in structured teaching sessions through the use of discrimination training and role-play and how to program for generalization to natural contingencies by establishing a socially significant rationale for change and systematically shaping approximations.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) identify socially significant social behaviours to increase; (2) identify the components of an effective teaching plan based on teaching interactions; (3) develop a lesson plan that increases the identified social behaviour and programs for generalization to natural contingencies.
Activities: Instructional strategies include: lecture, discussion, video observation and small group breakout.
Audience: BCaBAs, BCBAs, or other individuals with experience and training in ABA and a basic understanding of typical social skills development.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W15
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills and the Development of Comprehensive Treatment Programs
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Forum ABC, Niveau 1
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Marie Laure Joelle Nuchadee, Ph.D.
MARIE LAURE JOELLE NUCHADEE (French ABA)
Description: The Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Practice Guidelines for Healthcare Funders and Managers states that "A developmentally appropriate ABA assessment process must identify strengths and weaknesses across domains and potential barriers to progress. The information from this process is the basis for developing the individualized ABA treatment plan." There are numerous existing tools that aim at assessing learner's abilities and skills levels, however the assessment process required for the development of comprehensive treatment programs or focused treatments can be complex. This workshop will cover the different existing clinical tools used by professionals in behavior analysis working with developmentally impaired patients allowing a detailed analysis of the skills of the students, but focus more particularly on the use of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS-R) and its skills-tracking system and how it can be used to identify the skills to be targeted both in comprehensive as well as focused treatments.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) observe and document the skills present in the behavioral repertoire of a child; (2) target the learning needs of a student; (3) develop a focused treatment according to the results of the assessment; (4) develop a comprehensive treatment according to the results of the assessment.
Activities: Lecture, small group activities on case studies, discussion
Audience: Professionals with basic knowledge in ABA and looking forward to strengthen their knowledge in applied behavior analysis
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): behavioral assessment, comprehensive treatment
 
Workshop #W16
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
CANCELED: Learn French! Applications of Fluency-Based Learning to Foreign Language Acquisition
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Daniel B. Sundberg, Ph.D.
DANIEL B. SUNDBERG (The Tandem Traveler), LISA M SICKMAN (The Tandem Traveler)
Description: Behavioral approaches to teaching and education have had tremendous impact on learning and language acquisition. The application of Skinner's analysis of Verbal behavior has advanced the way we teach new learners to communicate (Sundberg & Michael, 2001). Approaches such as direct instruction and precision teaching have helped to produce tremendous educational gains in both delayed and typically developing learners (Binder & Watkins, 1990). Yet there are very few examples of the application of this science to teaching typically developing adults to learn a foreign language (Dounavi, 2011). A skill that is growing in importance as the world becomes increasingly global. This workshop will present participants with an overview of a behavior analytic approach to language, learning, and instruction. Participants will use this knowledge to practice creating their own instructional sequence to train 20 French words of their choice, with guidance and feedback from the instructors. Participants will refine the instructional content based on real-time learner feedback. By the end of the workshop participants will have learned 20 useful phrases for the visit to Paris, and will have learned the basics of behavior-based methods to design effective language learning instruction.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to:(1) describe the core principles of fluency-based learning and precision teaching; (2) construct an instructional sequence using behavioral principles to teach foreign language; (3) speak and recognize 20 new words of French by the end of the workshop.
Activities: The workshop objectives will be achieved through lecture, guided practice, small group activities, group discussions, and fluency building exercises.
Audience: Behavior analysts visiting France who have no familiarity with the French language and want to learn some, and learn about instructional design and precision teaching.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Fluency, Language Acquisition, Precision Teaching, Verbal Behavior
 
 
Workshop #W17
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Procedural Integrity of Clinical Programming in Applied Settings
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Loft GH, Niveau 3
Area: OBM/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Helena L. Maguire, M.S.
HELENA L. MAGUIRE (Melmark New England; Endicott College), SILVA ORCHANIAN (Melmark New England), Jill Harper (Melmark New England; Endicott College)
Description: The clinical effectiveness of a behavior support plan relies not only on the technological sophistication of the written plan, but also on the ability of direct service staff to accurately and consistently implement the behavior support plan. This workshop will present the staff training, supervisory training, and performance-monitoring systems for clinical programming that have evolved over the past 17 years at Melmark New England: a private, not for profit, community-based organization serving children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders, acquired brain injury, neurological diseases and disorders, dual diagnosis, and severe challenging behaviors. Following a review of the OBM literature on effective systems development, workshop participants will review sample-training schedules, training protocols, performance monitoring tools, as well as procedures for training supervisors to implement these systems. The goal of workshop will be to provide participants with empirically based systems the research to ensure competent and accurate implementation of clinical programs.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to:(1) identify the components of an effective staff training program; (2) select training protocols for sample clients; (3) identify the components of training systems necessary for supervisory staff; (4) identify areas where performance-monitoring tools and systems should be developed.
Activities: Instructional strategies will include lecture, large- and small-group discussion, small-group activities, and guided practice.
Audience: The target audience includes individuals with the responsibility of training or overseeing the training of direct service staff and development of supervisory training programs.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Procedural Integrity, Staff Training, Supervision Training
 
Workshop #W18
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
From Supervision to Consultation: Development of Competent Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA)
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Forum GHIJ, Niveau 1
Area: PRA/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Dana Garner, Ph.D.
DANA GARNER (Garner Behavior Services LLC ; Penn State), CHERICE R. CARDWELL (Association Francaise Les Professionnels de l'Analyse du Comportement), NICOLE TURON-DIAZ (Learning By Design, LLC)
Description: This workshop will cover ethics and practices when providing supervision to BACB applicants. The BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts will be cited to support interaction between supervisor and supervisee. Research will be cited that supports a variety of successful and ethical options for supervision (i.e., Sellers, Valentine, & Leblanc, 2016). The first portion of the workshop will cover ethical delivery of supervised field experience to BACB applicants. The second portion of the workshop will discuss how the skills learned within supervision influence competent consultation and ethical behavior when guiding home ABA programming.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) identify necessary components of a supervision contract; (2) identify qualifications of BCBA/BCBA-Ds that are ethically able to provide supervision to BACB applicants; (3) identify BACB applicants that are ethically qualified to begin receiving supervision from BCBA/BCBA-Ds; (4) identify the components of a supervisor/supervisee relationship, when the relationship begins and terminates; (5) describe ethical code of conduct from the BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts that relate to provision of supervised field experience; (6) list qualifications of a competent BCBA/BCBA-D for home programming.
Activities: Workshop Activities: 1. Lecture 2. Group discussion 3. Small group break out for activities
Audience: Target audience includes: BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, BCaBAs who are providing home programming, and individuals receiving supervised field experience.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W19
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Using Motivational Interviewing Techniques to Alter Motivating Operations and Increase Parent Engagement in ABA Therapy
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Studio DE, Niveau 2
Area: TBA/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Monica Gilbert, M.S.
MONICA GILBERT (Crystal Minds New Beginning )
Description: Behavior Analysts often find barriers when providing parent training. Although Behavior Analysts offer empirically validated strategies and successfully change behaviors, it can be difficult for parents to adhere to treatment. A reason for parents inability to engage in treatment may be due to their "resistance". Resistance is defined as a private event that is evoked by an antecedent stimuli (clinician's confrontational language), which is reinforced by escape of the aversive stimuli. Motivating Operations have a behavior/value altering effect in that they make "escaping" the stimuli (clinician) by engaging in resistant behaviors more or less reinforcing. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an empirically proven intervention that has shown substantial success in the literature in changing addictive behaviors in substance abusers, medication adherence, and developmental disabilities. MI is the route by which private events can be altered by using "change talk" strategies to decrease resistant behaviors and increase cooperation between parents and clinicians. In this workshop, we will discuss private events as Skinner defined it and as they relate to MI strategies. We will also present the proven strategies of MI to decrease resistance and foster a collaborative working relationship between parent and clinicians. Transtheoretical model (stages of readiness) will also be presented. Attendees will build skills in assessing level of resistance and use change talk procedures to successfully decrease them.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) Assess parent's motivation based on the trans-theoretical model and using different proven measures; (2) Provide examples of effective change talk strategies to develop and build collaborative relationships with parents; (3) Describe motivation using private events; (4) Identify traps that can harm clinician-parental relationships; (5) Describe key features of effective MI strategies; (6) Measure change talk vs. counter-change talk; (7) Identify key features necessary for cooperative relationships between caregivers and clinicians.
Activities: Workshop activities will include didactic instruction, small group breakout, guided practice and role-plays.
Audience: Certified behavior analysts (BCaBA, BCBA), licensed psychologists, and graduate students.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Workshop #W20
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Speech Science for the Behavior Analyst: Behavioral Tricks to Remediate Speech Errors
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
9:15 AM–11:15 AM
Forum EF, Niveau 1
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Janine Shapiro, M.S.
JANINE SHAPIRO (Access Behavior Analysis)
Description: This workshop will detail aspects of speech science relevant for behavior analysts who treat clients with speech errors. Attendees will practice analyzing speech errors to determine the most useful prompting procedures to improve intelligibility. Examples of different prompting and prompt fading procedures that are behavior analytic in nature will be demonstrated and videos of implementation with clients will be shown for clarity. A framework for how to divide up therapeutic resources across verbal and non-verbal means of communication will be provided. Peer-reviewed journal articles that support unlikely positions such as the use of alternative augmentative communication as a means to promote verbal communication will be discussed. The last forty-five minutes will be dedicated to the discussion of specific cases from audience members. The previous content of the workshop will be referenced during this discussion.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) state the three aspects that define any speech sound in any language; (2) determine which aspect(s) of a speech sound is in error when provided with the target sound and the error sound produced by the client; (3) demonstrate at least three different prompting procedures to remediate speech errors; (4) list the six different speech-language profiles of clients; (5) list two different speech errors that if noted, would immediately warrant referral to a speech-language pathologist and/or a physician.
Activities: The workshop will be comprised of lecture, video observation, individual activities, and discussion. Materials that support the content as well as references for journal articles and books will be provided as handouts.
Audience: The target audience is behavior analysts that treat patients with speech errors that affect intelligibility.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W21
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Incorporating Mindfulness Strategies into Behavioral Parent Training for Caregivers of Children With Autism and Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Studio AB, Niveau 2
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Tracy Raulston, M.Ed.
TRACY RAULSTON (University of Oregon), WENDY A. MACHALICEK (University of Oregon), Meme Hieneman (Positive Behavior Support Applications), Nell Caraway (IRIS Educational Media)
Description: The purpose of this workshop is to provide practitioners with methods to incorporate mindfulness strategies into behavioral parent training for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental disabilities. Parents of children with ASD are at an increased risk for clinically significant stress and depression. Mindfulness has been found to be associated with decreased stress and depression in parents of children with ASD, even after accounting for child challenging behavior (Jones, Hastings, Totskia, Keane, & Rhule, 2014). Additionally, mindfulness training has been successfully applied to this population, resulting in decreased levels of stress and increased quality of life (Neece, 2014). Attendees of this workshop should have foundational skills in behavioral parent training/coaching. This workshop will focus on how to embed mindfulness strategies within behavioral support plans. Example strategies include training parents to: (a) observe stimuli within (e.g., breath, private events) and outside (e.g., sound, smell) themselves; (b) objectively attend to variables affecting their childs behavior without adding assumptions; (c) detach from unpleasant private events (e.g., negative thought patterns associated with parenting); and (d) implement interventions as designed and without reacting to stress. Instructional videos and guided audio meditations will be shared during the training.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) describe operationally defined behaviors of mindfulness; (2) describe how stress reduction strategies increase the potential social validity of behavioral parent training and coaching; (3) describe how to objective attend to and observe private events and sensory stimuli; (4) practice the behaviors required for a short mindfulness meditation, including appropriate sitting posture, breathing, and engagement in critical private events.
Activities: Instructional strategies include lecture, discussion, video and audio sample, and group guided practice.
Audience: This workshop is intended for attendees with skills and experience training parents in the use of behavioral support plans. No knowledge or skills in mindfulness practices are required.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): mindfulness, parent training, stress reduction
 
Workshop #W22
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Use of Video Modeling for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in School-Based Settings
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Forum Auditorium, Niveau 1
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Christos Nikopoulos, Ph.D.
CHRISTOS NIKOPOULOS (Autism Consultancy Services Ltd, London)
Description: Over the last few decades, there has been a shift in emphasis from language-based instruction to more visual instructional supports as a catalyst for learning in individuals with multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is due to extensive reports that individuals with ASD demonstrate enhanced performance on simple visual search tasks that require detecting a target set among distracters. Given the visual superiority of people with ASD, it is perhaps not surprising that the majority of current educational programs for these individuals frequently employ visual supports. Picture prompts, photographic activity schedules, visual schedules, or videos appear to be appropriate and particularly motivating for these individuals. The range of target behaviors and different methods by which video modeling has been successfully implemented to teach individuals with ASD ages 3 to 20 years, attests to its robustness as an approach for supporting appropriate behaviors in this population. This approach, as it could be implemented in school-based settings, will be the focus of this workshop, wherein extensive and updated details and findings from the literature, as well as from the clinical and research practice of the instructor, will be provided to the audience.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) name the salient features of video-modeling procedures as guided by findings from the literature (e.g., with what ages video modeling can be effective, what intervention goals can be addressed by the implementation of video modeling, in which settings video modeling can be effectively used, etc.); (2) describe different types of video modeling and the advantages and disadvantages of each type when targeting different performance areas in children with ASD (e.g., social skills, daily living skills, communication/language, play skills, joint attention, challenging behaviors); and (3) demonstrate step-by-step different types of video modeling (e.g., video modeling, self-modeling, priming modeling, point-of-view modeling) that could be designed and implemented in school-based settings.
Activities: Instructional strategies include: lecture, guided practice, video demonstrations of practice strategies, real-life case scenarios and examples, small group activities as well as group discussion.
Audience: Graduate students and RBTs, Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA), and Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts (BCaBA), psychologists as well as respective therapists and special educators working in a variety of applied and experimental settings as well as educational and social science settings who are interested in teaching a number of different skills to children/adolescents with ASD and other developmental disabilities.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W23
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Recent Research on Teaching Children With a Diagnosis of Autism
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Scene C, Niveau 0
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: John W. Esch, Ph.D.
JOHN W. ESCH (Esch Behavior Consultants, LLC)
Description: Referring to the verbal behavior of an individual, Skinner (1957) writes: Reinforcing consequences continue to be important after verbal behavior has been acquired. Their principal function is then to maintain the response in strength. How often the speaker will emit a response depends, other things being equal, upon the over-all frequency of reinforcement in a given verbal community (p. 30). This quote highlights the importance of a verbal community in the development and maintenance of language with typically developing individuals. Persons with a diagnosis of autism may have limited verbal communities. Within family and educational settings, a verbal community may consist of only a single main caregiver and one or two teachers. This environment may hinder the development of skills necessary for emergent behavior, e.g., observational learning. This workshop will discuss the importance of a verbal and social community in the education of children with ASD. We will identify and describe recent research of instructional practices that encourage untaught emergent behavior. We will then consider the design of fun group activities that provide motivational events to support emergent behavior in a social community. Lastly, we will look at common language and social concerns, e.g., conditional verbal discriminations.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to:(1) describe why conditional verbal discriminations are difficult to learn and teach; (2) state the traditional instructional sequence for teaching children with ASD and the data supporting the recommended changes to that sequence; (3) explain potential benefits for using games in the instruction of ASD children.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through lecture, keynote presentation, and video demonstrations of main points.
Audience: This workshop is intended for BCBAs and advanced BaCBAs working with children or who are responsible for programming others who teach children with an ASD diagnosis. The workshop will address common instructional difficulties e.g., conditional verbal discriminations, instructional sequences, methods to encourage emergent behavior, reinforcement.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W24
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
I Get By With a Little Help From My Friends: Promoting Inclusion, Communication, and Social Skills Development
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Scene DEF, Niveau 0
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Kimberly Maich, Ph.D.
KIMBERLY MAICH (Brock University; Memorial University of Newfoundland), TRICIA VAN RHIJN (University of Guelph), SHERI MALLABAR (Brock University)
Description: With continued transformation happening in Ontario, Canada Kindergarten classrooms and emphasis being placed on Inclusive Education, there is a growing need for more evidence-based interventions to promote development in a classroom of young children, each with unique needs. This early intervention strategy is designed to support the unique needs of students with social-communication difficulties (including Autism Spectrum Disorder). The purpose of this extensive research study is to identify and assess the effectiveness of a peer-mediated social skills program called Stay, Play, and Talk (Phase IV). The program has been designed to increase the engagement of kindergarten-aged children identified as having social-communication difficulties and their peers who are typically developing within an inclusive kindergarten classroom environment. This intervention is the fourth phase of a pilot project, following Phases I-III in various Ontario jurisdictions. Using a Single Case Research Design (Multiple Baseline Across Subjects) this project involved student participants with social-communication difficulties in inclusive classrooms (Intervention and Control). All students in the classroom were taught Stay, Play, and Talk, and the target children received intensive triad trainings with their peers. Preliminary findings for each phase of the study suggest a steady, high increase in the number of communications between the target children and their typically developing peers, after the intervention had taken place.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) identify the importance of peer-mediated social skills instruction within peer-mediated environments; (2) describe program structures involved in the Stay, Play, and Talk Intervention; (3) effectively deliver peer-mediated social skills training to young children.
Activities: The format combines lecture, small group hands-on activities, guided practice, and will conclude with research findings from four phases a research study that support the effectiveness of this peer-mediated intervention (Stay, Play, and Talk: A Peer-Mediated Social Skills Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and other Social Communication Difficulties and their Peers Phases I-IV).
Audience: Teachers, Early Childhood Educators, Educational Assistants, Special Education Consultants, Speech-Language Pathologists, Board Certified Behavior Analysts
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Early Intervention, Inclusive Education, Kindergarten, Peer-Mediated Intervention
 
Workshop #W25
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Integration of Automatic and Social Reinforcement Interventions in Applied Settings: A Framework for Addressing Dual Diagnoses
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Loft A, Niveau 3
Area: CBM/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Tina G. Patterson, M.Ed.
TINA G. PATTERSON (Operations and Clinical Consultant)
Description: The workshop will review the credible effects of component analysis on occurrences of high-intensity behaviors exhibited by students diagnosed with a developmental disability and psychiatric disorder in school settings. Automatic and Social Reinforcement have been analyzed using indirect, direct and experimental analysis procedures for decades with results indicating that when high-intensity behaviors are present for these contingencies, differential reinforcement interventions are effective in reducing harmful behaviors, (Thompson, et al, 1998; Miltenberger, 2005; Borero and Vollmer, 2006). The students had a history of physical aggression towards others, self-injurious behaviors, property destruction and elopement from the school grounds. We will review the components of interventions using differential reinforcement procedures combined with medical consultations. The results showed that each of the student's high intensity-behaviors was reduced and they were able to participate in large group settings with their same-age peers. BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance is addressed through the following codes: 2.09 � Treatment/Intervention Efficacy; 3.01 � Behavior Analytic Assessment; 3.02 � Medical Consultation; 4.09 � Least Restrictive Procedures; 7.0 � Behavior Analysts� Ethical Responsibility to Colleagues.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) explain positive and negative automatic reinforcement and positive and negative social reinforcement contingencies and their influence on high-intensity behaviors; (2) describe interventions using component analysis of assessment data; (3) identify differential reinforcement procedures to increase automatic and social functionally equivalent replacement behaviors.
Activities: Workshop activities will include a combination of lecture, small group activities, video demonstrations and guided practice. The instructor will be prepared to address any learning or language barriers by providing supplemental materials.
Audience: Intermediate
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): automatic reinforcement, intervention
 
Workshop #W26
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Empowering Behavior Analytic Perspective on Language: Implications of Relational Frame Theory for Children's Affective and Hyperactive Problems
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Forum ABC, Niveau 1
Area: DDA/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Carmen Luciano, Ph.D.
CARMEN LUCIANO (University Almeria)
Description: Relational Frame Theory (RFT; Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001) is a contextual approach to complex human behavior with increasing empirical evidence (Dymond & Roche, 2013) that conceives language and cognition as arbitrarily applicable relational responding. As such, RFT has the potential to generate practical applications in relatively new areas for behavior analysis. In fact, during the last few years, RFT is providing important applications in the clinical work with children in several areas including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and emotional disorders (Rehfeldt & Barnes-Holmes; Dixon, 2015; Luciano, Valdivia-Salas, Cabello, & Hernndez, 2009; Ruiz & Perete, 2015). The aim of the current workshop is to present a sketch of these applications. Firstly, the basics of RFT will be summarized. Secondly, the implications of RFT for training verbal behavior will be presented. Thirdly, the connection between RFT and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) will be presented for the treatment of psychological disorders in children competent in verbal behavior. Lastly, the complementarity and integration with traditional contingency management techniques will be highlighted.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to:(1) Identify the basics of RFT; (2) Understand the rational for developing self-regulation in hyperactive children; (3) Adapt ACT strategies based on RFT for the treatment of psychological disorders in children.
Activities: Lecture, Small group breakout, Guided practice, Video observation
Audience: Intermediate. Participants should have basic knowledge of relational frame theory and acceptance and commitment
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): children, emotional disorders, hyperactivity, RFT
 
Workshop #W27
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Effect Sizes for Single Case Experimental Designs: Demonstrating an Undesirable Baseline Trend
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Studio F, Niveau 2
Area: EAB/EDC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Kimberly Vannest, Ph.D.
KIMBERLY VANNEST (Texas A&M University)
Description: Overlap in Visual Analysis is well established and understood by the field, less widely accepted but gaining momentum is the addition of effect sizes to the interpretation of data. Effects size calculations can enhance analysis particularly when undesirable baseline trend or the variability characteristic of applied settings is present. Non-overlap effect sizes such as Tau U provide strong statistical power, control trend in a moderate way, data are directly interpretable, respect design features, and the calculations are easy, even by hand with short data series. This session will train behavior analysts to use effect sizes to enhance interpretation and allow behavior analyst remain in control of data analysis and interpretation.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) successfully identify difference between desirable or undesireable trend and lack of experimental control; (2) use two methods to calculated and adjust for trend in experimental data; (3) discuss implications of trended data in individual studies and meta-analytic research.
Activities: This two hour work shop will include brief lecture, demonstration, practice opportunities and discussion.
Audience: Graduate students, Scholars, Researchers, Clinicians in need of defensibility in practice.
Content Area: Methodology
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Date Interpretation, Effect Sizes, Visual Analysis
 
Workshop #W28
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Pragmatic Supervision: Evaluate, Analyze, Change, and Repeat
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Loft GH, Niveau 3
Area: OBM/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Guy S. Bruce, Ed.D.
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
Description: Pragmatic supervisors collect frequent, accurate, sensitive measures of client progress, and when clients are not meeting their progress goals, those supervisors make changes. A pragmatic supervision process includes the following steps: 1) Pinpoint performance problems worth solving. a. Collect frequent, accurate, sensitive measures of client progress. b. When clients are not meeting their progress goals, evaluate staff performance at the system, process, and individual levels. 2) Analyze causes of inadequate client progress and staff performance. 3) Recommend solutions, which may include changes in staff a. Resources b. Training c. Management. 4) Design and implement those solutions. 5) Evaluate Improvements in a. Client Progress b. Staff Performance. This 2-hour workshop includes a workbook with practice materials, practice cards, a tool for evaluating client progress and staff performance, andpractice and discussion of the pragmatic supervision process. I have taught longer versions of this workshop at ABAI conferences, Swiss ABA, Australia ABA, British Columbia ABA and at numerous agencies across the U.S., during the last several years. Participants should bring laptops and smartphones or tablets to the workshop to practice using a new application.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) define desired client results and necessary performance, then measure and evaluate current client results and performance, including measures of client progress called celeration efficiency; (2) define desired staff performance at the system, process, and individual levels; (3) measure and evaluate current staff performance at each level; (4) perform a data-based analysis of staff performance problems to identify their causes; (5) recommend solutions to staff performance problems with the best return on investment.
Activities: This 2-hour workshop includes a workbook with practice materials, practice cards, a tool for evaluating client progress and staff performance, practice and discussion of the pragmatic supervision process, and counts toward the Behavior Analysis Certification Board continuing education requirements for supervisors.
Audience: This workshop is for supervisors, staff trainers, and directors of educational and clinical organizations who serve students or clients with learning difficulties.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): analysis, evaluation, pragmatism, supervision
 
Workshop #W29
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA — 
Ethics
The Application of the Behavior Analysis Certification Board's Ethics Code in Clinical and Academic Settings
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Forum GHIJ, Niveau 1
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Barbara Metzger, Ph.D.
BARBARA METZGER (Troy University)
Description: In this workshop, participants will review key features of the Behavior Analysis Certification Board's ethics code and practice applying them with scenarios taken from clinical and academic settings. Participants will discuss their recommendations of ethical behavior based on the ethics code.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) describe key features of the behavior analysis certification board's ethics code; (2) practice applying the ethics code to real-life examples of ethical scenarios taken from clinical and academic settings; (3) provide recommendations for ethical behavior based on the ethics code.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met by brief presentation of the key features of the certification board's ethics code and presentation of ethical scenarios. Participants will break up into small groups to discuss the application of the ethics code by making recommendations for ethical behavior for resolving the dilemmas.
Audience: Practitioners working in applied settings and academics who teach ethics to students.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W30
CE Offered: BACB
CANCELED: Basic Statistics for Behavior Analysts
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Forum EF, Niveau 1
Area: PRA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Annette Griffith, Ph.D.
ANNETTE GRIFFITH (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Description: In fields such as psychology, education, and medicine, the majority of the research conducted involves group designs and statistical data analyses (Byiers, Reichle, & Symons, 2012). In fact, in many fields, statistical analysis is viewed as the gold standard for evaluation and interpretation of data (Sullivan, 2011). In contrast, a hallmark of the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the use of single subject research methods, that rely on visual inspection of the data (Kazdin, 2010). As a result, while knowledge and skill in single subject design methods is a key component in behavior analytic training programs and a necessary skill for certification (BACB, 2012), many behavior analysts may not have the skills necessary to accurately interpret and critically evaluate the literature outside the field of ABA (Shull, 1999). This may place behavior analysts at a disadvantage when assessing current knowledge, as many studies outside the field of ABA are very relevant for our clinical and experimental work. Therefore, this workshop will provide a basic overview of statistical analyses typically employed for group level designs. We will cover rationales for learning more about statistical analyses, review common statistical methods, and examine how these methods are presented in the scientific literature.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) describe reasons why it is beneficial for behavior analysts to be familiar with statistical analysis methods; (2) identify common statistical analysis methods used in related fields; (3) identify and interpret basic descriptive and inferential statistics in the context of research reports; (4) discuss methods for increasing statistical knowledge and familiarity in the future.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a balanced presentation of lecture, guided practice, and group breakout sessions. Guided practice and group breakout sessions will incorporate project-based methods to facilitate engagement and comprehension (Shambare, 2011).
Audience: Clinicians with BCaBA and BCBA certification.
Content Area: Theory
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): data analysis, statistics
 
 
Workshop #W31
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Making it Work: Ethical Considerations and Solutions for Behavior Analytic Supervision of Individuals Seeking Certification
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
11:30 AM–1:30 PM
Studio DE, Niveau 2
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jennifer Yakos, M.A.
JENNIFER YAKOS (Institute for Behavioral Training (IBT)), CECILIA KNIGHT (Institute for Behavioral Training)
Description: As more individuals enter the field of Behavior Analysis, defining parameters for appropriate supervision to those seeking BCBA, BCaBA and RBT certification is an important topic of discussion. Specifically, our ethical codes, which define our responsibilities to our supervisees, as well as the public they serve, give rise to certain considerations that must be addressed regarding appropriate and ethical supervisory practices. Supervising a paid employee, providing remote on-line supervision to a student, or contracting with an international student who is not your employee are several examples of situations faced by BCBA supervisors which often present practical and ethical challenges. Furthermore, as BCBAs start to assess and then mentor RBTs, there are many unexplored areas of concern that a BCBA must consider; how many RBTs should a practitioner supervise while maintaining other responsibilities, how can a BCBA remotely assess RBT candidates with confidence, and what should a BCBA do when the RBTs performance in the workplace is subpar? This presentation will review ethical concerns that may arise in various supervisory situations as well as present solutions for BCBAs who are trying to provide ethical and appropriate supervision to those pursuing certification as BCBAs and BCaBAs, as well as those currently certified as an RBT.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) identify several ethical issues which commonly arise within supervision of BCBA/BCaBA candidates and RBTs, including confidentiality, dual relationships and conflict of interest, scope of expertise and ensuring quality of service; (2) identify and discuss solutions to address common ethical dilemmas faced by BCBAs offering supervision to those seeking to gain and/or maintain certification; (3) identify specific factors that should be considered and addressed when deciding to commence supervision of a candidate; (4) identify and review components of effective behavior analytic supervision according to BACB guidelines.
Activities: The workshop format will combine lecture, large group discussion, and small group breakout activities.
Audience: This workshop would be appropriate for BCBAs providing behavior analytic supervision to students, educators, or other professionals seeking certification as a BCBA or BCaBA, as well as to individuals certified as RBTs. It would also be appropriate for those involved in the organization and arrangement of BCBA supervision for individuals.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Symposium #2
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
From Functional Analyses to Interventions for Challenging Behavior
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Forum Auditorium, Niveau 1
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Richard B. Graff, Ph.D.
Chair: Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Richard B. Graff (The May Institute)
Abstract: These two papers focus on the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. The first study, by Slaton, Hanley, and Raftery, compared results of interview-informed synthesized contingency analyses (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014) and standard functional analyses (Iwata et al., 1982/1994) to determine differential outcomes of conducting functional analyses with synthesized versus isolated reinforcers. The relative effectiveness of interventions derived from both types of analyses was then evaluated. The second study, by Deltour, Ahearn, and Cohen, consisted of a trial-based functional analysis of problem behavior during activity transitions. A treatment based on the obtained results and consisting of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction was then implemented to decrease problem behavior occurring during the activity transitions identified as problematic. The discussant for this symposium will be Richard B. Graff, Ph.D., BCBA-D, who currently works at the New England Center for Children and whose research interests include, among others, the functional assessment and treatment of challenging behavior.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Actvity transitions, FCT, Synthesized FA, Trial-based FA
A Comparison of Synthesized and Isolated Reinforcers in Functional Analysis
JESSICA SLATON (Nashoba Learning Group), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Kate Raftery (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract: Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) described a functional analysis (FA) model in which reinforcement contingencies identified via open-ended interviews with caregivers were combined in a single-test analysis. This interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) was shown to provide an effective baseline from which to develop socially-validated treatments. However, the contingency synthesis prohibits an understanding of whether problem behavior is maintained by the interaction of contingencies or by one or more of the individual contingencies. We therefore compared results of IISCAs and standard FAs (Iwata et al., 1982/1994) to determine differential outcomes of conducting FAs with synthesized versus isolated reinforcers for nine children with autism. For five children, the IISCA yielded differentiated results and the standard FA did not; these data illustrate the importance of searching for interactions rather than or in addition to main effects of contingencies. When both analysis types were differentiated for four children, differential reinforcement-based treatments designed from each analysis were then compared. Problem behavior was decreased and alternative behavior was established during the IISCA-based treatment but not during the standard-analysis-based treatment for two children. The relative efficacy, efficiency, and treatment utility of the IISCA and standard FA will be discussed.
Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Occurring During Activity Transitions
Clelia Deltour (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children), Stacy Cohen (Alternative Behavior), CHATA A. DICKSON (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Children with autism often present with difficulties during transitions (Davis, 1987). It is therefore important to develop procedures for assessing and treating problem behavior during transitions. The purpose of the present study was to replicate McCord, Thomson, and Iwata (2001) by developing and conducting an assessment and intervention for the transition-related problem behavior of two participants with disabilities. Following some pre-assessment analyses, we conducted a functional analysis of problem behavior during transitions between activities. The results suggested that problem behavior occurred in transitions involving a worsening in activity preference, for example terminating a preferred or neutral activity and initiating a non-preferred activity. Finally, we examined the effectiveness of an intervention consisting of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction on the problem behavior occurring during the transitions identified as problematic. The results suggested that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction and effectively decreased problem behavior in all targeted activity transitions. Future directions will be discussed. Interobserver Agreement (IOA) was collected for at least 30% of all trials and averaged over 90% for all scored responses.
 
 
Symposium #3
Applied Behavior Analytic Interventions and Optimal Outcomes in People With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Scene C, Niveau 0
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Angeliki Gena (University of Athens, Greece)
Abstract: The continuously growing number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, the severity of this disability, and the high cost for its treatment call for interventions that are comprehensive, most effective, and efficient. Applied Behavior Analysis has provided a basis upon which various types of therapeutic programs that meet those criteria have been developed. This symposium approaches the issue of optimal outcomes in treatment from three perspectives: (a) a meta-analytic effort to assess degree of effectiveness of behavior analytic approaches across all major areas of child development, (b) an empirical attempt to assess the effectiveness of a model, that is both naturalistic and systemic, in producing high levels of appropriate responding across a wide array of variables including variables for which treatment was not provided, and (c) a pilot study that assesses effectiveness in terms of the collateral effects that behavior analytic teaching may have on problem behavior. In conclusion, this symposium aims to investigate ways in which maximum effects in the treatment of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder may be obtained using minimum resources.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
The Effectiveness of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Programs for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Study
Maria Makrygianni (University of Athens), Sophia Katoudi (University of Athens), Petros Galanis (University of Athens), ANGELIKI GENA (University of Athens)
Abstract: Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder is widely used, very effective, and the most-widely studied type of intervention. Nevertheless, findings are not consistent regarding the degree of its effectiveness. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of such programs for children with Autism. For the purpose of the present analysis, 24 studies met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Effectiveness was evaluated in terms of three domains pertaining to child-related variables: a) performance on verbal and nonverbal intelligence measures, b) receptive and expressive language, and c) adaptive behavior. The findings indicated that EIBI programs are moderately to highly effective bringing significant benefits for children with ASD in the aforementioned areas. Specifically, they were very effective in improving intellectual abilities (g=0.773), communication (g=0.720) and social skills (g=0.750); moderately effective in improving adaptive behavior (g= 0.524), expressive (g= 0.455) and receptive language (g=0.488), and non-verbal IQ (g= 0.541); and least effective in improving daily-living skills (g=0.199). Keywords: effectiveness, Early-Intensive-Behavioral Intervention, meta-analysis
A Systemic-Naturalistic Behavior Analytic Model for Training Parents of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
AIKATERINI DROSINOU (Institute of Systemic Behavior Analysis), Angeliki Gena (University of Athens, Greece)
Abstract: The notable increase in the number of people diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder accentuates the need for substantially-researched therapeutic services for them and their families. There are several studies, which bring to the fore the importance of early intervention and of parental active involvement in their childs therapy. The present study, through the use of a multiple baseline design across response categories, aims to assess the effectiveness of a therapeutic model that encompasses behavior analytic naturalistic procedures (e.g., incidental teaching) used in conjunction with a systemic understanding of the parent-child relationship. Four male pre-schoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their mothers and fathers were the participants in this study. The effectiveness of the treatment procedure was demonstrated by considerable improvements in child-related, parent-related, and parent-child relational variables for all the participants. Treatment effects generalized across several parameters and maintained through time. Those findings may attribute considerably to the childs progress and the familys wellbeing. Keywords: parent training, systemic-naturalistic behavior analytic model.
A Pilot Study on Sexual Education of an Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder
MARIA STAVARI (University of Athens,Greece), Georgios Gkogkos (University of Athens, Greece), Angeliki Gena (University of Athens, Greece)
Abstract: Providing sexual education for youth with Autism is very important as it attributes to setting a foundation for social, physical, and emotional development. Yet, sexual education is a rather neglected area probably because of misconceptions about the sexual needs of people in the Spectrum. ?he purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to assess the effectiveness of behavior analytic procedures, such as prompting, and reinforcement contingencies in acquiring appropriate sexual behavior and (b) to examine the effects of improved sexual behavior in decreasing problem behavior. It is anticipated that the 13-year-old participant with Autism will demonstrate improvement in a number of areas including appreciation of privacy, changes occurring in puberty, and self-satisfaction. Those changes are anticipated to produce a collateral reduction in behavior problems. These preliminary findings may be useful in designing short-term individualized treatment plans aiming to improve the sexual behavior of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Such improvements may result in simultaneous decreases of problem behavior and of stigmatization often associated with inappropriate sexual behavior. Keywords: sexual education, puberty
 
 
Symposium #4
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Functional Communication Training: Caregiver Training and Use in Typical Settings
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Scene DEF, Niveau 0
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jennifer N. Fritz, Ph.D.
Chair: Jennifer N. Fritz (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a common treatment strategy for the reduction of problem behavior. Challenges can be encountered in teaching the procedures to caregivers in rural or ethnically diverse communities, as well as in the maintenance of treatment effects when reinforcement delays are necessary. Cordova, Phillips, Fritz, and Lerman used a train-the-trainer model to teach caregivers to train other caregivers to implement FCT with their children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Caregivers' integrity of implementation improved following training. Sellers, Hoffmann, and Bogoev used combined the train-the-trainer model with telehealth to teach caregivers to conduct a functional analysis implement FCT with their young children. A Board Certified Behavior Analyst? taught a behavior specialist to train caregivers in the procedures, and results showed this approach to be highly effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing independent comunication. Finally, Ghaemmaghami, Hanley, Jessel, Landa, and Ward compared time-based delays and contingency-based delays (CBD) following successful use of FCT. CBD was more effective, and most participants preferred unpredictable CBD compared to predictable CBD. Directions for future research and implications for clinical applications will be discussed.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): caregiver training, FCT, reinforcement delay, telehealth
Improving Access to Care for Challenging Behavior Using a Parent-To-Parent Mentoring Approach
Samantha Cordova (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Lauren Phillips (University of Houston-Clear Lake), JENNIFER N. FRITZ (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are more likely to engage in challenging behavior, such as aggression and self-injury, than children without ASD. If left untreated, these behaviors can increase in severity over time, causing significant stress on families. Numerous studies over the 30 years have demonstrated the efficacy of behavioral treatments for these challenging behaviors, particularly an intervention called functional communication training (FCT). Furthermore, caregivers have been able to effectively implement FCT in home settings to reduce their children's challenging behavior. However, all caregivers to date have been trained by professionals. The waiting lists to obtain these professional services can be quite lengthy, and these services are even less accessible to ethnically diverse, low-income families due to language and financial barriers. In this study, we evaluated a model of training in which caregivers trained by professionals then trained other parents to implement FCT with their children in the home setting. This model has the potential to expand clinical service availability in rural, low-income communities, as well as to more diverse ethnic groups who face barriers to receiving services for their childrens challenging behavior.
Using Telehealth for Assessment & Intervention: Behavior Specialist as Coach & Caregivers as Implementers
TYRA P. SELLERS (Utah State University), Audrey N. Hoffmann (Utah State University), Bistra Bogoev (Utah State University)
Abstract: Researchers and clinicians have successfully demonstrated the use of telehealth in coaching parents to conduct functional analyses (FA) and subsequent functional communication training (FCT). We replicated and extended previous research by enlisting existing natural change agents to conduct FAs and FCT interventions via telehealth for children three years old and younger. Board Certified Behavior Analysts® (BCBA®)s trained and coached the existing behavior specialist via telehealth, who in turn trained and coached parents to conduct FAs and implement FCT in the community clinic setting. The function of challenging behavior was successfully identified for four participants. Challenging behavior reduced and the selected appropriate communication response increased for all participants. This study demonstrates that BCBAs can provide coaching and training, via telehealth, to less-trained behavior specialists to improve existing services provided through service programs, while minimizing potentially intrusive involvement of outside service providers.
Efficacy of Contingency-Based Delay Tolerance Training and Preference for Predictable Versus Unpredictable Delays
MAHSHID GHAEMMAGHAMI (University of the Pacific; Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Joshua Jessel (Child Study Center), Robin K. Landa (Western New England University), Shannon Ward (Western New England University)
Abstract: The effectiveness of treatments for problem behavior, like functional communication training (FCT), depends on the extent to which the treatment can be successfully extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based delay (TBD) often result in loss of acquired communication responses and a re-emergence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based delay (CBD) appears effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). No direct comparison of TBD and CBD has been conducted, however. We first compared the relative efficacy of TBD and CBD across progressively longer delays using probabilistic reinforcement. Four individuals who engaged in a range of problem behaviors (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Lower rates of problem behavior and emotional responding were observed during CBD than TBD. We then evaluated the efficacy of, and participants’ preference for, predictable versus unpredictable CBD. Results from four participants showed that unpredictable CBD was more effective at maintaining optimal rates of communication, low rates of problem behavior, and high rates of compliance during delay. Unpredictable CBD, however, was preferred to predictable CBD and a control condition for three out of four participants.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #5
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
A Brief History of Basic Behavior-Analytic Research on Human Language and Cognition: From Skinner to Derived Relations and Beyond
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Scene AB, Niveau 0
Area: PCH
CE Instructor: Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Ph.D.
Chair: Martha Costa Hubner (University of São Paulo)
DERMOT BARNES-HOLMES (Ghent University)
Dr. Dermot Barnes-Holmes received his D.Phil. in behavioral analysis and behavioral biology from the University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland. He currently serves as Senior Full Professor and Odysseus Laureate at Ghent University, Belgium, having previously served on the faculties of the National University of Ireland, Maynooth, and University College Cork. Dr. Barnes-Holmes is an extraordinarily prolific researcher who has made extensive contributions to the behavior analytic literature, especially in the areas of language and cognition. The competitive and prestigious Odysseus Laureate awarded to Dr. Barnes-Holmes in 2015 is just the most recent recognition of the esteem in which his work is held among behavioral scientists internationally. He contributed substantively to the development of Relational Frame Theory and has been a major source, either directly or through his more than 35 doctoral students, of the frequently cited empirical studies that support the theory. Since 1989, Dr. Barnes-Holmes has published 224 peer-reviewed articles, 40 book chapters, and 7 books or edited volumes. His work is known for its creativity and breadth in addressing complex questions about human language and cognition, with a coherent conceptual and methodological approach. This work has received more than �3.5 million in competitive funding since 2000, and has resulted in a number of prestigious awards and recognitions.
Abstract: The history of basic research in behavior analysis on human language and cognition could be traced back to the publication of Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior and to the distinction that he made subsequently between contingency-shaped versus rule-governed behavior in An Operant Analysis of Problem Solving (Skinner, 1966). Although basic research studies were slow to emerge from the former work, the latter publication was critical in generating a whole plethora of studies that were directly relevant to the behavior analytic study of human language and cognition. The seminal research on equivalence relations by Sidman (1994) and colleagues, which commenced in the early 1970s and led to the development of relational frame theory (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001), provided another critically important source of inspiration for basic research in this area. The current paper will present an overview of this 60-year-old unfolding research story and will consider some empirical and conceptual issues that appear to require focused attention as the story continues to unfold across the coming decades.
Target Audience: Licensed behavior analysts, psychologists, graduate students.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, the participant will be able to: (1) provide a brief summary of the major milestones in the history of basic research in human language and cognition from a behavior-analytic perspective; (2) explain how Sidman’s research on equivalence relations clarified the concept “specification” in the area of rule-governed behavior; (3) articulate the definition of arbitrarily applicable relational responding and provide some simple examples of how it provides a behavior-analytic account of human language and cognition.
 
 
Symposium #6
How to Disseminate Applied Behavior Analysis to Professionals (not Psychologists) and how to Design an Educational Path for Psychologists With a Behavioral Approach: The Experience of the Italian Applied Behavior Analysis Chapter
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Studio AB, Niveau 2
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Fabio Tosolin (AARBA - Association for the Advancement of Radical Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Giampaolo Perna (Villa San Benedetto Menni, Suore Ospedaliere; Italian Association of Behaviour Analysis and Modification )
Abstract: The symposium will present the way Italian behavior analysis associations have spread ABA in Italy, a country with a strong background and consensus on psychoanalysis. The symposium will present how it has done both in psychological and non-psychological field, by trying to involve end-users and professionals in our dissemination. The symposium will be an opportunity to discuss on how to go beyond national formal and cultural barriers in any country, on how to build up an efficient Behavior Analysis educational path, and on how to help of many different professional figures committed in non-psychological fields.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): ABA dissemination, Teaching ABA
How to Increase the Number of Behavior Analysts by Exploiting the Legal Rules Written Precisely in Favor of Cognitivists
ARISTIDE SAGGINO (Italian Association of Behaviour Analysis and Modification; University of Chieti-Pescara)
Abstract: To become a psychotherapist in Italy first you must get a degree in medicine or in psychology. Second, you have to attend a four-year post-graduation course (public or private) recognized by the Italian State. To obtain the recognition of such post-graduation course in psychotherapy it isonly necessary to have qualified teachers and sufficient spaces (classrooms). It is not important to teach evidence-based therapies whose effectiveness is scientifically proven. This is valid both for behavior analysis and for any other kind of psychological intervention. The Italian Association for Behavior Analysis and Modification (AIAMC) has recently included in its Statute and Regulationsa commitment to teach only evidence-based therapeutic interventions to protect both patients and therapists. AIAMC currently has 10 post-graduation training schools in Italy recognized by the Italian government. These four-years schools have the following structure: 2000 hours of training in the four-year period of which 1,100 hours of lectures, 700 hours of internship and 200 hours of individual and group supervision. Our association developed and implemented a marketing strategy of science and educational programs, in order to take advantage of the very unfavorable academic environment for the benefit of behavioral psychology, to attract new generations of psychologists, and to involve them in our scientific perspective. In conclusion, we will provide information on such strategies for the dissemination of Applied Behavior Analysis technologies in our country.
Teaching Applied Behavior Analysis to Professionals, and Not Psychologists: The Training and Coaching Path for Spreading Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) and Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) Practices Into a Country
MARIA GATTI (AARBA - Association for the Advancement of Radical Behavior Analysis), Paola Silva (AARBA - Association for the Advancement of Radical Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: As professionals and members of the ABA community, AARBA tried many ways before getting partially successful in disseminating ABA: in a first attempt, AARBA tried to teach principles and practice of both OBM and Fluency-based training to psychologists and institutions, but Behavior Analysis expiates unfair preconceptions in Italy because of the lack of scientific culture and the psychoanalytic approach. Further, there are common misconceptions of our principles themselves and their applications. Since 2006, AARBA followed the suggestion of the departed professor Bill Hopkins ("Teach ABA to engineers, not to psychologists") and changed its main target: AARBA established a training path for those professionals as engineers, business consultants, managers interested in OBM, and especially Behavior-Based Safety. First, AARBA introduced to BA and BBS with an 80-hours course with a final exam. Second, they committed to follow a supervised practice by underwriting an AARBA ethical code. Third, some experienced OBM consultants constituted a network for coaching junior profiles and make them autonomous in BBS application. Fourth, AARBA instituted a BBS Process certification and BBS Professional certification, based on both injuries reduction and correctness of BA principles applications. In these ten years, more than 400 people belong to AARBA BBS experts list, more than 20 have been coached, few have achieved certification. AARBA carried forward other scientific and disseminating activities, considers this path a success because now state institutions consider our chapter as referent for behavioral safety.
 
 
Paper Session #7
Topics in Verbal Behavior: Intraverbals
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Forum EF, Niveau 1
Area: VRB
Instruction Level: Advanced
Chair: Timothy Michael Yeager (Fresno State)
CANCELED: Poetics: A Behavioral Analysis of Creative Writing
Domain: Theory
M. N. HEGDE (California State University, Fresno (Emeritus))
Abstract: Historically, poetics, the study of literary creativity, is philosophical in nature. Within psychology, poetics is largely mentalistic. Psychoanalysis of creative writing is popular among literary critics and thinkers. This presentation will begin with a brief review and critical evaluation of some major theories of creative writing, including those of Plato, Aristotle, and some contemporary psychologists. That writing literary fiction, poetry, and short stories is a form of verbal behavior, subjected to laws of behavior is not well appreciated. Skinner's analysis of creative writing needs to be extended and the current poetic concepts and theories should be evaluated and reinterpreted in terms of contingencies of behavior and concepts of verbal behavior. This presentation makes a behavioral analysis of an array of statements made by critically acclaimed writers of fiction on how and why they write. The analysis supports the claim that creative writing is a form of verbal behavior under the control of verbal and nonverbal stimuli and learned and sustained by contingencies of reinforcement. Writers's own statements support the claim that verbal and nonverbal events stimulate creative writing in the first place, but once started, intraverbal control sustains writing. The reader's response to literary writing is largely a matter of intraverbal generalization that explains such mentalistic notions as suggested or implied meaning of fiction and poetry. In essence, the analysis tries to show that creative writing is under external control and that such mentalistic notions as inspiration, genius, unconscious forces, brilliance, innate abilities and so forth are unproven as well as unnecessary. The analysis aims to show that writers are a locus where variables that cause writing come together to produce a special effect.
 
An Analysis of Incidental Language Acquisition and the Relation Between the Emergence of Novel Intraverbals and Conditioned Seeing
Domain: Applied Research
TIMOTHY MICHAEL YEAGER (Fresno State), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: Naming has been identified as a Verbal Behavior Developmental Capability allowing individuals to acquire language incidentally. However, a name is but an arbitrary relation given to a set of essential stimulus characteristics. While many studies have demonstrated the emergence of untaught listener responses, tacts and impure tacts as a function of contrived experiences, few if any have looked at the emergence of untaught intraverbals as a measure of incidental language acquistion. The initial two experiments used a delayed multiple probe design to conduct analysis on the relationship between naming experiences and the emergence of untaught listener, tact, and intraverbals. In each of the experiments, 12 participants, identified as neuro typical, ages 4-5 were used. In Experiment 1, upon the emergence of an untaught accurate tact, all participants emitted the correlated untaught intraverbal, identifying the color of the stimulus when the stimulus was not present. In Experiment 2, additional stimuli characteristics were controlled for and the same relation between untaught tact and intraverbals, as identified in Experiment 1, was observed. In Experiment 3 language acquisition was measured utilizing a non-concurrent stimulus presentation in which the auditory stimulus was presented after the visual stimulus was removed and two distractor trials presented. Through a delayed multiple probe design, results for all six participants, demonstrated a multiple exemplar intervention was successful in establishing language acquisition in the absence of the visual stimulus. As we seek to discover key and necessary sources of language expansion, the acquisition of novel intraverbals may be an important piece. Conditioned seeing may account for these untaught responses as the procedures used may have required the particpants to emit private supplementary stimuli in order to respond accurantely to novel intraverbals. If more than a name is being acquired, it may be beneficial to separate this Verbal Behavior Developmental Capability from other research on Naming, as Incidental Language Acquisition.
 
 
 
 
Paper Session #8
Topics in Autism: Evidence Based Intervention
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Forum GHIJ, Niveau 1
Area: AUT
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Evidence Based
Chair: Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India)
Emergence of Vocalization in Non Vocal Children With a Diagnoses of Autism: Building an Evidence Base for Interventions
Domain: Applied Research
SMITA AWASTHI (Queen's University Belfast), Sridhar Aravamudhan (Behavior Momentum India), Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: Children with autism exhibit significant delays in speech production and most require highly specialized training (Tait et al, 2004). A variety of technologies such as echoic training, shaping, antecedent rapid motor imitation sequence, stimulus-stimulus pairing (Lovaas et al, 1973; Milliotis et al, 2012; Ross & Greer, 2003; Sundberg, et al.1996) have been used for inducing vocalizations in children with autism. Experiment 1 examined the effectiveness of sign-mand training paired with vocal stimuli in 5 non-vocal participants with autism aged 2.8 to 13.5 years. Experiment 2 included pairing a vocal during intraverbal training in phase two for 5 non-vocal participants aged 3 to 3.5 years. A multiple baseline design across both experiments demonstrated the effect of stimulus-stimulus pairing in evoking first instances of speech. In both experiments 4 of the 5 participants met the mastery criteria of vocalization. IOA was 100% for all children. Both technologies were effective in inducing first instances of speech and provides evidence for the effectiveness of pairing vocals under motivating operation.
 
Evidence-Based Practices and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A State-Wide Examination and District-Wide Training
Domain: Applied Research
SUMMER FERRERI (Michigan State University)
Abstract: This was a two-part investigation aimed at (1) examining the nature of strategies and interventions used in public schools by service providers of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the state and subsequently determining whether or not those practices were evidence-based, and (2) identifying areas of weakness in the use of evidence-based practices and developing and implementing evidence-based training protocols to service providers of individuals with ASD in classrooms across an urban, high-priority district. Specifically, research questions in Part 1 investigated (a) the type of training provided to educational service providers of students with ASD, (b) whether training procedures aligned with evidence-based practices, (c) what was the relation between reported training in evidence-based practices and use of evidence-based practices with students with ASD, and (d) how the results varied by school districts. A systematic sampling process was used to collect information from 194 school professionals from various socioeconomic backgrounds and geographical regions statewide. Part 2 of the investigation developed and implemented evidence-based training protocols to school professionals. Results and implications of these findings for research and practice will be presented.
 
Applied Behavior Analysis: The Scientific Basis for Addressing Public Health Concerns in France
Domain: Service Delivery
M'HAMMED SAJIDI (Vaincre l'Autisme), Paloma Trejo (Vaincre l'Autisme), Katerina Dounavi (Queen's University of Belfast)
Abstract: Behavior-analytic interventions are the basis of what is now considered medically necessary intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders. International best practice includes early, intensive, behavior-analytic interventions individually tailored to suit each child's needs delivered by highly trained professionals in collaboration with parents and aiming to achieve meaningful inclusion in the natural environment. In France, numerous barriers built in the system, such a strong psychoanalytic tradition in the treatment of autism, block children's and professional's access to evidence-based effective education and prevent individuals with autism and their families from living a fulfilling life while enjoying inclusion in society. In this presentation, an innovative model based on ABA and best international practice will be presented as set in practice in Paris. The pathway to success since its inception in 2004 will be illustrated including details on the recent achievement of prolonged funding by the health regional agency for an additional 15 years. Current situation in France including the ongoing need for University-based education for professional training to support the dissemination of scientific methods for the treatment of autism will be discussed together with the way to move forward.
 
CANCELED: Evidence-Based Intervention Strategies for Young Children (0-8 years) With Autism Spectrum Disorder: European Educators Knowledge and Efficacy
Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER MCMAHON (University of Limerick)
Abstract: Early educational intervention is of critical importance for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and evidence indicates that focused intervention strategies, majority of which are derived from behaviour analysis, are the building blocks of comprehensive educational programmes (CEP's). Recently Odom and colleagues (Odom et al, 2015) have identified 27 focused intervention practices that meet the criteria for evidence based practice (EBP). However issues persist in the translation of evidence to practice, particularly in educational settings. This mixed methods cross sectional study examines European educators understanding of EBP's as they relate to young children with ASD as well as barriers and facilitators to adopting them. This is particularly important in a European context where treatment for the deficits and challenges of ASD is synonymous with education. Results indicate that educators have poor understanding of the key EBP's that optimise outcomes for young children with ASD and that a coordinated European approach is required in order to ensure successful educational experiences for all young children with ASD.
 
 
Keyword(s): Evidence Based
 
 
Paper Session #9
Topics in Autism: Therapy and Treatment
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Forum ABC, Niveau 1
Area: AUT
Chair: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
A Report of Drug Therapy in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Considerations for Practitioners
Domain: Service Delivery
ANITA LI (Western Michigan University), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Many people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receive one or more prescription medications that are intended to somehow improve their behavior. Such medications are termed "psychotropic" drugs. Two such drugs, risperidone (Risperdal) and aripiprazole (Abilify), are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treating "irritability" in children and adolescents with ASD. "Irritability" refers to the occurrence of temper tantrums, self-injury, and other forms of challenging behavior. Many other psychotropic drugs are also commonly given to people with ASD. This paper will provide information about the prevalence of psychotropic medication use in people with ASD, the kinds of drug used, the evidence for their effectiveness, and considerations and strategies for practitioners of clients receiving multiple services.
 
How to Start the Treatment With older Kids and Teenagers With Autism in School Settings. IWRD Model of Supervision
Domain: Service Delivery
ANNA BUDZINSKA (Institute for Child Development in Gdansk, Poland), Marta Wojcik (Institute for Child Development)
Abstract: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that affects many areas of a child's life. Therefore, an effective intervention program must be individualized to address the skill deficits and behavioral excesses in treatment setting, school, home, and community. Frequently, several well-documented instructional strategies must be simultaneously employed to teach children how to learn. This presentation defines Institute for Child Development (IWRD) model of supervision in special school in Poland to achieve positive outcomes for children and teenagers with autism. IWRD is the first and the only Institution in Poland, which is fully modeled on the treatment of Princeton Child Development Institute, USA. The mission of IWRD is to provide comprehensive assistance to children with autism to help them achieve the highest possible level of independence. Special school in Poland supervised by IWRD provides the education and care of mentally disabled children; and youth with multiple disabilities and autism. At primary level, there are five classes for children and teenagers with autism. Since February 2011, school has been under the supervision of the Institute for Child Development. During the presentation we will present scientifically proven techniques of applied behavior analysis used for developing new skills, independence and reducing unwanted behaviors. We will present the organization of work in a two-triple classes for children with autism. During the lecture we will present the footage showing the children's functioning before and after the introduction of effective learning techniques.
 
Pivotal Response Treatment: Effectiveness of Group Versus Individual Parent Training on Pivotal and Collateral Skills
Domain: Applied Research
RIANNE VERSCHUUR (Radboud University; Dr. Leo Kannerhuis), Bibi Huskens (Dr. Leo Kannerhuis)
Abstract: Effective and efficient parent training is essential to meet to the increased demands for treatment services for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but research comparing the effectiveness of different formats of parent training is limited. The present study investigated the effectiveness of group versus individual parent training in PRT on parent-created opportunities and children's self-initiations. Collateral changes in parental stress and children's maladaptive behaviors were also explored. Participants were 12 parents and 12 children with ASD between 3 and 14 years old. Data were collected within two multiple baseline designs across participants. Six parents participated in group PRT-training and six parents participated in individual PRT-training. Both group and individual parent training consisted of instruction in PRT-techniques, practice and video-feedback, but individual parent training also included guided practice. Preliminary results of four parents and children participating in individual parent training showed that all parents created significantly more opportunities during intervention (overall Tau = 0.87; 90%-CI = 0.61-1.13; p < 0.001) and for two children self-initiations increased significantly (overall Tau = 0.51; 90%-CI = 0.21-0.81; p = 0.006). Changes in collateral skills did hardly occur. More results will be presented and practical implications will be discussed.
 
Autism and Water Safety: How Can Applied Behaviour Analysis Help?
Domain: Applied Research
CATRIONA MARTIN (Queen's Universty of Belfast), Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: Drowning is one of the leading causes of death in children under five years of age (Asher, Rivara , Felix, Vance, & Dunne, 1995). It is the third most common cause of accidental death in children in Britain, after road traffic accidents and burns (OPCS, 1988). The mortality rate from drowning for children with ASD has been estimated to be as much as twice that of the typical population (Mouridsen, Bronnum-Hansen, Rich, & Isager, 2008). The present study investigated the impact of a eight-week instructional programme on the acquisition of behavioural water safety skills in young people with autism. A multiple-baseline design (Horner & Baer, 1978) across behaviours was employed to determine the effectiveness of ABA-based methods to teach water-based safety skills. This doctoral study comprised of three phases and included six participants with varying presentations of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Example results for participant A are included. The results of this study showed that, by applying behaviour analytic methods children with autism can be taught critical water safety skills.
 
 
 
 
Symposium #10
Control of Human Eye Movements by Operant Contingencies: Current Research and Theory
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Loft A, Niveau 3
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Celine Paeye (Université Paris Descartes)
Discussant: Peter Endemann (University of São Paulo)
Abstract: Ocular saccades and smooth pursuit are the eye movements we use when we explore our environment, look for information, or track moving objects. These gaze shifting movements place the retinal image of a target on the fovea (the small high-acuity area of the retina), allowing the visual system to perceive the fine details of the visual environment. Therefore, eye movements have sometimes been described and assessed as observing responses (i.e., responses that lead to exposure to discriminative stimuli, e.g. Tomanari et al., 2007). In addition, saccade and pursuit are known to have adaptive properties and to respond to changes occurring in the visual system or in the environment. This symposium brings together four researchers to discuss the last findings and theorizing on the control of eye movements by reinforcement contingencies in human adults. The presentations span the range of studies from anticipatory smooth pursuit to various saccadic properties, including latencies of single saccades and gaze allocation during visual search tasks. These recent studies indicate that the operant learning theory provides a valid alternative to contemporary computational models of motor control and decision-making.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Eye movements, Ocular saccades, Smooth pursuit, Vision
Anticipatory Smooth Eye Movements are Modulated by Reinforcement Contingencies
Jean-Bernard Damasse (Aix Marseille Universit�, CNRS), Laurent Perrinet (Aix Marseille Université, CNRS), Laurent Madelain (Aix Marseille Université, CNRS ; Université Lille Nord de France), Jeremie Jozefowiez (Université de Lille), ANNA MONTAGNINI (Aix Marseille Universit�, CNRS)
Abstract: Despite their relative simplicity, voluntary goal-directed eye movements are often used as a model of sensorimotor decision-making, as they generally rely on the dynamic selection of one out of several potentially relevant targets and they have proven extremely adaptive to the context. Importantly, visually-guided eye movements are modulated by their behavioral outcomes (Madelain, 2011; Montagnini, 2005). Here we study and model anticipatory smooth pursuit eye movements (aSPEM) performed ahead of target onset when the forthcoming target motion properties are partly predictable. The effects of reinforcement contingencies on aSPEM can be considered as a particular case of credit assignment problem (Kaelbling, 1996), indicating the difficult match between a particular property of a behavior and the outcome. In a baseline direction-bias task we manipulated the probability of target direction. We then modified the task by setting an implicit eye-velocity criterion during anticipation. The nature of the following trial-outcome (reward or punishment) was contingent to the criterion-matching during estimate of aSPEM. We observed a dominant graded effect of the direction-bias and a small modulatory effect of contingent reinforcement on aSPEM velocity. A yoked-control paradigm corroborated this result showing a strong reduction in anticipatory behavior when the reward/punishment schedule was not contingent (Damasse, 2016).
Control of Saccadic Latencies in a Concurrent Interval Reinforcement Schedule
CÉCILE VULLINGS (Université Lille Nord de France), Laurent Madelain (Université Lille Nord de France;Aix-Marseille CNRS)
Abstract: Saccadic latencies are conventionally viewed as reflecting the accumulation of information during decision-making process. However, we have previously shown that latency distributions may be strongly affected by reinforcement contingencies (Madelain et al., 2007). Here, we probe the effect of concurrent schedules on the control of saccadic latencies. Six human adults made saccades within 80-300ms following the horizontal displacement of a target. For each subject, we selected two classes of latencies, ‘short’ and ‘long’, using the first and last quartiles of baseline distribution (e.g. [80;151]ms and [185;300]ms respectively). Applying random interval reinforcement schedules, we then concurrently reinforced each class in three blocked conditions (approximately 20000 saccades per subject) such that the relative frequencies of reinforcing ‘short’ versus ‘long’ latencies were either 9/1, 1/9 or 1/1. We observed modifications of latency distributions depending on the reinforcement contingency in force: distributions shifted toward the shorter or longer values or became strongly bimodal and the relative proportion of latencies matched the relative proportion of reinforcers earned from each option (sensitivity up to 0.95). Our results indicate that learned contingencies might considerably affect the allocation of saccades in time, and provide strong evidence of a control of saccadic latencies extending well beyond information accumulation.
Finding a Target Reinforces Saccadic Eye Movements in Visual Search
CELINE PAEYE (Université Lille Nord de France ; Giessen Universität ; Université Paris Descartes), Laurent Madelain (Université Lille Nord de France ; Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS), Alexander Schütz (Giessen Universität ; Marburg Universtität), Karl Gegenfurtner (Giessen Universität)
Abstract: Arbitrary, non-visual consequences are known to affect eye movements in simple visual tasks. We designed a new paradigm to test whether finding a visual target can also be effective to reinforce saccadic eye movements during complex visual search tasks. Human adults were instructed to search for a target that was not visible at the beginning of the trial. We used gaze-contingent displays to present the target immediately after saccades that met various criteria. In one study the target was presented more often after saccades into a specific quadrant. Between baseline trials (without target) and trials at the end of learning, the proportions of saccades towards this quadrant nearly tripled. Moreover, participants matched their relative rates of saccades to the relative rates of targets, which was consistent with the generalized matching law (sensitivity: 1.21, R²: 0.94). In another study, the target was visible only after saccades of rare amplitude (to increase variability) and then after saccades of frequent amplitude (to decrease variability). U values, or ‘uncertainty’, increased by 54.89% on average and then decreased by 41.21%. These findings show that seeing a target controls saccadic properties, including variability, and confirm that operant learning can guide visual search behavior.
Operant Control of Human Eye Movements
LAURENT MADELAIN (Université Lille Nord de France; Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS)
Abstract: Saccade and smooth pursuit are the eye movements used by primates to shift gaze. We propose that these responses are operant behaviors controlled by their consequences on performance of visually guided tasks: in real life these movements are controlled by an enhanced clarity of a visual target, allowing adapted visually guided behaviors which act as reinforcers. It is therefore difficult to disentangle the visual discriminative stimulus (clarity of the visual target stimulus) from the reinforcing consequences (the task that depends on the clear perception of the visual stimulus) and it is not surprising that the visual properties of the target are conventionally regarded as the controlling signals for gaze shifting movements. In the laboratory however, one may use non-visual reinforcers to induce changes in response topography and study the operant properties of eye movements. We applied this approach to probe the effects of reinforcement on several dimensions of pursuit or saccades such as their velocities, amplitudes or reaction times, and showed that voluntary eye movements depend on reinforcement contingencies. Studying the conditions under which particular eye movement patterns might emerge from the cumulative effects of reinforcement provides critical insights about how motor responses are attuned to environmental exigencies.
 
 
Symposium #11
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Recent Translational Research on the Variables Controlling the Development, Maintenance, and Recurrence of Responding
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Loft GH, Niveau 3
Area: EAB
CE Instructor: Brian D. Greer, Ph.D.
Chair: Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract: Bridging the basic and applied realms of behavior analysis, translational research seeks to determine the conditions under which basic principles of behavior control the behavior of humans in more typical contexts (e.g., home, school, and community settings), while also suggesting important areas for future basic research. The translational papers in this symposium examine the variables controlling the development, maintenance, and recurrence of target responding. Billie Retzlaff will begin this symposium by sharing the results of a recent translational investigation on the potential for the induction of additional functions of responding following synthesized contingencies of reinforcement. Hank Roane will then present on the role of response variability on the resurgence of problem behavior during challenges to treatment. Brian Greer will then present on strategies to mitigate the resurgence of problem behavior following functional communication training. Finally, Sarah Cowie will present on how reinforcers control behavior due to their ability to signal the immediate future probability of additional reinforcers.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): functional analysis, reinforcement, resurgence, treatment
A Translational Investigation of the Potential for Induction of Additional Functions Following Synthesized Contingency Analyses
(Applied Research)
BILLIE RETZLAFF (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessica Akers (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Fisher, Greer, Romani, Zangrillo, and Owen (2016) compared the results of traditional functional analyses, where each potential putative reinforcer is evaluated individually, with results of a synthesized contingency analysis, where potential putative reinforcers are combined to create a single synthesized test condition. Results indicated that the synthesized contingency analysis produced false-positive outcomes for four of the five participants. These results also raise the possibility that combining potential putative reinforcers in a synthesized test condition may worsen problem behavior or induce novel functions of problem behavior. The presented study is a translational investigation designed to test whether exposure to synthesized contingencies can induce novel functions of behavior. An arbitrary response was established under the control of a specific establishing operation for each participant. We then conducted a traditional functional analysis of the arbitrary response and results indicated the response only occurred in the training context. Next we conducted a synthesized contingency analysis of the arbitrary response, and finally we conducted a second traditional functional analysis. Findings indicated both participants engaged in the arbitrary under more stimulus conditions following exposure to the synthesized contingency analysis. These findings are discussed in terms of current practices in functional assessment of problem behavior.
Examination of Resurgence and Response Variability During Challenges to Treatment
(Applied Research)
William Sullivan (Dept. of Pediatrics, Upstate Medical University ), Valdeep Saini (Dept. of Pediatrics, Upstate Medical University ), Nicole M. DeRosa (Dept. of Pediatrics, Upstate Medical University ), HENRY S. ROANE (Dept. of Pediatrics, Upstate Medical University )
Abstract: Treatment of challenging behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities often involves withholding reinforcement for problem behavior (i.e., extinction) while simultaneously reinforcing an appropriate alternative behavior (i.e., differential reinforcement). Previous research has demonstrated that if reinforcement of the alternative behavior is reduced or eliminated (i.e., interruption of treatment), resurgence of problem behavior may occur. However, it is also possible that extinction-induced response variability (i.e., emergence of functionally related topographies of behavior) may also occur when reinforcement is withheld for previously reinforced responses. The current study sought to evaluate the occurrence of resurgence of problem behavior and extinction-induced response variability during a human operant arrangement in which an inactive control response was present and during clinical cases in which interruptions to treatment were programmed. Results suggested that resurgence and response variability may have an inverse relation when treatment is interrupted, such that if resurgence of problem behavior occurs, a child is less likely to display response variability and conversely, resurgence of problem behavior may not be as robust when a child engages in greater response variability. Clinical implications regarding the effects of treatment interruptions will be discussed.
Strategies to Mitigate the Recurrence of Problem Behavior Following Functional Communication Training
(Applied Research)
Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center), BRIAN D. GREER (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Valdeep Saini (Dept. of Pediatrics, Upstate Medical University ), Christina Simmons (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) has strong empirical support for its use when treating socially reinforced problem behavior. However, treatment effects often deteriorate when FCT procedures are challenged, leading to the recurrence of problem behavior, decreased use of the functional communication response (FCR), or both (Mace et al., 2010; Volkert, Lerman, Call, & Trosclair-Lasserre, 2009; Wacker et al., 2011). Researchers have accordingly described a number of strategies to improve the efficacy of differential-reinforcement procedures (e.g., FCT) when challenged. For example, Wacker et al. (2011) assessed the maintenance of FCT-treatment effects by periodically exposing the FCR to periods of extinction and found that additional exposure to FCT helped guard against the disruptive impact of later periods of extinction. Basic researchers have described this and similar modifications to FCT procedures based on behavioral momentum theory (BMT) that should also help mitigate treatment relapse. Our research team has recently begun investigating these BMT-inspired modifications to FCT. In this presentation, I will share the results of our preliminary work in this area.
Reinforcers Control Behaviour Because of What They Signal About the Immediate Future
(Basic Research)
SARAH COWIE (The University of Auckland, New Zealand ), Jessica Catherine McCormack (The University of Auckland, New Zealand ), Paula Hogg (The University of Auckland, New Zealand), Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland, New Zealand )
Abstract: The assumption that reinforcers strengthen behavior forms the foundation of many behavior-analytic interventions. However, recent basic research suggests that reinforcers control behavior because of what they signal about events that are likely to occur in the immediate future, rather than because they strengthen the behavior they follow. We extended an experimental paradigm used with non-human animals to study reinforcer control of choice in children. Seven typically developing children and one child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder played a game where opening one of two drawers would result in a reinforcer. The probability of the next reinforcer being obtained for opening the same drawer as had produced the last reinforcer was varied across conditions. Generally, children chose the drawer more likely to produce the next reinforcer, even on occasions when a different response had been reinforced in the preceding trial. This finding suggests that strengthening may be an unnecessary construct, and that a better understanding of how appetitive consequences control behaviour may be achieved using an alternative framework.
 
 
Symposium #12
New Approaches in the Analysis of Emergent Relational Stimulus Control
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Loft B, Niveau 3
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: The four talks to be presented in this symposium cover new approaches and directions in the analysis of emergent relational stimulus control. Richard Serna will describe an investigation of the stimulus control engendered by exclusion procedures in young typically developing children. The impact of this stimulus control on observing behavior will be analyzed with eye-tracking data. Deisy De Souza will report analyses of equivalence-probe performances assessed after each step of training conditional discriminations with abstract stimuli in young children. The emergent patterns thus revealed provide important insight in the identification and understanding of sources of behavioral variability in equivalence studies. Carol Pilgrim will describe experiments testing some implications of Sidmans (2000) revised definition of equivalence. The results suggest support for the new definition, and highlight the considerable generativity that may be made possible by considering a broader range of approaches to equivalence. Julio de Rose will report on the impact of replacing arbitrary stimuli in linear conditional discrimination training with either an emotional facial expression, or an arbitrary stimulus made equivalent to a facial expression with college students. These results have special relevance not only for understanding equivalence-class formation, but also for the study of social stimulus control.
Instruction Level: Advanced
CANCELED: Limitations to Emergent Conditional Discrimination Through Exclusion Learning
RICHARD W. SERNA (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Michelle M. Foran (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: This study examined factors that may limit the extent to which exposure to exclusion trials predicts accurate outcome performance. Specifically, we examined the effects of difficult-to-discriminate visual stimuli on both auditory visual exclusion performance and subsequent outcome performance in a matching-to-sample task. Participants were eight typically developing preschool children, ages 4-5 years old, all of whom entered the experiment capable of matching the spoken words "dog" and "cat" to line drawings of a dog and cat. This served as the exclusion baseline. The to-be-taught conditional discrimination (via the exclusion method) consisted of nonrepresentational forms that were very similar to one another, save for a single distinguishing feature, and the spoken nonsense words "veem" and "zid." In an identity matching-to-sample pretest, four participants could match the nonrepresentational forms to one another and four could not. Three of the four that could not were trained successfully to do so with a stimulus-control shaping program designed to direct observing to the distinguishing stimuli. The participant acquired the discrimination without training. In subsequent exclusion-exposure tests, all participants showed highly accurate exclusion performance. However, in a test of conditional-discrimination outcome performance, the participants trained to discriminate the nonrepresentational forms failed to meet criterion, while the four participants who entered the study able to discriminate the forms met criterion. The results will be discussed in terms of the stimulus control engendered by exclusion trials and its interaction with observing behavior. Follow-up studies that include eye-tracking data are ongoing.
Monitoring the Acquisition and Emergence of Arbitrary Visual-Visual Relations in Children
DEISY DAS GRAÇAS DE SOUZA (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Vanessa Ayres Pereira (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Daniela De Souza Canovas (Universidade de Sao Paulo), André A B Varella (Universidade Catolica Dom Bosco)
Abstract: Studies on stimulus equivalence usually dispense with pretest measures, assuming that using abstract stimuli ensure that participants could not have previous experience with the relations to be experimentally established. Also, when studies assess equivalence class formation after training all baseline relations, the possible effects of specific trainings remain unknown. This study assessed relational responding before any training, and after each step of training baseline relations. Six typically developing children were taught conditional discriminations with abstract stimuli, presented on the computer screen. AB-AC baseline relations (three participants), and AB-BC (other three participants) were taught under a multiple probe design. As expected, participants did not show any consistent responding on pretests. After AB training, four participants maintained baseline responding and showed immediate emergence of symmetric BA relations; two participants required retraining. After BC or AC training, AB and BA relations were disturbed for four children, while all six acquired the new relations and showed symmetry (CB or CA). One participant formed classes before the mixed training; after mixed training, all other participants reached criterion on baseline and symmetric relations, and showed immediate or delayed class formation. The step-by-step monitoring seems relevant in the identification and understanding of sources of behavioral variability.
Testing Implications of Sidman's (2000) Revised Definition of Equivalence
CAROL PILGRIM (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Brittany Williams (UNC Wilmington), Ashleigh Leuck (UNC Wilmington)
Abstract: Sidman (2000) proposed a revised definition of equivalence that has yet to receive the attention it deserves. The present study tested implications of this revised definition by training three-term contingencies with compound discriminative stimuli and compound class-specific consequences. For four typically developing children, selecting A1B1 or C1D1 produced R1r1; selecting A2B2 or C2D2 produced R2r2; and selecting A3B3 or C3D3 produced R3r3. For two participants, conditional discrimination probe tests revealed emergent relations indicative of three 6-member classes (e.g., A1B1C1D1R1r1). Those two participants then learned D-E and D-F conditional discriminations with the same class-specific consequences. Conditional discrimination probe trials (including standard equivalence probes allowed by the additional training) revealed 8-member classes, and simple discrimination probe trials revealed that the new stimuli in each class (E and F) served an emergent discriminative function when presented as part of a novel compound with any other class member. These data demonstrate that simple discrimination training can generate equivalence relations that class-specific consequences can become class members, and that compound elements can become independent class members, as predicted by Sidman’s revised equivalence definition. They also show that the generativity made possible by equivalence approaches may be considerably greater than the probe relations typically tested.
Class Enhancement Effects of Arbitrary Stimuli Equivalent to Facial Emotional Expressions.
JULIO C. DE ROSE (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), João Henrique de Almeida (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Táhcita Medrado Mizael (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College), Lanny Fields (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: College students seldom form equivalence classes when they learn conditional discriminations AB, BC, CD, and DE, with abstract stimuli. Inclusion of a meaningful stimulus as a class member enhances class formation. Additionally, abstract stimuli equivalent to facial emotional expressions acquire their meanings. The present study determined whether these latter stimuli also enhance class formation. Three groups of eight college students learned AB, BC, CD, and DE conditional discriminations and were tested for the emergence of ABCDE classes. Previously, the C stimuli became members of three other classes containing C, Y, X, and Z stimuli. For Group 1, all class members were abstract stimuli. For classes 1, 2, and 3, in Group 2, the Z stimuli were facial expressions of happiness, neutrality, and anger, respectively; therefore, the C stimuli should acquire the emotive valences of these faces. For Group 3, the facial expressions themselves were the C stimuli in the ABCDE and CXYZ classes. Equivalence classes were formed by 0%, by 38%, and by 75% of participants in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Thus, class formation was enhanced most by the inclusion of meaningful stimuli, and less so by the inclusion of abstract stimuli equivalent to facial expressions.
 
 
Symposium #13
Consumer Behavior Analysis Using Digital Technology
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Studio F, Niveau 2
Area: OBM/EAB
Chair: Gordon R. Foxall (Cardiff University)
Discussant: Valdimar Sigurdsson (Reykjavik University)
Abstract: Consumer behavior analysis draws on behavior analysis, behavioral ecology, behavioral economics, and marketing science to further enhance the understanding of all aspects of consumption. New technologies such as in-store analytics, improved eye tracking, customer feedback software tools and targeted, measurable, and interactive digital media are not only changing the face of the retail landscape but are also a relatively untapped opportunity in this discipline. Current activities in the digital marketplace are generating immense amounts of techniques, tools and behavioral data that can offer possibilities for more detailed analyses of consumer-marketing relationships from a behavior analytical viewpoint. In this symposium we will discuss recent theoretical developments and empirical analyses related to how consumers learn to adapt to highly competitive economic environments. The symposium starts with a theoretical paper on the relevance of consumer behavior analysis to digital marketing in the context of the Behavioral Perspective Model. The second paper explores the use of digital technology in scrutinizing in-store customer foraging in its natural surroundings focusing on key customer touch-points. The third study investigates the impact of online customer ratings on online hotel booking using the concept of probability discounting. The final paper uses behavioral conjoint as a methodology to study consumer trade-offs and reinforcement value maximization in online retailing.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Behavior Analysis, Consumer Behavior, Digital Technology
Consumer Behaviour Analysis and its Relevance to Digital Marketing
(Theory)
GORDON R. FOXALL (Cardiff University), Vishnu Menon (Reykjavik University), Valdimar Sigurdsson (Reykjavik University), Asle Fagerstrøm (Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology), Nils Larsen (UiT The Arctic University of Norway)
Abstract: The rapidly changing digital environment has redefined the way most companies interact with their customers. With consumers increasingly adopting digital technologies, a successful digital marketing strategy requires a thorough understanding of how and why consumers behave as they do. The purpose of the study is to explore the possibility of understanding digital consumer choice from a behavioral perspective and its impact for behavior analysts and digital marketers in identifying digital environmental contingencies. Furthermore, the study elaborates on the possibilities of analyzing digital consumer behavior in the context of the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM) (Foxall, 1990/2004), examining the influence of the digital environment on consumer behavior and how such behavior can be observed, measured, analyzed, and applied to aid the understanding of digital marketing and help behavior analysts to make informed decisions.
The Use of Technology to Study Important In-Store Customer Touch-Points: Advancing Conceptualisation, Methodology and Application in Consumer Behavior Analysis
(Applied Research)
VALDIMAR SIGURDSSON (Reykjavik University), Nils Larsen (UIT-The Arctic University of Norway)
Abstract: The paper discusses the need for a thorough understanding of consumer choice of a product carrying equipment (e.g. cart, basket or nothing) as a key customer touch-point at the beginning of a customer journey in grocery retailing. A four-term contingency framework with conversion rate modeling was used, and the data consisted of actual choice behavior detected through video-surveillance. In-store antecedents such as consumers' shopping goals and carrying equipment positioning were analyzed and manipulated while random consumers were observed individually from the point they entered the store to all the way to their exit. The measurements involved consequences of different in-store antecedents (goals and equipment) on in-store behaviors such as walking speed, number of purchases per minute, time spent on different zones (e.g., in the fruit section) and the proportion of healthy food in the total shopping. The data was analyzed using a Shopper Flow Tracking System where the software is designed both to give automatic data on shopper behavior and to assist human observers in tracking individual shopping trips. We discuss behavioral classifications, methodology, validity and implications related to the data from the consumer tracking efforts.
On the Impact of Customer Ratings on Online Hotel Bookings
(Applied Research)
ASLE FAGERSTRØM (Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology), Lars Syndnes (Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology), Georghita Ghinea (School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics, Brunel University )
Abstract: This study uses the concept of probability discounting to investigate the impact from online customer ratings on online hotel bookings. Probability discounting describes how the subjective value of an outcome alters when its delivery shifts from certain to uncertain. In a simulated online scenario, 50 participants were asked to book a hotel accommodation from one of two hotel alternatives. One of the hotels had ratings from previous guests, and varied in price, while the other hotel had a set price at market price. A titration procedure over price for the hotel with customer ratings was run over seven probability conditions. Results supports previous findings, and suggests that online customer ratings indicates the probability of a successful transaction and function as a “guide” to choices. The results are discussed in relation to the concept of probability discounting. Managerial implications and suggestions for further research are given.
Behavioural Conjoint Analysis in Digital Settings
(Applied Research)
VISHNU MENON (Reykjavik University), Valdimar Sigurdsson (Reykjavik University), Asle Fagerstrøm (Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology)
Abstract: The impact of subtle environmental factors on choice can be understood through the prism of behavioral economics, whereas the variations of marketing attributes and impact on choice can be measured using conjoint analysis. Using a behavioral conjoint approach, we conducted several reinforcement value maximization and trade-off analyses in an online healthy food retail setting to understand consumers’ willingness to buy both “healthy” and “unhealthy” food items, which were built on different attributes with different consequences for consumers. We overlay a monadic experiment on top of a conjoint study to exploit the advantages of both approaches. The research design compares different classifications within the same product class (healthy vs. unhealthy), different product class (food vs. fashion items), as well as diverse online platforms (e-commerce, email and social media). Results are presented in terms of partial utility scores from individual consumers based on altered interventions for consumer choices with scenario testing and demand curves. The paper provides practical implications of conjoint analysis as an experimental survey technique for decision making in different digital environments, especially related to the promotion and sales of healthy food. The role of behavioural conjoint analysis as an efficient pre-testing tool for more direct measures on behavior in online experimental analysis are also discussed.
 
 
Panel #14
CE Offered: BACB
Expanding Access to Applied Behavior Analysis Services for People With Developmental Disabilities: A Public Policy Perspective
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Scene DEF, Niveau 0
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Carmel Leonard, J.D.
Chair: Carmel Leonard (Simmons)
KATHERINE A. JOHNSON (Advances Learning Center)
AMY WEINSTOCK (University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract: Expanding access to high quality Applied Behavior Analysis services has required advocacy for systems change, including expanding the payers for ABA to include health insurers. This panel will describe the public policy changes that have transformed access to ABA treatment. The panel will identify the future targets for public policy advocacy to break down the barriers to universal access to quality behavior analytic services. The presenters have drafted and passed legislation in Massachusetts requiring private health insurers to pay for autism treatment, specifically including applied behavior analysis. They have also participated in the drafting of the regulations to license behavior analysts in Massachusetts. One of the panelists is the founder of an agency providing ABA services to children and adults, and has expertise in managing the reimbursement process for ABA services. Another founded an agency to assist families accessing insurance reimbursement for ABA services. The third panelist has worked to expand access to non-English speaking residents to enable them to access services.
Instruction Level: Basic
 
 
Symposium #15
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Skills Training: Effective Elements of Training in a Clinic, Home, and Community-Based Setting
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Studio AB, Niveau 2
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Stefanie Fillers, Ph.D.
Chair: Stefanie Fillers (Apex Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract: The current symposium will highlight elements of behavioral skills training across varying environments. Rue and colleagues will present data regarding behavior analysts' ability to generalize training in experimental functional analysis (EFA) methodology to trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) methods. The training occurred in a clinic providing services to clients with developmental disabilities. Preliminary data suggest error patterns across the three participants requiring feedback to achieve acceptable levels of procedural integrity. Mitchell and colleagues discuss the importance of training supervisors to provide effective supervision to direct care staff in home-based programs. The authors designed a feedback tool that was used during weekly performance monitoring. Preliminary data suggest implementation of a feedback tool can be an effective means of training supervisors working in home-based applied behavior analysis (ABA) programs. The final presentation highlights elements of behavior skills training in a community setting. Smith and colleagues present data regarding a community-based program to increase access to community events and services for families that include an individual with a developmental disability. Results suggest community members acquired skills necessary to assist in providing increased access to community events. Presenters will include a discussion of the successes and challenges in training individuals to implement programs with integrity.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Feedback, Training
Functional Analysis: Generalization From Traditional to Trial-Based Analysis
HANNA C. RUE (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Andrea L. Ridgway (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Tino LoVullo (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Results of a recent survey of over 600 behavior analysts indicated only 77% received formal training in the use of experimental functional analysis (EFA). Further, 63% of board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) indicated they "never" or "almost never" used an EFA in practice. The objective of the current study was to determine if BCBAs could generalize the ability to implement a trial-based experimental functional analysis (TBFA) following training focused on "traditional" EFA methodology. Three BCBAs with no experience implementing EFAs acted as participants in the study. The independent variable included formal training in EFA methodology. The dependent variable was level of procedural integrity during implementation of a traditional EFA and a TBFA measured in a multiple baseline design. Participants implemented the traditional EFAs during a mock assessment. Participants implemented the TBFAs in an applied setting with clients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Initial results indicate that participants can implement traditional EFA methodology with relatively high levels of integrity. Results suggest two participants demonstrated challenges maintaining levels of integrity above 80% during the demand and control conditions. Participants will likely require additional feedback to maintain procedural integrity above 80% accuracy during TBFAs. Implications for training and practice are discussed.
Training and Maintaining Supervision Skills: Use of a Direct, Systematic Feedback Tool to Increase Supervisor Skills and Performance
STEFANIE FILLERS (Apex Behavioral Consulting), Katie Cullen (Apex Behavioral Consulting )
Abstract: Effective and efficient supervision within the home setting can be a major challenge to Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) agencies. While the importance of quality supervision is well-known, many new supervisors are not provided formal supervision training. One well-documented method of ensuring quality supervision is regularly providing performance feedback to supervisees. The current study examined a method of improving supervisor performance using a systematic protocol and feedback tool. The participants of the study were two new home-program supervisors without formal supervision training. The dependent variable was their score on feedback form using a Likert-type scale which rated performance across supervision domains. Participants were given weekly, in person, performance evaluations from their supervisor. The weekly performance evaluation included a review of the feedback form, their score, and direct feedback on specific areas for improvement. Both participants scored in the moderate range during the baseline phase, which was anticipated based on their prior performance with the agency, and their overall familiarity with receiving regular feedback. As data collection continues, authors anticipate a gradual increase in performance scores and the ability to maintain supervision skills overtime. Results will be discussed in terms of improvement from baseline, maintenance of skills, and social validity.
Training a Community: Increasing Access to Events and Services for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities
JENNIFER D. SMITH (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center), Stephanie Weber (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center)
Abstract: Families of children with developmental disabilities are often hesitant to participate in community activities, especially when there is a lack of essential supports. These families seek the same variety and flexibility to engage in their community as other members of society. The SOAR (Starting Our Adventure Right) program promotes safe, comfortable, and inclusive opportunities, combined with careful training and education of community members so that children with developmental disabilities and their families can fully participate within their own communities. The SOAR Program began as a collaboration between the Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (DDBP) at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC), the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), and the Autism Society of Greater Cincinnati. It has expanded to other community settings including museums and theaters. Psychologists and behavior analysts make use of elements of behavioral skills training, visual supports and a simulation event that focuses on modeling and feedback. Preliminary results from one training site suggests substantially increase in pre/post test scores of knowledge regarding developmental disabilities. It is anticipated that continued data collection and analysis will support the use of community training program to increase inclusion of individuals with developmental disabilities.
 
 
Paper Session #16
Topics in Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Scene C, Niveau 0
Area: DDA
Chair: Evelyn Amanda Boutot (Texas State University)
CANCELED: Sexuality Education and Developmental Disabilities: Supporting the Development of Sexually Healthy Individuals Through Behaviorally-based Strategies
Domain: Theory
MEAGHAN MCCOLLOW (Central Michigan University), Marissa Congdon (Cal State San Bernardino)
Abstract: Sexuality education is an often overlooked aspect of education for children and youth with developmental disabilities. However, it is an important aspect of the development of healthy individuals. Without explicit instruction, these individuals are at risk of lack of information regarding sexual development, sexual and reproductive health, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy, body image, and gender roles. This lack of information can lead to misinformation about sexuality, lack of development of sexual and gender identities, and leaves these individuals open to abuse. Behaviorally-based strategies can be used to support sexuality education for individuals with developmental disabilities, including the use of task analysis, video modeling, reinforcement strategies, and self-management. This presentation will describe the current research literature on sexuality education as well as results from a practitioner survey on strategies used to provide sexuality education. Future directions for behaviorally-based strategies for sexuality education include a focus on ways in which generalization can be achieved and the ethical parameters practitioners need to consider.
 
Development and Implementation of an Applied Behavior Analysis Program for Infants With Down Syndrome
Domain: Service Delivery
E. AMANDA BOUTOT (Texas State University), Samuel DiGangi (Arizona State University)
Abstract: Research over the last decades has established that early behavioral intervention can not only lead to improvements in targeted skills and amelioration of autistic symptoms (e.g., Lovaas, 1987), but can also lead to actual improvements in neurological functioning (see Dawson, 2008 for a review). Dawson (2008) suggests that "early intervention can alter the abnormal developmental trajectory of young children with (autism) and help guide brain and behavioral development back toward a normal pathway" (p. 776). Because Down Syndrome is diagnosed earlier than autism (i.e., before or shortly after birth), there is potential to begin intervention at a very young age, producing more positive results. We will present details of the Down Syndrome Early Intervention Project, a longitudinal study examining the effects of low dose ABA for infants ages 2 and younger with Down Syndrome, with and without parents as co-therapists. Specifically, we will provide details on program development for very young children (under age 1), logistics of working with families and their infants, and share ramifications for future research and practice. We will examine assessment of very young infants, research-based approaches that are suited to very young learners and their families, and discuss collaborative approaches with other early intervention service providers.
 
 
 
 
Panel #17
CE Offered: BACB
Crew Resource Management and Situational Awareness: Behavioral Assessments and Interventions
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Studio DE, Niveau 2
Area: OBM/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Mark P. Alavosius, Ph.D.
Chair: Steven Anbro (University of Nevada Reno)
MARK P. ALAVOSIUS (Praxis2LLC)
PIERRE BORDAGE (Schlumberger, Ltd)
RAMONA HOUMANFAR (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Crew resource Management (CRM) describes an approach to coordinating the efforts of multiple personnel to optimize behavior within complex and challenging work environments. It is crucial in high risk industries such as aviation, nuclear power, oil & gas exploration and medicine, for examples, where teams must manage complex tasks within highly technical environments. Situational Awareness (SA) can be seen as a subset of CRM and entails a worker or crew perceiving changes in the operating environment, comprehending the significance of those changes, and predicting what will happen if events continue unchecked. SA in the context of CRM is an early step in a chain of coordinated behaviors (decision-making, communications, instructions, coaching, feedback, etc.) that allow teams to adapt their collective response to challenges and avert catastrophic outcomes. This panel considers the complexity of behaviors within the CRM and SA framework. Issues such as measuring crew and individual competency, the value of simulators in training, and design of support systems (dashboards, data streams, etc.) are discussed in the context of work underway in oil & gas exploration and medical settings.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): CRM, Dashboards, Situational Awareness
 
 
Invited Paper Session #18
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Growing Impact of Behavioral Science on Cultural Evolution
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Scene AB, Niveau 0
Area: PCH
CE Instructor: Anthony Biglan, Ph.D.
Chair: Maria E. Malott (Association for Behavior Analysis International)
ANTHONY BIGLAN (Oregon Research Institute)
Anthony Biglan, Ph.D., is a Senior Scientist at Oregon Research Institute. He is the author of The Nurture Effect: How the Science of Human Behavior Can Improve our Lives and Our World. Dr. Biglan has been conducting research on the development and prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior for the past 30 years. His work has included studies of the risk and protective factors associated with tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; high-risk sexual behavior; and antisocial behavior. He has conducted numerous experimental evaluations of interventions to prevent tobacco use both through school-based programs and community-wide interventions. And, he has evaluated interventions to prevent high-risk sexual behavior, antisocial behavior, and reading failure. In recent years, his work has shifted to more comprehensive interventions that have the potential to prevent the entire range of child and adolescent problems. He and colleagues at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences published a book summarizing the epidemiology, cost, etiology, prevention, and treatment of youth with multiple problems (Biglan et al., 2004). He is a former president of the Society for Prevention Research. He was a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Prevention, which released its report in 2009 documenting numerous evidence-based preventive interventions that can prevent multiple problems. As a member of Oregon�s Alcohol and Drug Policy Commission, he is helping to develop a strategic plan for implementing comprehensive evidence-based interventions throughout Oregon. Information about Dr. Biglan�s publications can be found at http://www.ori.org/scientists/anthony_biglan.
Abstract: In the pastseventy years, the behavioral sciences achieved knowledge of human behavior and cultural evolution that is beginning to reap significant benefits in terms of improving human well-being. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the knowledge we have gained with special emphasis on the behavior analytic roots of much of that progress. Dr. Biglan will then provide specific and diverse examples of how effective interventions are being implemented around the world at a scale that is beginning to affect the well-being of entire populations.
Target Audience: Licensed behavior analysts, psychologists, graduate students
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants should be able to: (1) describe or identify how the onset of new learned reinforcers (i.e., conditioned reinforcers) establish verbal behavior developmental cusps; (2) define how the terms transformation of stimulus function apply to learning to spell words across saying and writing; (3) explain how children who have demonstrated learning the names of things incidentally (presence of the bi-directional naming cusp) can be taught differently than children who do not demonstrate this verbal behavior developmental cusp; (4) describe or identify accurate statements concerning Greer’s argument that, “if you build reinforcers the behaviors will come;” (5) explain the importance of social reinforcers in verbal behavior development.
 
 
Paper Session #19
Topics in Autism: Early Intervention
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Forum Auditorium, Niveau 1
Area: AUT
Keyword(s): Early Intervention
Chair: Kara Reagon (Autism Speaks)
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Research on Children Under Age Three: Current Status and Future Directions
Domain: Service Delivery
KARA REAGON (Beacon Services of Connecticut), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: The term early intervention (EI) is often used when discussing ABA based early autism treatment. However, there is little agreement across researchers, clinicians, and stakeholders (e.g., families, policy makers, insurance providers and other funding agencies) regarding the age of clients being served. This paper will define early intervention according to Federal Law Part C of IDEA: The Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and review EI single subject research design peer reviewed literature related to autism and developmental delays. Furthermore, current single subject research data from our clinical practice will be presented focusing on children under the age of three using a variety of evidence based interventions not yet evaluated with children under the age of three. Lastly, future directions/implications for practitioners and researchers working with children under the age of three will be discussed. Considerations include identifying key components of interventions, behavioral cusps, direct versus systematic replications, social validity, ecological validity, treatment integrity, and cost-benefit analysis in producing meaningful outcomes for young children with autism.
 
Effectiveness of Early Intervention Behavioral Treatment in Children With Autism at Institute for Child Development, Poland: Princeton Child Development Institute Model
Domain: Applied Research
MARTA WOJCIK (Institute for Child Development), Anna Budzinska (Institute for Child Development in Gdansk, Poland), Ewa Budzinska (Institute for Child Development, Gdansk, Poland)
Abstract: Studies have shown that children receiving early and intensive behavioral intervention had better scores on standardized tests of IQ, language and adaptive functioning compared to children receiving other interventions (Smith, Groen, & Wynn, 2000; Cohen, Amerine-Dickens, & Smith, 2006; Eikeseth, Smith, Jahr, & Eldevik, 2002, 2007; Howard, Sparkman, Cohen, Green, & Stanislaw, 2005; Remington et al., 2007; Grindle et al, 2012). Research conducted by Lovaas (1987) has shown that children receiving EIBI successfully passed typical classes in public schools and maintained their gains several years after the treatment ended. Although previous studies have shown favorable results with early intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism, it remains important to replicate these findings. We will present the outcomes achieved after fourteen months by 2, 5 to 6-year-olds with autism who participated in intensive behavioral treatment based on the PCDI treatment model. We will show films and test scores (PEP-R and Vineland-II) from the intake and after 14-months of the therapy. We will present the use of applied behavior analysis techniques such as activity schedules, scripts and script-fading procedure, discrete trial training, , incidental teaching, and videomodeling in everyday therapy.
 
Self-Management Interventions on Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research
Domain: Theory
YADAN LIU (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University)
Abstract: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased worldwide. Today approximately 1% of the population is diagnosed an ASD. Self-management for individuals with ASD is important both as a behaviour change and teaching method and as a way to improve their independence. The aims of this review were to: 1) update previous systematic reviews by including recently published papers, without limits for target behaviour and age of participants; 2) examine the level and methods of reporting treatment fidelity and social validity; 3) evaluate the generalisation and maintenance effects of self-management interventions; and 4) explore whether the application of functional behavioural assessment, parental involvement and the use of technology contribute to the effectiveness of self-management interventions. The What Works Clearinghouse guidelines were applied to assess the quality of identified studies, and only studies classified as "meet standards without/with reservation" were included. Effect size was calculated using the percentage of non-overlapping data method. Results showed that self-management is an evidence-based practice for children with ASD, but not yet for adults with ASD due to the limited number of studies. Issues regarding validity, generalisation and maintenance effects, FBA, parental involvement and the use of technology are discussed.
 
Literacy and Non-Verbal Children Wth Autism Spectrum Disorders
Domain: Theory
NATASA DOLOVIC (Angerona-private educational and rehabilitation practice)
Abstract: Family dynamics can be challenged by a child with disability and future functioning is compromised, too. In the light of educational rehabilitation in family-centered interventions, it is necessary to apply hierarchical approach starting to comprehend and evaluate one's nature and nurture which will lead to the attitudes toward an intervention process and possible better developmental outcome, both for the child and family. This presentation is focused on the emergent literacy and literacy learning of non-verbal children with autism, highlighting the issue of family functioning. Teaching methods and strategies for teachers and parents will be presented and proposed.
 
 
Keyword(s): Early Intervention
 
 
Paper Session #20
Topics in Practice: Service Delivery
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Forum EF, Niveau 1
Area: PRA
Chair: Laura Gormley (Trinity College Dublin)
Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practice to Professionals Working in the Field of Intellectual Disabilities
Domain: Service Delivery
LAURA GORMLEY (Trinity College Dublin; RehabCare), Olive Healy (Trinity College Dublin), Darragh O'Regan (RehabCare)
Abstract: The overall aim of this research was to effectively disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) to professionals working in the field of intellectual disability. Individuals with intellectual disabilities have the right to the highest standard of treatment and support but research has shown that this is often not the case. Study 1 involved the completion of a training needs analysis, within an intellectual disability service provider in Ireland. The goal of this study was to obtain a broad, comprehensive analysis of the diagnostic, adaptive functioning and behavioral profiles of a representative sample of service users, as well as the training needs of staff providing direct care to these individuals. Sixty-two direct-support staff participated and results demonstrated a disconnect between the training received by staff and the adaptive and behavioral needs of the service users. The outcomes of Study 1 were subsequently used to develop a staff training intervention program (Study 2), utilizing behavioral skills training as the primary methodology. The impact of this program was investigated using a randomized control trial design, comparing training as usual with the novel intervention. The results of these studies provide an analysis of the most productive methods for disseminating and supporting the adoption of evidence-based practice in care settings as well as an investigation of the generalization of skills to novel circumstances. The research concludes with an analysis of the benefits to service users, staff and the larger organization as a result of adopting an evidence-based approach to service delivery.
 
CANCELED: Moving Behavior Analytic Consultation to a Broader Population
Domain: Service Delivery
HALINA DZIEWOLSKA (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners), Joseph D. Cautilli (Behavior Analysis and Therapy Partners)
Abstract: In Pennsylvania the median price of a nursing home is $8,900/month. Nursing homes represent a very restrictive and expensive environment. Recently, Pennsylvania has started to move to a managed care system (CHC) for those living in nursing homes. This talk will review both the political and use of research that supported the use of Pa Licensed Behavior Specialists in the service of nursing home populations including support for people with Alzheimer's Disease, geriatric failure to thrive, incontinence, and those suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. As other states move from center based nursing homes to maintaining more people in the community, it is hoped that these efforts will be replicated bring a new freedom to nursing populations.
 
Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in Juvenile Justice Programs
Domain: Service Delivery
BRENDA K. SCHEUERMANN (Texas State University), Kristine S. Jolivette (The University of Alabama)
Abstract: Youth in juvenile justice programs present diverse and complex academic, behavioral, and social needs. To maximize positive outcomes for these youth, many researchers, advocates, and governmental entities have called for the adoption of proactive, preventative, developmentally appropriate programs. This session will focus on the application of applied behavior analysis (ABA) within an empirically validated framework known as positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS), and the implementation of this framework in juvenile justice programs. In PBIS, principles and practices of ABA are applied at both systems levels (e.g., throughout a school or program) and individual levels. This framework has been shown to increase student success in schools in the U.S. More recently, juvenile justice programs in the U.S have begun adopting the behaviorally-based, data-driven approach of applying ABA practices within a PBIS framework. We will provide specific implementation examples of PBIS and ABA in juvenile justice programs. We will also explain data sources used for planning and monitoring student progress, and how data sources differ across tiers of support. Finally, we will discuss challenges in extending this framework to juvenile justice settings, and how those challenges are being addressed.
 
An International Perspective on the Cultural Adaptation of the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code
Domain: Service Delivery
EYAL COHEN (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel ), Simona Levi (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel)
Abstract: The Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (BACB) is the sole document that guides the professional and ethical domains of our field. The code has been translated into twelve languages, yet they do not include cultural adaptations, which may be required in order to assure professional and ethical conduct by behavior analysts around the world. The Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (BACB) should be utilized frequently when confronted with situations that need to be addressed, assisting behavior analysts to determine the right thing to do, what is worth doing and what does it mean to be a professional behavior analyst (Baily & Burch, 2011). Cultural differences must be considered when addressing these issues, in order to uphold the applied dimension of our field, which is to improve the quality of life of our clients that are important to the society they live in (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968). Cultural adaptations and considerations may be applied in different venues, such as new ethical guidelines that include cultural adaptations or incorporating multi-cultural studies when teaching ethics. Future behavior analysts should adhere to the professional and ethical standards, as well as possess the skills to adapt to their local cultures.
 
 
 
 
Paper Session #21
An Evaluation of Procedures for Teaching Multiply Controlled Intraverbals to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:20 PM
Scene DEF, Niveau 0
Area: VRB
Chair: Michelle L Zube (Caldwell University)
An Evaluation of Procedures for Teaching Multiply Controlled Intraverbals to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Basic Research
MICHELLE L ZUBE (Caldwell University), April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Intraverbals are important for social, academic, and problem solving skills. Individuals with autism may struggle to develop comprehensive intraverbal repertoires due to the range in complexity of the verbal antecedent stimulus. To date, Kisamore, Karsten, and Mann (2016) is the only study that has evaluated procedures for teaching intraverbals under multiple control to children with autism. Additional research on the effectiveness of procedures for teaching these procedures in necessary. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate and extend Kisamore and colleagues by evaluating the effects of a progressive prompt delay, a differential observing response (DOR), a modified DOR, and a DOR plus listener response on the acquisition of intraverbals. All participants learned at least one set of intraverbals with the progressive prompt delay and all three participants required other procedures to learn other sets. Based on these findings, adding a listener response to a differential observing response offers an effective alternative for teaching when a progressive prompt delay and differential observing response is not sufficient for establishing multiply controlled intraverbals.
 
 
 
Symposium #22
Parent Training Programs in Autism Spectrum Disorder in French Speaking Areas
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Forum GHIJ, Niveau 1
Area: AUT/CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Marc J. Lanovaz (Université de Montréal)
Abstract: With the dissemination of knowledge on autism and applied behavior analysis (ABA) in French-speaking areas, individualized and intensive ABA programs are being developed. However, these programs are not offered fairly to everyone. That induces additional stress to parents and families. Parents are also requesting tools to cope with the disorder of their child and sustain its development. The objective of the symposium is to present three programs adapted or developed in France and in French Canada. These programs are evidence based and respond to specific needs of the parents in a context of lack of access to services. The program "Beyond ASD: Parental skills within my reach" is a support program, focusing on stress and coping strategies at the time of diagnosis. The parent training program "ABC of the behavior of children with ASD: parents in action!" is founded on ABA strategies, especially on pivotal responses training in order to promote the use of efficient strategies at home. Those two programs are implemented in health public services in France and French Canada. The last program is a parenting program for Latino-American families who immigrated to Montreal, in a French context. The communications will underline quantitative results, but also the social validity of the parenting programs, as they aim for the empowerment of families of children with ASD.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): health services, parent training, parental skills, social validity
Beyond Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parental Skills Within My Reach: Evaluation of a Psycho-Educative Program Intended for Parents of a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
CAROL SANKEY (Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité), Emilie Cappe (Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité)
Abstract: In France, psycho-educative programs intended for parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are developing, but their effectiveness is not always assessed. This study aimed to assess the effects of a psycho-educative support program for parents of a child with ASD. "Beyond ASD: Parental skills within my reach" is a program designed to improve parents' knowledge, adaptive skills and quality of life. Several self-assessment measures were used before (pre-), just after (post-) and 6 months after (follow-up) the program, to investigatethe effects on parents' knowledge, transactional processes (e.g., stress), and quality of life. So far, 24 parents have benefited from the program in 3 hospital services. Preliminary results show that the program allowed an immediate and long lasting decrease in the parents' stress levels, as well as a significant improvement of their quality of life. The French Government, through a set of measures ("Plan Autisme") has clearly identified the major societal need to implement effective support interventions, to help parents of a child with ASD adapt to this disability.
Implementation of a Multi-Centric of a French Parent Training Program for Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders in France and Canada
CELINE CLEMENT (Université de Strasbourg), Myriam Rousseau (Institut universitaire en DI-TSA), Suzie McKinnon (Institut universitaire en DI-TSA CIUSSS MCQ), Jennifer Ilg (Université de Strasbourg; Centre Hospitalier de Ro), Annie Paquet (Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres)
Abstract: Parent training programs (PTs) in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to reduce parenting stress, to improve a child's behavior, and to facilitate parent-child interactions. Few PTs are available to French speaking families. In order to provide them with this type of intervention, a French PT program based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) was developed. It is designed for parents who have a child with ASD and developmental delay. It is constituted of twelve bimonthly sessions and three individual home visits. The program was proposed in two French speaking areas, France and Qubec (French Canada). The social validity and efficacy of this new PT has been evaluated with forty parents (18 in France and 22 in Qubec). The program has high social validity, with no statistical difference between the two contexts on the specific measures (e.g. Therapy Attitude Inventory). The main efficacy results are better knowledge of ASD and behavioral intervention strategies for parents, an increase in communication skills for children, and a decrease of parental stress. This new French PT program seems to be a promising intervention as it has been successfully implemented in two French areas, with cultural differences and different service delivery Models.
Evaluation of Parenting Program for Latino Families With Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
MARIE MILLAU (Université du Québec à Montréal), Melina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal)
Abstract: Families with a child that has autism spectrum disorder (ASD), experience high level of stress (Rivard, Terroux, Parent-Boursier et Mercier, 2014; Ombudsman 2009). Families from ethnocultural minority have more barriers in the access, utilization and adherence to services (International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities, Special Interest Research Group, 2012). The aim of this presentation is to share the results of a project to evaluate the effects of a parenting program for Latino-American families who immigrated to Montreal (French implementation context). This research is conducted with two cohorts of families for a total of 15 participants. To evaluate the effect of the program, measurements are taken three times (pre and post-intervention, and follow up measure). The first part of this presentation will explore the importance of offering support programs for these families. Then we will explain the Positive Family Intervention program (Durand, Hieneman, 2008). Finally, we present the results of this program regarding families stress, child behavior and the social validity of the program.
 
 
Symposium #23
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Early Social Communication Skills for Children With Autism
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Scene C, Niveau 0
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Sarah Grace Hansen, Ph.D.
Chair: Tracy Raulston (University of Oregon)
Abstract: A core-defining feature of autism spectrum disorder is deficits in social communication skills. As such, early interventions often target this area of development. This symposium will present empirical data related to early social communication targets that are critical for social conversation development. The first two single case research studies evaluate teaching procedures for two commonly addressed early social communication targets (i.e., joint attention and intraverbal fill-ins). The final study presents a meta-analysis of declarative and imperative communication acts for young children with autism.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): autism, social communication, verbal behavior
Peer Mediated Classroom Based Joint Attention Intervention
SARAH GRACE HANSEN (Georgia State University), Tracy Raulston (University of Oregon), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Inclusive preschool settings often provide meaningful social and play opportunities with same aged peers for children with special needs. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are especially at risk for isolation from peers in inclusive preschool settings and have benefited from a range of social communication interventions. In particular, peer mediated interventions hold interest for social communication interventions for children with ASD because of their ability to teach skills that are socially valid. One pivotal skill for social interactions, joint attention, has been examined primarily in clinical settings. This study extends previous findings from a piloted parent-mediated joint attention intervention and applies joint attention interventions to a peer-mediated setting in an individual concurrent multiple baseline design across child-peer dyads in inclusive preschool classrooms to evaluate the effects of the intervention on increased response to joint attention behaviors to interventionist bids; on increased bids from peers to target children with ASD; and on increased response to joint attention behaviors to peer bids. Elements of discrete trial training (DTT) and naturalistic instruction were used to teach response to joint attention behaviors to young children with ASD using both interventionists and same-aged peers. Results indicate increased response to both interventionist and peer joint attention bids, as well as increased peer bids to target child.
CANCELED: Teaching Intraverbal Fill-ins to a Child With Autism Using a Speech-generating Device and Systematic Instruction
AMARIE CARNETT (University of North Texas), Hannah Waddington (Victoria University of Wellington), Alicia Marie Bravo (Victoria University of Wellington), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract: Children with autism who do not develop spoken communication are often candidates for speech-generating devices (SGDs) as an alternative communication modality. Early language interventions for children with autism often utilize Skinner's conceptual analysis of language by targeting manding, tacting, and intraverbal skills. However for children learning to use SGDs, research has mainly investigated manding skills. Thus, the current study sought to extend the evidence base for teaching children with autism who are learning to communicate using SGDs by evaluating the acquisition of intraverbal responding in a four year-old child with autism, using a concurrent multiple baseline across responses design. Systematic instruction in the context of an activity interruption (i.e., song) was used to contrive the opportunity for intraverbal responding. All three intraverbal responses were acquired during a final choice phase, which allowed for the participant to select the song order. These results suggest the value for targeting intraverbal skills to children with autism who use SGDs.
CANCELED: The Association of Imperative and Declarative Communication With Language in Children With Autism: A Meta-analysis
AMY HARBISON (Vanderbilt University), Jena McDaniel (Vanderbilt University), Paul J. Yoder (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Background: Theoretically, specific functions of communication might be differentially associated with language use in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The primary purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the relation of declarative and imperative intentional communication acts, respectively, with language skills in young children with ASD. Declaratives are related to the verbal behavior concept of tacts; imperatives are a subset of mands. Method: Included studies provided at least 1 zero-order correlation (concurrent or longitudinal) of language measures with declarative or imperative intentional communication acts. Participants were children with ASD, aged 8 years and younger. Results: Twenty-one studies were included. Declaratives were significantly associated with language (weighted mean r = .41; 95% CI [.32, .49]). Imperatives were not significantly associated with language. Conclusions: The association of declaratives and language might have implications for early treatment of ASD-related language deficits. Failure to find a significant association of imperatives and language might have been due to low statistical power and/or publication bias; more research on imperatives is needed.
 
 
Paper Session #24
Topics in Behavioral Pharmacology and Neuroscience: Honey Bees: Economic Concepts and Behavior Analysis
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Loft GH, Niveau 3
Area: BPN
Chair: Michel Sokolowski (Universite de Picardie - Jules Vernes)
Honey Bees as Nectar Consumers: Testing Behavioral Economic Concepts in Invertebrates
Domain: Basic Research
MICHEL SOKOLOWSKI (Universite de Picardie - Jules Vernes)
Abstract: With a new design of lab operant conditioning chambers, we tested the demand law with honey bees in closed economies. The price has been defined as the amount of syrup a bee received following a response. In our protocol, the price increased from 0.5 responses/l to 4 responses/l. According to the demand law, we observed a decreasing daily syrup consumption.
 
Behavior Analysis and Ecotoxicology: Can Skinner Boxes Save Honey Bees?
Domain: Basic Research
MICHEL SOKOLOWSKI (Universite de Picardie - Jules Vernes)
Abstract: Until now, ecotoxicology that is the study of chemicals on living organisms, does not interact a lot with behavior analysis. However, in several aspects, studying pesticides effects can be similar to studying drug effects in animals. Because Skinner boxes can be used to study the self administration of pesticides, we think behavior analysis can contribute as much to ecotoxicology than it contributes to pharmacology. With several experiments, we show how Skinner boxes and conditioning protocols can be used to detect undesirable effects of pesticides in free-flying honey bees.
 
 
 
Paper Session #25
Topics in Clinical, Family and Behavioral Medicine: Applied Research
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Studio DE, Niveau 2
Area: CBM
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Renee Cachia (Monash University)
The Experience of Grandparenthood Among Grandparents of Children With Autism in the Arab-Bedouin Society
Domain: Applied Research
HAGAR BINOUN-CHAKI (Ben-Gurion University; Soroka University Medical Center)
Abstract: Studies have investigated grandparents' perceptions relating to their grandchildren with disabilities. Literature on grandparenthood focuses on the Western grandparents. Autism within the Arab populations has also being investigated. Moreover, the Bedouin population can also be seen in various studies related to different experiences and different perceptions about disabilities in general and among children in particular. However, no studies were found on grand parenting a child with autism in Bedouin society. This study combines three areas of knowledge, to create a new knowledge domain. The aim of this study was to learn about the experience of grand parenting an autistic child in the Bedouin Arab society, to examine how it affects the grandparents' relationships, feelings, and functioning within the family, and as individuals, as well as to examine their coping mechanisms and their social support networks. This study is significant and unique as it is the first to examine autism and grandparents among the Bedouin Arab population in Israel, a population that has unique socio-demographic, cultural and traditional characteristics. The study revealed three themes concerning the meaning of grandparenthood to be associated with family continuity, how autism is perceived, and the importance of religion. It suggests a new category the status of the elderly in the Arab-Bedouin family. It is recognized that the role of the elderly is held in high esteem, and can be affected by the grandchilds autism.
 
How can Mindfulness Enhance Outcomes in Children Engaging in an Applied Behavior Analysis Program?
Domain: Applied Research
RENEE CACHIA (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
Abstract: Parenting a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often associated with reduced quality of life, high stress, depression and anxiety due to the ongoing nature of care. A proliferation of recent research has demonstrated that mindfulness-based interventions potentially have long-term positive effects on stress levels and psychological wellbeing in parents of children with ASD, in addition to enhancing their child's behavior. The current study examined the impact of a mindfulness intervention which was tailored to parents involved in an ABA program. Parent stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, in addition to their heart-rate and blood pressure were outcome measures. A multiple base-line design was adopted to measure the child's ABA program over 24 weeks, with emphasis on their imitation and receptive language skill acquisition. The results and implications for future research and clinical directions will be discussed.
 
 
 
 
Panel #26
CE Offered: BACB
Establishing Sustainable ABA Services Abroad
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Studio F, Niveau 2
Area: CSS/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Daniel Gould, Ph.D.
Chair: Daniel Gould (New England Center for Children - Abu Dhabi)
VINCENT STRULLY (New England Center for Children)
PAMELA OLSEN (The New England Center for Children - Abu Dhabi)
JOSHUA K. PRITCHARD (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The increasing dissemination of Behavior Analysis services around the world, particularly in the area of autism intervention, presents unique opportunities and challenges for program developers and practitioners alike. As more and more governments recognize the need for effective autism treatment and commit resources to intervention based on applied behavior analysis, opportunities are created. Successful programs operating abroad have goals in common with programs operating in North America, but they also must address some unique challenges. First, they must provide effective, evidence-based treatment that meets local needs. Consideration of the local cultural context and cultural influences on the recognition, acceptable interventions, and expected outcomes of disabilities services will help mitigate program-related risks associated with operation abroad. Second, program operation must be financially viable and sustainable. An understanding of the local stakeholders (e.g., government, philanthropic) commitment to program funding and operation over an extended time is critical. Third, a successful program will plan for sustainability through knowledge transfer, that is, through the development of local expertise among practitioners and program managers through formal and informal professional development. Panelists will discuss these three key topics and answer questions about the development and delivery of services abroad.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): program development, service-delivery, sustainability
 
 
Symposium #27
Experiments on Human-Operant Behavior: Rule-Governed Behavior, Resistance to Change and Relapse
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Loft A, Niveau 3
Area: EAB/VRB
Chair: Jerome Alessandri (University of Lille)
Abstract: Human-operant experiments will be presented in which rule-governed behavior, resistance to change and relapse were assessed. Alessandri and colleagues studied the effects of instructions and reinforcement value on behavior under negative-reinforcement schedules and extinction. Rule following affected responding (i.e., persisting or not under extinction); additionally, rule following was affected by reinforcement value. Abreu-Rodrigues and Pontes assessed the effects of three variables on the relapse of response sequences under a resurgence procedure: the sequence's level of difficulty (easy and difficult), the context of test (extinction and variation) and the number of responses per sequence (three and five). Easy sequences reappeared more often than difficult ones, the reappearance of the target sequence was more frequent under extinction than under variation, and the reappearance of the target sequence varied inversely with the number of responses per sequence. Finally, Baia and colleagues studied resistance to change and relapse under an ABA-renewal procedure and the relations between behavioral and physiological measures under this procedure. Renewal occurred generally, and was a function of reinforcement rates in a training phase. These experiments highlight procedural aspects in the analysis of human-operant behavior and establish a context to assess the generality of findings obtained previously in experiments with nonhumans.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Effects of Reinforcement Value on Instruction Following Under Schedules of Negative Reinforcement
(Basic Research)
JEROME ALESSANDRI (University of Lille), Carlos Renato Xavier Cançado (Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil), Josele Abreu Rodrigues (Universidade de Brasilia)
Abstract: In the laboratory, human behavior can be controlled by contingencies of reinforcement but also by instructions and related social aspects of the experiment. Two experiments were conducted to further investigate the relative effects of these variables on behavior maintained by negative-reinforcement schedules. In each experiment, participants were required to press a force cell with high force (i.e., establishing operation). They could press a key to produce timeouts from this force requirement. In Experiment 1, after reinforcement training, participants in two different groups were exposed to extinction. The groups were exposed to opposite rules regarding the experimenter's eectations about the participants continuing or not to respond during extinction. Rule following was observed for participants in each group. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effects of reinforcement value on instruction following under negative-reinforcement schedules similar to those in Experiment 1. Differential levels of force (high vs. low) were required across conditions in Baseline and Test phases. Before the Test phase, each participant was told that the experimenter expected a �decrease in the number of timeouts�. Results showed a decrease in timeouts for each participant, under each level of force, but this decrease was higher in the low- than in the high-force condition
Effects of Sequence Difficulty, Sequence Length and Testing Context on the Recurrence of Response Sequences
(Basic Research)
JOSELE ABREU RODRIGUES (Universidade de Brasilia), Thaissa Pontes (Universidade de Brasília)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of three variables upon the reappearance of response sequences: difficulty level of the sequence (easy and difficult), context of test (extinction and variation) and number of responses per sequence (three and five) in two experiments. In the Training Phase, an easy sequence (S1) was reinforced for half of the participants and a difficulty sequence for the other half. In the Elimination Phase, S1 did not produce reinforcers while an alternative sequence (S2) was reinforced. In the Testing Phase, S1 and S2 were under extinction. However, for half of the participants trained with the easy (or difficult) S1, there were no reinforcers for the non-target sequences, and for the other half, non-target sequences produced reinforcers according to a variation contingency. Five- and three-response sequences were investigated in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Easy sequences reappeared more often than difficult sequences, the reappearance of the target sequence was more frequent under extinction than under variation, and the reappearance of the target sequence varied inversely with the number of responses per sequence. The reappearance of the target sequence was not conceptualized as resurgence as long as its frequency was lower than that of the control sequences.
CANCELED: Resistance to Change and Relapse With Humans: Relations With Physiological Measurements
(Basic Research)
FABIO HENRIQUE BAIA (Universidade de Rio Verde), Poliana Ferreira da Silva (Universidade de Rio Verde), Carlos Renato Xavier Cançado (Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil)
Abstract: We studied resistance to change and relapse with humans under an ABA-renewal procedure and their relation to physiological measurements. In Phase 1 (Context A), participants in two groups were exposed to a multiple variable-interval (VI) VI schedule (Group 1:4 to a multiple VI 15 s VI 60 s and Group 1:8 to a multiple VI 15 s VI 120 s). In Phase 2 (Context B), extinction was in effect in each schedule component. In Phase 3, extinction still was in effect but participants were exposed to Context A. Physiological responses were recorded in each phase (skin temperature, skin conductance response, respiratory and heart rate) by using a Flexcom ProInfinity interface. Renewal was observed for participants in each group. That is, previously reinforced responses recurred when the context previously correlated with reinforcement was presented under extinction. Additionally, differential resistance to extinction (i.e., responding in each schedule component during Phase 2) was a function of reinforcement rate in each schedule component (i.e., higher in the rich than in the lean component). The relations between behavioral and physiological measures will be discussed to highlight methodological aspects and possible relations between behavioral and physiological measures in studies of resistance to change and relapse.
 
 
Paper Session #28
Theoretical Topics in Experimental Analysis
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Loft B, Niveau 3
Area: EAB
Keyword(s): Computational Modeling, Mathematical Modeling, Stimulus Equivalence
Chair: Don (Yuhan) Li (The University of Auckland)
The Computational Analysis of Behaviour: Multi-Variate Models of Behaviour
Domain: Theory
DON LI (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: A study of behaviour investigates the relationship between experimentally controlled environmental variables and the likelihood of response (Skinner, 1950). Skinner proposed that response rate should be the canonical datum for indexing the likelihood of response. However, the validity of response rate does not dominate all other types of dependent variable, especially for experimental designs for which rates cannot be calculated or when derived variables are required. Regardless of the type of dependent variable, theories of behaviour attempt to link environmental variables to some behavioural metric. This constrains those theories to particular dimensions of behaviour. An alternative approach is to construct a theory that links environmental variables to a constellation of behavioural metrics, thereby explaining "behaviour" as opposed to a particular behavioural metric. Computational models of behaviour comprise a set of models that have this multivariate property. Because computational models of behaviour output punctuate responses, almost any arbitrary behavioural metric can be calculated. Hence, one may fit a computational model of behaviour to any vector of dependent variables. The present paper outlines the philosophy of the Computational Analysis of Behaviour and illustrates the efficacy of the philosophy with a demonstration of multi-objective optimisation with Catania's Operant Reserve (Catania, 2005).
 
CANCELED: From Conditioning to Cognition? Associative Versus Propositional Learning and the Formation of Stimulus Equivalence Relations
Domain: Theory
DAVID W. DICKINS (University of Liverpool)
Abstract: There has been much debate about the explanatory power of associative versus propositional accounts of human learning (e.g..Mitchell et al., 2009). How may this notional dichotomy be applied to the laboratory study of stimulus equivalence classes? Is the commonest training procedure, arbitrary matching-to-sample, simply a cluster of conditional discriminations, homologous with those which can be demonstrated in other species, or even in the isolated ganglia of Aplysia, or does it depend, in human participants at least, upon propositional processes, in which a language-like apprehension of the relation between the stimuli and not just a link between representations of the stimuli is entailed? When the same matching-to-sample procedure is used during unreinforced tests for derived relations can a seemingly simpler associative account still be maintained, or do such tests help to generate, in a propositional manner, the relations they aim to demonstrate? The literature on alternative methods of training and testing is reviewed to see if there are or might be circumstances in which propositional processes can be confidently excluded in the formation of stimulus equivalence classes. Mitchell, C.J., De Houver, J., Lovibond, P.F., 2009. The propositional nature of human associative learning. Behav. Brain Sci. 183-246.
 
 
Keyword(s): Computational Modeling, Mathematical Modeling, Stimulus Equivalence
 
 
Invited Paper Session #30
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Heart and Soul
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Scene AB, Niveau 0
Area: PCH
CE Instructor: Peter R. Killeen, Ph.D.
Chair: Jack Marr (Georgia Tech)
PETER R. KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Dr. Peter Killeen is professor of psychology at Arizona State University, and has also been visiting scholar at the University of Texas, Cambridge University, and the Centre for Advanced Study, Oslo. He is a Fellow of the Society of Experimental Psychologists, has held a Senior Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, has been president of the Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior (from which organization he appropriately received the Poetry in Science Award in 2002), held the American Psychological Association F. J. McGuigan Lectureship on Understanding the Human Mind, and received the Ernest and Josephine Hilgard Award for the Best Theoretical Paper (Killeen & Nash, 2003). Dr. Killeen has made many highly innovative and fundamental contributions to the experimental and quantitative analysis of behavior. His major work includes the development of incentive theory, culminating in the mathematical principles of reinforcement (Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 1994), and the behavioral theory of timing (Psychological Review, 1988). He is the author of 80 peer-reviewed papers, many of which have been heavily cited. He has served on the boards of editors of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Behavioural Processes, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Psychological Review, Brain & Behavioral Functions, and Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews. Dr. Killeen's quantitative and conceptual developments have enriched behavior analysis and the world beyond.
Abstract: Words that mean so much to all of us–either as the center of our meaningful existence–or as four-letter words writ large. Blaise Pascal understood that, “The heart has reasons that Reason cannot know.” “And needn’t know!” is quickly echoed by radical behaviorists. Here, in the City of Love, I ask if they could possibly be right; whether to be a good science, ours must be a heartless science. Physics and chemistry cannot be other. Must behaviorism? Bemused with Carneaux in experimental chambers, is there room for behaviorists in the labyrinthine chambers of the heart? In this talk I begin to unweave the rainbow of heart and soul; hoping–and you shall judge if I succeed in showing the possibility–that once experimentally analyzed, some reasons can be found that reason can know; and that some life, indeed, some mystery, still lives in the analysands.
Target Audience: Licensed behavior analysts, psychologists, graduate students.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain how love is a hypothetical construct; (2) explain how love is an emotion constructed out of affect and context; (3) explain how to find love.
 
 
Panel #31
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Development of Competent Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA)
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Forum ABC, Niveau 1
Area: PRA/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Dana Garner, Ph.D.
Chair: Dana Garner (Penn State Garner Behavior Services, LLC)
CHERICE R. CARDWELL (Association Francaise Les Professionnels de l'Anal)
NICOLE TURON-DIAZ (Learning By Design, LLC)
Abstract: This panel will briefly review ethical supervision of BACB applicants based on the BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts. Supervised experience provides BACB applicants with guidance in the application of behavior analytic procedures. Panel will discuss the importance of ethical, effective and efficient supervision of BACB applicants and how the supervised experience lays the groundwork for provision of home programming services once applicants become certified BCBAs. Panel will also briefly discuss ethics as they relate to the provision of delivering home programming services to clients and respond to questions from the audience.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): supervision, consultation
 
 
Poster Session #33
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
BPN
1. Contextual Fear Conditioning and Extinction as a Model to Investigate Sleep Changes Related to Learning and Memory
Domain: Basic Research
LUIZ HENRIQUE SANTANA (University of S�o Paulo, Brazil; Federal University of ABC, Brazil.)
Abstract: This work was part of a main project that aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep and aversive learning. To do that, we first adapted a contextual fear conditioning task in order to explore the effect of an aversive event (the electric shock) and a possible effect of forgetting controlled by the passage of time upon conditioning and extinction. The first one, the cumulative extinction group received a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) training session with a single shock presentation followed by five sessions of extinction, starting three days after CFC training. The second group, unique extinction, were trained in CFC followed by six days of no exposure to the trained context and finally an extinction session at the fifth day after training. The third group immediate shock received a training session with a single shock applied immediately after entering the animal in the conditioning box followed by five sessions of extinction. The freezing response was the behavioural parameter. The results showed that immediate shock group did not learn the conditioned relation between US-CS. The cumulative extinction group had a progressive decrease on freezing while unique extinction had a higher score on its last extinction session of the other two groups. These results are consistent with other findings and show the important role of time within a new environment to the environment to proper fulfil the requirements to acquire conditioned properties and the resistance of a conditioned relation to the passage of time.
 
 
Poster Session #34
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
EAB
3. Analysis of Dyadic interactions Using Relative Properties of Stimulus
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
ABDIEL FLORENTINO CAMPOS GIL (University of Guadalajara), Maria Antonia Padilla Vargas (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: The systematic study of dyadic interactions would favor the empirical analysis of modulation of behavior through verbal behavior; however, this area of study has not been explored enough. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of analyzing the linguistic modulation of behavior in episodes of dyadic interaction with relative properties of stimulus. 10 undergraduate students participate, they were between 20 and 27 years old. Each member was assigned to one of two roles: descriptors or executors. The first ones had to describe with words a figure-model printed, which only they could see. The second ones had to draw what your partner described. Six models were used, each one composed of three elements, which varied (between models) in location, direction and organization. The session ended when the six models were completed. An index was designed for data analysis (it results from dividing total effective responses by total responses). In the five dyads was observed that the score was increased at the end of the session, compared with the initial score. These results allow us to recognize that, with some methodological modifications, this task can be useful for empirical analysis of linguistic modulation in dyadic interactions.
 
4. Assessing and Treating Vocal Stereotypy in Children With Autism - A Single Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MASILAMANI MUTHUSERVAI (Behavior Momentum of India)
Abstract: In current study, the researcher worked on reducing vocal stereotypy in a child with autism who is 6 years old. Functional analysis were conducted in order to find out the variables evoking the behavior. And also the treatment procedure is designed based on the report and data of functional analysis. Further we implemented the treatment procedures like differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior and extinction in order to determine whether vocal stereotypy could be reduced successfully. Preferred items are delivered on FR1 schedule initially and the schedule was thinned gradually during later sessions. Implementation of DRI &DRA schedule led to a high reduction in the problem behavior during treatment sessions and across the school day .There was an increase in appropriate communication was also observed. Follow-up probes implied that the treatment had a positive impact in the natural environment.
 
5. Attention Response During Observational Training Using A Matching-To-Sample Task
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
MARIA ELENA RODRIGUEZ PEREZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Michelle Plascencia (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: Previous research has lighted that a conditional discrimination can be acquired and generalized using training conditions that do not demand an explicit instrumental response (observational training). Even though there are a wide variety of observational procedures, all of them include showing the matching array and providing information regarding the correct matching response (modeling). It has been accepted that learning occurs due to implicit verbal responses derived from the attention response to the modeling component of the training procedure. In this research, an eye-tracker was used in order to register attention responses during an observational training using a second-order matching-to-sample task. In order to compare visual exploration of the matching array during an observational training in comparison with an instrumental training, 17 university students were divided into two groups. One group was exposed to an instrumental training and another was exposed to an observational training. Data showed that there are similar patterns of observation independently the type of training. Two distinct patterns arose: looking to the array as a whole or looking to the array as divided into components. Participants using the first type of pattern showed poor performance. However, not all participants using the latter pattern showed good performance.
 
7. Coordinated Responding Under Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement: Metacontingencies and the Matching Law
Domain: Basic Research
Kalliu Carvalho Couto (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc), Lucas Couto de Carvalho (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science), SAMANTHA KELLY BERGE (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc), Ingunn Sandaker (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: This research suggests that coordinated response allocation under concurrent variable interval schedules of reinforcement can be partially described by The Generalised Matching Law (Baum, 1974) in a similar way to the responses of individual humans and non-human animals responding alone are. The Generalised Matching Law (GML) describes how choice or behavioral allocation is effected by variables such as the amount, duration or value of reinforcement delivered contingent on a behaviour. Much of the research in this area has focused on responding where reinforcement delivery is contingent solely on the behaviour of an individual organism (for a review see Michael, 1988). There are, however, many natural situations where distribution of responses is contingent on the coordinated behaviours of two or more organisms, rather than the sum of an organisms individual responses. Coordinated behaviour can be defined as the behaviour of two or more organisms occurring in a specific order, resulting in the production or removal environmental consequences. The present paper presents results from three experimental groups in which pairs of participants responded under different concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules where reinforcement was contingent on the coordinated responding of the individuals within the pairs. Twelve pairs of human participants were randomly allocated to one of the three different experimental groups. Pairs played a game on a 12x12 chessboard on a computer. Each individual controlled one of two playing pieces on the board. Two corners on the board formed the active areas of the board whereby points could be attained contingent on each players playing piece being placed on an adjacent square to the others during the active VI schedules of that corner. As such, the result of coordinated responding, but not individual responses was reinforced. The results show that relative rates of coordinated responding matched the relative rates of reinforcement under the VI schedules for most of the pairs of participants. This suggests that The GML may also account for the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.
 
8. Delayed Reinforcement Impairs Learning in the Midsession Reversal Task
Domain: Basic Research
Cristina Joy Dos Santos Thibodeau Thibodeau (University of Minho), ANA CATARINA SOARES (University of Minho), Armando Machado (University of Minho), Marco Vasconcelos (University of Minho; University of Aveiro)
Abstract: In the processes of adapting to the environment, organisms can rely either on local or global cues to regulate their behavior, even though it is not always clear when an animal will use one or the other. For instance, in the midsession reversal task pigeons’ performance suggests that they rely on a more global cue, such as the passage of time, to regulate their behavior even when the ‘optimal’ strategy would be to rely on the outcome of the previous trial. As an attempt to identify the time markers serving as global cues, two groups of pigeons were trained to discriminate between two color keys. In the first half of the session one color was the S+ and the other the S-. In the second half of the session contingencies were reversed. The groups differed in delay to reinforcement (0 or 6 s). After 40 sessions, the 0-s-delay group showed stable performance with some errors around the middle of the sessions. The 6-s-delay group showed strong evidence of learning impairment even after 60 sessions. These findings suggest that time has a strong effect over performance as a global cue over performance, overriding the effect of more local and accurate cues.
 
10. Effects of Maternal Separation on Sexual Development and Adult Maternal Behavior of Female Rats
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
TAUANE GEHM (Universidade de São Paulo), Laura Michelon (Universidade de São Paulo), Maria Helena Leite Hunziker (Universidade de Sao Paulo)
Abstract: Many theories postulate that the mother-offspring relationship has an impact on the development of the individual, this leads to a question which can be researched experimentally in an animal laboratory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal separation on sexual development and maternal behavior in female rats. Therefore, 16 sprague-dawley female rats were used. Eight of them (MS Group) were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours daily, between their 2nd and 14th day of life, while the others stayed with their mothers (CN Group). The sexual development was measured by the vaginal opening day (beginning of puberty) and by sexual behavior in the first three estrous. In the first pregnancy of each female, maternal behavior was measured by the number of born and surviving offspring until the ablactation and by the maternal behavior with their offspring. It was found that the MS Group hit puberty late and in their first pregnancy had more offspring than the CN Group. Moreover, the CN Group abandoned their offspring more frequently, leading to a lower survival rate. The data show that maternal separation alters the development of organic aspects as well as the development of social/maternal interactions.
 
11. Effects of Reinforcement Rate on the Aversive Function of Timeout from Positive Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
CORY WHIRTLEY (West Virginia University), Forrest Toegel (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Timeout from positive reinforcement is a procedure in which a schedule of reinforcement is temporarily suspended following a targeted response. Timeout is a component of common behavioral interventions in homes, schools, and clinical settings where it is intended to punish the target response. Variations of timeout in applied settings make it difficult to identify the factors that underlie timeout’s aversive function. In a series of experiments, some of which are still underway, we are exploring the effects of reinforcement rate on the aversive function of timeout. Rats’ lever-pressing is maintained on variable-interval schedules of food reinforcement. In some conditions, presses are followed by a 30-s timeout produced according to a variable-ratio schedule. The timeouts reduce responding, and yoked-control comparisons indicate that the punitive effect cannot be attributed simply to changes in overall reinforcement rate. Of present interest is the local reinforcement rate – that is, the rate underway before a timeout is produced. Early results suggest that the relation between reinforcement rate and the aversive strength of timeout is non-linear. These investigations can lead to an improved technology of behavior change.
 
12. Effects of Step-Size and Speed of the Criterion Change on Shaping
Domain: Basic Research
TOMOTAKA ORIHARA (Meisei University), Takayuki Tanno (Meisei University)
Abstract: It is generally known that the golden rules of shaping are the small step and slowly changing the reinforcement criterion. However, few experiments directly tested these rules (Galbicka, 1994). Present experiment systematically varied the step-size and the speed of the criterion change. Five pigeons were exposed to a differential reinforcement of long interresponse times (IRTs). The criterion of IRTs was increased up to 12-s by types of three step sizes (0.2, 0.5, and 0.8-s), as well as the criterion change was occurred when pigeons sufficed the criterion (thus obtained reinforcement) 3, 5, or 8 times for the last 10 trials of IRT emission. The results showed that (1) these two variables have little effects on the final duration of IRT shaping; (2) the speed of shaping tended to be faster in the conditions with larger step sizes and faster criterion changes. This results indicates that, at least for the IRT shaping, the golden rules merely delay the shaping.
 
14. Effects of Unequal Payoff on Pigeons' Timing in a Bisection Task
Domain: Basic Research
RENATA PENNA BORGES NUNES CAMBRAIA (University of Minho), Marco Vasconcelos (University of Minho; University of Aveiro), Armando Machado (University of Minho)
Abstract: The bisection task is a discrimination procedure used to study how organisms perceive time. In this task, a sample stimulus is presented for a specific duration, followed by two choices: short or long. Timing models predict that manipulations of payoff during training would produce a bias in responding. While the Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) predicts a large bias towards almost absolute preferences, the Learning-to-Time (LeT) model predicts a modest bias. To assess the effects of payoff, four pigeons were placed in a long operant chamber equipped with keys on the side walls. In order to access grain, subjects had to peck the left key after a 3-s signal or the right key after a 12-s signal. All pigeons went through three counterbalanced conditions: A) “No Bias”, B) “Bias for long”, and C) “Bias for short”. Floor panels recorded the birds’ location. In condition A, subjects showed a stereotypical pattern throughout long trials: first, they would go left and after about 4.5 s they would leave for the right side. This pattern was disrupted in experimental conditions: In C, animals took around 0.5 s longer to leave the short side than in B, supporting LeT’s predictions.
 
15. Experimental Analysis of the Conditions That Promote Conceptual Learning
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
HECTOR HERNADEZ (University of Guadalajara), Maria Elena Rodriguez Perez (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: Research on categorization and concept learning is one of the most important issues of behavior analysis. However, it has not been sufficiently analyzed on the behaviorist tradition due to the cognitive connotation of the terms. Zentall, Galizio & Critchfield (2002) has considered that a relational concept involves responding to relational properties instead of absolute properties of stimuli. Thus, the present research aimed to analyze the conditions that promote a relational type of learning in which relevant relationships among instance properties are taken into consideration to group stimulus objects in a categorization task. Twenty college students were divided into four groups. Each group was exposed to a categorization training in which 54 printed objects were organized on grids of different sizes (2x4, 3x4 & 4x4). Groups differed on the type of instructions that received by the experimenter (modeling or guiding performance) and the type of descriptions elicited (spontaneous or guided verbalization). Data analysis would provide evidence of the effectiveness of modeling and rule-following in learning a relational concept. Results were also discussed in terms of the effect of the use of verbal labels in the discrimination of stimulus properties, and the role of verbalization in the emergence of symbolic behavior.
 
16. Experimental Studies of Complex Human Behavior Lab
Area: TBA; Domain: Basic Research
HANNA STEINUNN STEINGRIMSDOTTIR (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: The Experimental Studies of Complex Human Behavior Lab at Oslo and Akershus University College is run by Professor Erik Arntzen. The lab has number of undergraduate, graduate and research fellows working on different experimental questions. These questions are related to the study of stimulus equivalence class formation, use of stimulus control procedures to identify skin cancer, and gambling. The research questions are for example on 1) the effect of using meaningful or abstract stimuli on stimulus equivalence class formation (see Figure 2, published in JEAB Arntzen et al. (2015), and 2) the effect of using different a) training structures, b) training protocols, and c) simultaneous or delayed matching-to-sample on stimulus equivalence class formation to name some. The poster shows examples of the studies conducted at the lab. The goal is to reach out to possible collaborators outside of Norway. In addition to introduction to the studies conducted at the lab, contact information is provided.
 
19. An Inexpensive and Versatile Self-Contained Touchscreen Apparatus for Pigeons
Domain: Basic Research
FORREST TOEGEL (West Virginia University), Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: We developed an operant chamber for pigeons with a touchscreen for responding instead of mechanical keys and a complete set of control equipment on board. This self-contained apparatus includes a single-board Windows 10 computer programmed in Visual Basic and a set of relays to allow the computer to control the chamber’s houselight, food hopper, and response feedback mechanism. The computer also provides an unlimited array of auditory stimuli. The touchscreen apparatus is capable of presenting response “keys” with any shape, color, or graphic image, displayed at any location on the screen – a substantial improvement in experimental flexibility over the standard three-key pigeon chamber. The computer also can record potentially relevant behavior that is not measured with standard apparatus, such as “off-key” responses. The entire system can be assembled for less money than it costs to purchase a standard chamber from a commercial vendor (e.g., Med Associates), and the Visual Basic programming system is free. Schematics and descriptions of the chamber and control equipment, prices of the components, and descriptions of the software required to operate the chamber will be provided.
 
20. Influencing Tendencies to Choose by the Variety of the Verbal Rewards
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
KENTA KONDO (Meisei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine differences of tendencies to repeatedly choose a reward among variety of the verbal rewards after completing every trial of addition task by participants. 10 students (male=5, female=5) participated in this experiment (average age=21.3, SD=0.67). This experiment was conducted individually in a laboratory of university. The independent variable in this study was the variety and frequency of the verbal rewards. The rewards included verbal rewards (50) and verbal rewards (3) presented on a computer. Verbal reward (50) showed a good word on the screen from 50 kinds at random. In addition, verbal reward (3) showed a good word on the screen from three kinds at random. The dependent variable in this study was the number of participants who chose each reward. The following results were obtained: the difference was not seen in a tendency to choice between each reward. It is possible that a participant was not able to discriminate the difference in each reward.
 
21. A Low-Cost Video Tracking System for Operant Conditioning of Small Fish Using Raspberry Pi
Area: AAB; Domain: Basic Research
KAZUCHIKA MANABE (Nihon University), Tyrone Xiccato (University of Padova), Angelo Bisazza (University of Padova)
Abstract: Increased interest in behavioral studies of small fish has been inspired by recent advances in DNA sequencing of zebrafish and guppies, and by the discovery that archer fish, which lack a neocortex, are able to recognize human faces. Automated operant conditioning of such small fish is challenging because responding is difficult to measure and because each food reward must be tiny. To resolve these problems, we developed a low-cost experimental tank having a video-tracking system with an automated feeder. A LCD monitor positioned at the front of a tank displays visual stimuli through two windows on the front wall. Video tracking is performed by a Ras-Pi Camera located 120mm under the floor of the tank. The tank has two operant choice areas that match the two windows, along with a middle neutral area and a rear observing area. Visits to the observing area initiate a trial that provides visual discriminative stimuli onto the two windows, and the fish must swim to the correct choice area to earn food. The fish must return to the observing area to begin the next trial. This video tracking apparatus is useful for discrimination and choice experiments and for differential reinforcement of swimming patterns.
 
22. Reinforcement Histories that Affect the Choice: Reinforcement Amount Variability and Schedule Thinning
Domain: Basic Research
CHITOSE BABA (Teikyo University), Kaname Mochizuki (Teikyo University)
Abstract: We have been studying on the reinforcement histories which affect the choice. In this presentation, we will report two topics: (1) the effect of schedule thinning on high-cost high-reward choice, and (2) the experience of variable reinforcer amount on variability preference. In the schedule thinning experiments, university students experienced five sessions of concurrent-chains procedure. The concurrent-chains have two alternatives and they were different in fixed-ratio (FR) value and reinforcement amount while value-reinforcement ratio was constant. When the response requirement for higher-cost alternative increased gradually from 20 to 40, some participants showed gradual increase in the high-cost high-reward choice through the schedule thinning procedure. In the reinforcement amount variability experiment, students were tested with conc. FR 1 FR 1. In the fixed-amount alternative, reinforcement was always 20 points. In the variable-amount alternative, reinforcement varied 8, 16, 24, 32 points per trial. After they experienced simple FR 1 schedule with fixed-amount or variable-amount reinforcer for 200 trials, their preference for variable-amount reinforcement were tested again with conc. FR 1 FR 1 schedule. This experiment is ongoing and we are finding some participants show the possibility to change their choice due to the influence of their history.
 
23. Reward Devaluation by Physical and Cognitive Effort Described by a Concave Power Function
Area: PCH; Domain: Basic Research
PRZEMYSLAW SYLWESTER MARCOWSKI (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities), Wojciech Bialaszek (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities), Pawel Ostaszewski (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities)
Abstract: Many day-to-day decisions involve either physical or cognitive effort. Recently, effort-based decision making received substantial interest from disciplines of psychology, biology, and neuroeconomics as to whether its impact on reward valuation is comparable or dissociable to that of delay or probability. To determine whether the functional form of the discounting process by physical and cognitive effort can be described by a concave and not convex function, such as that in the case of delay and probability discounting, we fitted data to multiple two-parameter discounting models. Data was collected from a total of 114 participants, recruited from the general population. Participants completed a titration choice discounting procedure that was adapted to test effort discounting. We employed a within-subjects experimental design with two effort conditions (physical and cognitive), three reward magnitudes (small, medium, and large), and five effort intensity levels. Data analysis showed some promising results, suggesting that in case of physical and cognitive effort discounting a substantial portion of variance can indeed be explained by a concave power function—which contradicts common results obtained in delay and probability research.
 
24. Slot-Machine Gambling and Alternation of Response Allocation
Domain: Basic Research
TORUNN LIAN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Camilla Ostrem (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that simulated slot machine gambling can be brought under control of contextual cues. In an initial study, Zlomke and Dixon (2006) found that eight out of nine participants altered their response allocation following conditional discrimination training with colors as contextual cues. Later studies have either shown mixed results or results similar to Zlomke and Dixon but with a less strong change in preference. Several steps has been taken to extend and improve the methods used in Zlomke and Dixon. The present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of three different reinforcer probabilities on the two machines. 30 participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 experienced testing with an RR schedule in which the probability of reinforcement was .5 for both machines; Group 2 experienced an RR schedule with a .2 probability of reinforcement on the less than machine and .8 probability on the more than machine; Group 3 experienced an RR schedule with a .2 probability of reinforcement on both machines. The results showed than only participants in Group 2, demonstrated and altered preference for color similar to the results in Zlomke and Dixon study. The result indicates, that the increase in responding on the more than colored slot machine in Group 2 might be influenced by the reinforcement contingencies arranged in test and are not solely a result of the conditional discrimination training
 
25. Temporal Regulation of Behavior in the Midsession Reversal Task
Domain: Basic Research
ANA SOARES (School of Psychology, University of Minho), Marco Vasconcelos (School of Psychology, University of Minho; Department of Education and Psychology & Department of Biology, University of Aveiro), Armando Machado (School of Psychology, University of Minho)
Abstract: Pigeons show anticipatory and perseverative erros in a task in which the contingencies of reinforcement reverse halfway through the session. This pattern of errors in the so-called midsession reversal task suggest that they use the time elapsed since the beginning of the session to decide when to reverse their choices instead of using the presence or absence of reinforcement to make the subsequent choice. In order to test this hypothesis, 12 pigeons were divided into two groups. Both groups were exposed to 40 sessions of a simultaneous discrimination between two visual stimuli, one reinforced in the first half of the session (S1) and the other in the second half (S2). Then, they completed 40 additional sessions with a different inter-trial interval (ITI) duration: Group 5/10 experienced a 5 s ITI in the first 40 sessions and a 10 s ITI in the second 40; group 10/5 experienced the reverse order. Results showed that the increase in the ITI duration (group 5/10) leads to an increase in the proportion of anticipatory errors whereas a decrease (group 10/5) causes an increase in the proportion of perseverative errors. This pattern of results is consistent with the temporal regulation of behavior in this task.
 
26. Transfer of the Affective Valence From Emotional Faces to Abstract Forms Stimuli Following an Identity Matching-To-Sample Training With Class-Specific Reinforcers Procedure
Domain: Basic Research
MARCELO VITOR DA SILVEIRA (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Harry Mackay (University of Massachsetts Medical School--Shriver Center), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: Six participants (Experimental Group) were trained to perform an identity matching-to-sample task with abstract form stimuli (A1A1, A2A2, A3A3, B1B1, B2B2 and B3B3). Correct responding resulted in the presentation of points and logos representing three stores (Sr1, Sr2 and Sr3) specifically related to each one of the potential stimulus classes. Then, the participants were tested for the emergence of arbitrary relations involving stimulus-stimulus relations (AB and BC), and reinforce-stimulus relations (SrA and SrB) that documented the formation of three three-member equivalence classes A1B1Sr1, A2B2Sr2 and A3B3Sr3. In a subsequent phase, participants were given to identity matching-to-sample with new arbitrary form stimuli (C1, C2 and C3) and pictures of happy, angry and neutral faces (D1, D2 and D3) with class-specific reinforcers. The participants performances on AC, CA, BC, CD and SrC tests documented the inclusion of C stimuli in the original classes: A1B1C1Sr1, A2B2C2Sr2 and A3B3C3Sr3. Finally, participants were required to evaluate the arbitrary form stimuli C with semantic differentials comprised by 13 seven-level scales. A Control Group with 10 participants used the same set of seven-level scales to evaluate the emotional faces stimuli D. The median values of the evaluations by the Control Group showed that the affective valences of D1, D2 and D3 were positive, negative and neutral, respectively. Accordingly, the median values of the abstract form stimuli showed that the affective valences of the abstract form stimuli C1, C2 and C3 were positive, negative and neutral. Thus, the affective valences of the emotional faces transferred to the abstract forms indirectly related to them via class-specific reinforcers. These findings replicated and extended previous findings. They also confirm that class-specific reinforcers can mediate the transference of functions through members of equivalence classes.
 
27. Using a Respondent-Type Training to Reverse Pre-Experimental Relations Between Black Faces and Negative Attributes in Children
Domain: Basic Research
TÁHCITA MEDRADO MIZAEL (Federal University of São Carlos ), João Henrique de Almeida (Federal University of São Carlos), Julio C. De Rose (Federal University of São Carlos)
Abstract: Literature has shown that matching-to-sample (MTS), and respondent-type (ReT) training procedure can both lead to the formation of equivalence classes between abstract stimuli. A recent study showed that it is possible to reverse pre-experimental relations between Black faces and a negative attribute, using MTS. Given that ReT is deemed by some researchers a procedure more closely related to learning in the natural environment, it is scientifically important to test if the ReT procedure could reverse those negative racial biases. Eleven children, aged between 9 and 10 and showing a negative racial bias towards faces of Black individuals in a screening pretest were exposed to 30 A-B pairings, followed by a BA symmetry test. The pairing and testing procedure was repeated until the participants attained the symmetry learning criterion. Then, the same procedure was employed for B-C pairings and CB relations. Finally, they were presented with standard MTS tests for AC and CA relations, and then with a modified MTS test, in which a White face was available as a third comparison-stimulus. No programed consequences were delivered throughout the study. Only four children demonstrated the intended equivalence relations, and all of them changed their choices when the White face was available along with a positive symbol. The nature of the stimuli used (socially loaded stimuli) and the small number of pairings exposures could account for the results and should thus be addressed in future research.
 
29. The Ideal Free Distribution in Humans: Clarifying the Role of Difference Versus Ratio-Based Stimulus Control
Domain: Basic Research
MICHEL SOKOLOWSKI (Universite de Picardie - Jules Vernes), Francois Tonneau (Center for Theory and Research on Behavior, NTPC – Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil), Thais Tavares (Center for Theory and Research on Behavior, NTPC � Federal University of Par�, Bel�m, Brazil)
Abstract: When applied to lotteries in which people win points, the ideal free distribution, a model of optimal group foraging, predicts that the ratio of the numbers of players in two patches should match the ratio of the numbers of winners in these patches. An alternative proposal, however, is that the difference between the numbers of players matches the difference between the numbers of winners. The present study aimed at evaluating which of these two proposals better described group choice. In Experiment 1, groups of students were exposed to a series of lotteries. Group choice proved intermediate between the group matching of ratios and the group matching of differences. In Experiment 2, subjects were shown groups of green and red tokens (some of them identified as winning tokens) and were asked individually whether green or red was the most advantageous color. Some subjects proved sensitive to ratios, others to differences, and still others to absolute numbers of tokens or winning tokens. By incorporating these controlling variables in computer simulations of group choice, we were able to recreate the results of Experiment 1. Thus, a better understanding of group choice can be obtained by considering individual stimulus-control patterns.
 
30. Operant Conditioning in Honey Bees: Ready for a New Universe to Explore
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MICHEL SOKOLOWSKI (Universite de Picardie - Jules Vernes)
Abstract: Contrary to pigeons or rodents, there is no standardized operant conditioning chambers for invertebrates, and especially honey bees. Consequently, very few people studied operant behavior in insects or used reinforcement schedules in basic or applied research. We recently designed a completely automatic operant conditioning apparatus built to study bees in the laboratory during prolonged period of time with no human intervention. With our new technology, a single experimenter can now record and process easily thousands hours of bee responding and consumption. We illustrate the usefulness of our protocols with data about circadian rhythms and pharmacology.
 
 
Poster Session #35
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
PCH
32. Looking Back to the Map in the Head: The Metaphor, the Evidences and Behavior Analysis
Domain: Theory
LUIZ HENRIQUE SANTANA (University of S�o Paulo, Brazil; Federal University of ABC, Brazil)
Abstract: Cognitive map is a concept built to explain problem solving by the abstract representation of reality through brain and mental mechanisms. From its proposal by Edward C. Tolman, cognitive maps have been explored from a behavioral, neurobiological and computational perspective. In this work I will briefly present the metaphor and some of evidences on each of those three aspects that explored the concept with emphasis in behavioral and neurobiological experiments. The analysis took into account conceptual and experimental sources with historical relevance defined from the social and scientific impact of the work or its originality. It was identified that cognitive map concept was originally presented based on metaphors and with lacks in testability. The evidences for cognitive maps are inconclusive and have concurrent hypothesis to explain data that were not properly explored or revisited. As one of the core concepts for cognitive revolution narrative, this work intended to present cognitive map concept and findings as an empirical and theoretical field for behavior analysis and evidence based psychology.
 
33. Stimulus Control and Behavior Variability in Insight
Domain: Theory
LUIZ HENRIQUE SANTANA (University of São Paulo, Brazil)
Abstract: Insight has been a challenge for experimental psychology since the early works of K�hler. Although many publications explored creative problem solving in humans, most of these work were dedicated to suggest inner mechanisms for insight � either neural or cognitive � besides exploring the stimuli control relations that are capable of producing new ways of solving problems besides direct training. This work intends to explore two conceptual problems concerning insight definition. The first problem concerns the definition of insight as a behavioural process. Secondly, how insight fits on behaviour analytic theoretical framework and how it deals with selection by consequences. These reflections will be confronted with current empirical data on insight to evaluate if the present investigations have been taking into account those conceptual challenges. Finally, we want to propose a few hypothesis derived from this theoretical reflection in order to guide further experimental investigations.
 
 
Poster Session #36
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
EDC
34. College Students Knowledge of Autism and Collaboration Skills: An Evaluation of Asynchronous Presentations for Postsecondary Students
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RANGASAMY RAMASAMY (Florida Atlantic University), Jazarae McCormick (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Postsecondary education settings provide opportunities for future professionals to increase their awareness and experience. Understanding effective methods of instruction maximize time and resources in education. This applied research study was designed to examine the efficacy of asynchronous presentations to provide basic knowledge about Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and collaboration skills for postsecondary students working with children in schools and families in the community. Participants were majoring in Elementary Education and enrolled in, ‘Inclusive Education for General Educators’ course at a large state university in the Southeastern United States of America. This study took place during the Spring 2016 (n=83) and Fall 2016 (n=103) semesters and includes 163 participants. The researcher introduced the study and read the voluntary informed consent in class, a pre-test was distributed, and participants were given 5 minutes to complete the instrument. Then a narrated PowerPoint presentation was shown via a computer and video projection system. Immediately following the presentation, participants completed a post-test. Participant responses were coded and entered into Microsoft Excel prior to being analyzed using SPSS version 24. As can be seen in Table 1, data showed a statistically significant (p< .001) increases in knowledge of ASD and collaboration skills among the participants.
 
38. Direct Instruction of Early Mathematics in Primary Education
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
JOSE I. NAVARRO-GUZMAN (UCA, Cadiz, Spain), Maria Jose Navarro (University of Cadiz), Manuel Aguilar (University of Cadiz), Estivaliz Aragon (University of Cadiz), Cándida Delgado (University of Cadiz)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis has being used as an efficient educational intervention in mathematics learning difficulties. Early mathematics learning difficulties refer several problems acquired in preprimary and primary school academic years. Number sense, number estimation of math facts are typically learned in preschool and two first grades. Recently, so-called Evidence Based Approach has strengthened intervention methodologies with students at risk of Math Learning Disabilities, considering its efficiency: reducing the rate of errors, while increasing correct response rates on basic arithmetic tasks. This type of intervention uses methodological procedures with few participants experimental designs, but increasing the experimental control. Two applied methods based on the functional analysis of behavior used in this study were "Copy, Cover and Compare" (CCC) and Flashcards (FC). Copy, Cover and Compare (CCC) is a self-learning strategy that allows students repeatedly practice certain academic skills, and self-reviewing errors. This leads receiving immediate feedback and students do not recurrently repeat same mistakes. CCC also dynamically allows knowing what the right answer is. Flashcards has been suggested as an effective classroom intervention procedure. Flashcards has been used in multiple educational settings rather quickly to acquire an academic skill, being very effective in students with special educational needs. Direct instruction with flashcards also allows students receive prompt feedback so that the probability of repeating the wrong answer again and again is reduced, and resulting in an efficient process based on empirical evidence. The main target of this study was to exhibit methodology and results for 14 primary school children in risk of math learning difficulties trained with two ABA-teaching-procedures (CCC & FC). After 22 training sessions, 11 out of 14 participants increased performance in an early mathematics test received, reducing risk at risk of Math Learning Disabilities. The math assessment method and intervention approach used would be applied in schools by early mathematics teachers in typical and special education settings.
 
39. Effectiveness of Feedback and Progress Monitoring on Fluency of Musical Instrumentation Skills
Domain: Applied Research
Michelle Nelson (University of West Florida), DAYNA BEDDICK (University of West Florida), Leasha Barry (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Music education is an opportunity for students to synthesize several different skills and topographies of behavior in order to perform music as both solo and ensemble performers. Because of the auditory nature of musical sounds, Music must be at (or close to) 100% fluency in order to sound pleasant or correct. Oftentimes, progress tracking is not conducted during the music learning process. Therefore, educators, students, and performers alike are not aware of progress improvements when progress is far below 100% fluency, and the perception of lack of progress can be punishing. Progress monitoring and achievement tracking could be potential sources of reinforcement for students and teachers during the music learning process, which could be an essential tool to promote positive behavior change until automatic reinforcement from fluency in performance are achieved. This study utilizes the Smart Music assessment program, and students play musical repertoire to be scored. Students in feedback and no feedback conditions are compared and analyzed for differences in rates of learning.
 
40. Effects of Explicit Instruction With Frequency Based Performance to a Criterion on Sentence and Paragraph Writing for Students With Learning, Intellectual, and Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTIN MONROE-PEI (University of Iowa), Derek Rodgers (University of Iowa), Shawn M. Datchuk (University of Iowa)
Abstract: We are investigating the effects of Sentence Instruction (SI), Paragraph Instruction (PI), Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion (FBPC), and picture-word prompts on simple sentence writing for individuals with disabilities in two related studies. The first study includes middle schoolers with learning disabilities. The second, a conceptual replication of the first, includes high schoolers with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Our research question is: Will the number of simple sentences and correct word sequences (CWS) on picture-word prompts improve and maintain following intervention? Picture-word prompts are used throughout intervention. These stimuli contain images with characters engaging in an action (e.g., a boy crossing the street) with accompanying words to use for constructing sentences (e.g., boy and street). The intervention follows includes three distinct phases: SI, PI, and FBPC. In the SI phase, participants utilize the material from the SI phase to identify, edit, and craft connected simple sentences in a paragraph format. Lessons follow the model-lead-test procedures of explicit instruction. During FBPC, students repeatedly write to the same picture-word prompts in 3 timed trials. At the end of each trial, students receive immediate and corrective feedback from the instructor. They repeat this process two additional times per instructional session. FBPC concludes upon completion of an individualized performance criterion determined by participants scores on screening measures. Students complete a timed writing exercise using a picture-word prompt at the conclusion of every session in all phase of intervention. After intervention has concluded, maintenance data will be collected. A multiple-baseline across participants design will be utilized for both studies. Data collection started in September, 2016 and will continue through June, 2017.
 
41. The Effects of Numbered Heads Together on Science Quiz Performance of 9th Grade Students
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
BARBARA MALLETTE (SUNY Fredonia--Retired), Lawrence J. Maheady (SUNY Buffalo State), Cindy McMillen (Dunkirk City School District), Michael Jabot (State University of New York Fredonia), Cynthia Smith (State University of New York at Fredonia), Janeil Rey (Erie 2-Chautauqua-Cattaraugus Board of Cooperative Educational Services), Jean Michielli-Pendl (State University of New York at Fredonia)
Abstract: The use of alternate grouping formats used in Numbered Heads Together (NHT) is relevant to classrooms with diverse populations. Strategies to get and keep all students actively engaged in content (as in NHT) are valued within educational settings. An A-B-A-B withdrawal of treatment design was used to assess effects of NHT on students’ weekly science quiz scores. The 9th grade biology class contained 23 students including students with disabilities, students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and typically developing students in an urban setting. The classroom teacher was experienced and had participated in an intensive training seminar. Independent observers collected fidelity of implementation data, which indicated teacher implementation of NHT to a high degree. Student performance on weekly quiz items randomly selected from an electronic database was measured during baseline and intervention conditions. Students performed better under both NHT conditions (baseline class X = 54% versus NHT X = 74%). Student performance changed immediately across all conditions and there were no overlapping data points. Social validity was assessed using a 23-item, 5-point Likert-type rating scale completed independently and anonymously at the study’s conclusion. Results support NHT use in other content areas and with other student groups.
 
43. Embedded Blended Learning Within a Psychology Classroom: A Case Study
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
LUIS FERNANDO GONZÁLEZ-BELTRÁN (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México), Olga Rivas (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: In regular education is promoted rote, not reflection and analysis for problem solving. We believe that technology becomes more active the student, and expands the range of contexts where it can take a significant learning. In this paper, we aim to combine the teaching situation in the classroom with online learning, (b-learning), in order to compare the performance of students before and after such an experience. A total of 60 university students participated working in a Moodle platform, in activities with which it was possible to assess progress in their methodological skills, assessing the teacher, the platform and themselves. There were significant differences in examination and investigation report. A 7-item questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study. Students responded to questionnaire assessing their progress, considering that improved their study skills and reading. The online course was rated positively by students, as noted in the literature, but show resistance to adopt it for the extra work involved. The virtual activities promote a reflective and engaging student-centered learning environment in which students can develop their own understanding of the appropriate use of various methodological techniques. Overall, student reaction to these activities is positive, providing an innovative tool for teaching methodology.
 
44. Environmental Modification and Teacher Mediation: Impact on the Literacy Behaviors of Preschoolers With Special Needs
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
AARON DERIS (MN State University, Mankato), Cynthia DiCarlo (Louisiana State University), Dana Wagner (MN State University, Mankato), Kellie Krick (University of St Thomas)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of modifications to the environment and a teacher mediated intervention in regard to the early literacy behaviors of preschoolers receiving early childhood special education services. There were three classrooms targeted. Out of the three classrooms, there was a focus on nine children with developmental delay. Step one was to complete a classroom assessment to identify the early literacy supports needed for each classroom. Step two was to collect baseline literacy behaviors during center time, a period when children are allowed to choose their activities. Step 3 was to implement the intervention of adding literacy props and a teacher mediation intervention. Results were consistent with previous studies in that the addition of literacy props, paired with teacher mediation, led to an increase in literacy behaviors. Data will be shared in regard to the results of the intervention for both classroom and individual student data.
 
45. Factors Affecting Teachers' Attitudes to Help-Seeking or Help-Avoidance in Coping With Behavioral Problems in the Classroom
Area: PRA; Domain: Theory
HAGIT INBAR-FURST (David Yellin Academic College of Education)
Abstract: Addressing students behavior problems puts tremendous stress on teachers and this is one of the primary reasons teachers opt to leave teaching after only a few years. The aim of this study was to examine teachers help-seeking or help-avoidance in dealing with behavioral problems. A multivariate theoretical model was developed to identify the predictions of different attitudes towards help-seeking vs. help-avoidance. A questionnaire was completed by 392 teachers from 26 elementary schools in the Jerusalem area in Israel. A series of multivariate regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM), revealed predictors of motivational goals and attitudes toward help-seeking or help-avoidance, and a model of teachers attitudes toward help-seeking or help-avoidance. For example, the regression analyses showed that motivational goals explain the teachers attitudes to help-seeking in coping with behavioral problems; The SEM analyses showed that the individual-cognitive variables had significant weight in explaining attitudes to help-seeking. The findings have implications for pre-service and teachers. Because help-seeking among teachers is linked to individual goals, motivations, and personal entity theories, teacher training should actively include discussion of how these variables influence professional behaviors. Teacher training should also focus on the need for peer consultation models to encourage problem-solving in the school.
 
46. Fostering Advocacy, Communication, Empowerment, and Support for African American Parents of Children With Autism: A Parent Training Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAMIE PEARSON (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Abstract: Despite the availability early intervention services for children with ASD, African American children continue to go undiagnosed and misdiagnosed at alarming rates. Previous research around ASD has highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention in addressing the needs of children with ASD (Boyd et al., 2010). The early childhood years are critical because early identification increases the likelihood that children with ASD will benefit from interventions and services (Bruder, 2010; Irvin, et al., 2012). Given the complexity of ASD and the challenges of accessing early intervention and related services (Mueller & Carranza, 2011; Cohen, 2009), children with ASD demonstrate a great need for parent advocacy. African American families present an even greater need for parent advocacy because they are often combating additional barriers such as low socioeconomic status and culturally insensitive service delivery (Mandell et al., 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot FACES (Fostering Advocacy, Communication, Empowerment, and Support) for African American parents of children with ASD. The following research questions (RQs) were addressed: RQ1: What experiences do African American parents of children with ASD have with advocating for services? RQ2: Does the FACES intervention increase empowerment in African American parents of children with ASD? To evaluate African American parents experiences advocating for services for their children with ASD (RQ1) we conducted pre-intervention focus group interviews (Krathwohl, 2009). Secondly, we employed a pre/posttest group design, and conducted post-intervention focus group interviews to assess the social validity of the FACES intervention (RQ2). FACES development, findings, and implications will be discussed.
 
49. A Study of the Effect of Understanding and Satisfaction of Lecture About Applied Behavior Analysis Theory for Preliminary Behavior Therapists in Korea and Japan Using E-Learning
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
YUNHEE SHIN (Daegu University, KOREA), Jinhee Kim (Pyengtaek University, KOREA), Hyo-Shin Lee (Daegu University, KOREA)
Abstract: This study was to examine the effect of understanding and satisfaction of Lecture about Applied Behavior Analysis theory for preliminary behavior therapist between Korean and Japan using e-Learning. There were 77 participants who live in Daegu Korea and in Okinawa Japan. They were also undergraduate student for Behavior Therapy and Clinical Psychology. The 43 (61.1%) participants were in D university, Korea and the 30 (38.9%) participants were in O university, Japan. The Lecture of this study consisted 12 sessions which contained understanding challenge behavior, universal environment, operational behaviors, A-B-C analysis, observation methods, prevalence environment development, teaching strategy, compliment/preferred activities, developing strategically sheet for Intervention etc. This Lecture made up with PPT and 15 min-movie clips, work sheets were provided to participants. Language was conducted Korean and Japanese. Understanding and Satisfaction about ABA therapy Questionnaires were conducted. In understanding questionnaire, there were 5 categories (awareness of problem behavior according to culture, definition of target behavior, behavior measurement, functional assessment, modification of consequence) in this questionnaire. In satisfaction questionnaire, there were 2 parts - understanding and applicability. The data was analyzed by paired t-test, repeated measure, and independent t-test. The result of this study showed that the effect of understandings ability was a signification difference between pre-test and post-test in both countries after participants learned the ABA theory using e-learning. Also, In satisfaction of understanding, there was a signification difference between Korea and Japan. Korean participants have more difficulty in understanding than Japanese. In each sessions satisfaction, All participation were more satisfied in first (awareness of problem behavior), third (definition of target behavior), seventh (prevalence environment) sessions than tenth and eleventh (developing strategically sheet) sessions. In Korea, the participants have more difficulty with tenth (developing strategically sheet), however, the data was not a signification difference among sessions in Japan. In satisfaction of applicability, there was a signification difference between Korea and Japan. Korean participants have more difficulty with application for their field than Japanese.
 
50. Using Least-To-Most Assistive Prompt Hierarchy to Increase Child Compliance With Teacher Directives in Preschool Classrooms
Domain: Applied Research
CYNTHIA DICARLO (Louisiana State University), Jennifer Baumgartner (Louisiana State University), Aaron Deris (Minnesota State University - Mankato)
Abstract: Prompt strategies have been used to increase the compliance of preschool-aged children to teacher directives (Radley & Dart, 2015; Wilder & Atwell, 2006; Wolery & Gast, 1984). This paper describes two experiments conducted to determine if classroom teachers could learn to use the LtM prompt hierarchy and if child compliance would increase in response to teacher behavior. This study builds on the current literature base by using prompting, specifically LtM (first described by Horner & Keilitz, 1975), with the additional requirement of teacher-child proximity and teacher- child eye level prior to beginning the prompt sequence, which is consistent with recommended practice in early childhood (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009). The participants consisted of 6 preschool teachers, with varying levels of education and experience, across 2 different early childhood classrooms. Teacher prompts and children's completion of teacher directives were measured during free choice center time. Results were consistent with previous research (Wilder & Atwell, 2006; Wolery & Gast, 1984) in that compliance to teacher directives increased in preschool children with the implementation of the LtM.
 
 
Poster Session #37
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
TBA
52. Assessment of the Behavior Technician Training Program
Domain: Service Delivery
KESER LAURENT (BA-eService), Alexandra Lecestre (BA-eService)
Abstract: The behavior technicians who works with persons with autism are the personnel in the front line during intervention sessions in the Home-Based programs. The behavior technician must have a minimum theoretical knowledge for a good understanding of the program written by the behavior analyst-supervisor, he must have the capacity to record the data correctly with a great accuracy for a good analysis of the results, he must have fluency in the necessary skills for the application of the programs and he must give maximum opportunities of learning for the person during his/her sessions. The quality of their trainings is one of the keys for an efficient application of programs developed by the behavior analyst-supervisor. We have created the Behavior Technician Training Program (BTTP) to train our staff. We used the BTTP with two new technicians without any prior training. The results show that the two technicians met the criterions before the 150 hours of the program.
 
54. Teaching the Generalized Skill of Producing Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Reversal Graphs in Excel 2016: A Comparison of Prompt Fading and Forward Chaining
Domain: Basic Research
BARBARA METZGER (Troy University), Tim Naher (Troy University), Emily Lisbeth Watts (Troy University)
Abstract: Graphing is one of the skills a behavior analyst should posses. In the last decade, research has shown that a task analysis is an effective tool to teach graphing. However, it is unknown if a task analysis alone engenders generalization of the skill; that is, producing a novel graph. This study examined three different techniques to promote generalization: (a) no explicit teaching of generalization, (b) forward chaining, and (c) prompt fading. After each experiment, we gave participants a novel data set and tested for generalization. All graphs were scored by independent evaluators according to a grading rubric for efficacy.
 
 
Poster Session #38
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
CSS
56. The Bx+ System
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
RYAN LEE O'DONNELL (Institute of Meaningful Instruction), Simon Dejardin (Bx+), Melissa Engasser (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center, Inc., Bx+), Paulo Aguirra Gameiro (Bx+), Tom Buqo (Bx+), Mark Malady (Institute of Meaningful Instruction / Bx+)
Abstract: Following graduation of maters programs many behavior analysts find themselves in a cold dark world where they are searching for the light of peers that share their approach to the subject matter of behavior. Bx+ started as a meetup group of soon-to-be behavior analysts in 2013 with the mission “We aim to create a collaborative environment where students of behavior analysis are exposed to and pursue behavior analytic literature, philosophy and research.” The idea being that the “Bx” symbolizes our subject matter that we all share a common interest in (Behavior Analysis), and the “+” symbolizes the behavioral technology (gadgets, processes and procedures) that we include within our group to achieve the mission of the organization. Throughout now 4 years of being an independent (and sometimes lost) organization of passionate behavior analysts with high aspirations we have learned a little about creating projects that align the passions of behavior analysts across the world in an online format. The purpose of this poster is to present current projects in the areas of dissemination and mentorship.
 
57. Increasing the Demand of Foodie Bags in Restaurants by Default
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Massimo Cesareo (International University of Language and Media; Istituto Europeo per lo Studio del Comportamento Umano), MARCO TAGLIABUE (H�gskolen i Oslo og Akershus), Ingunn Sandaker (HiOA), Paolo Moderato (IULM & IESCUM), Kalliu Carvalho Couto (HiOA)
Abstract: In order to tackle food waste in restaurants, we set up an intervention in a bistrot of Milano and Oslo to increase the demand of foodie bags. While usually clients have to actively ask the waiters to packing their leftovers, in this experiment the default rule was manipulated to automatically provide the clients with a foodie bag, unless they actively choose to opt-out. In the first two weeks, the demanded rate of doggy bags was measured as baseline. During the further two weeks, we placed in front of each client a double-sided poker-chip, with the two sides colored in a different way, respectively green and red. The poker-chip was placed by default with the green side up so that the costumers, in order to receive the foodie bag, had just to leave it on that side, while to opt-out they had to turn it up on the red one. A centerpiece with simple instructions was placed on each table and a printed flyer with the instructions inside of each menu. The results confirmed our hypothesis: manipulating the default rule proved to be effective to increase the demand of foodie bags.
 
58. Shaping Running Cadence Through Acoustic Feedback
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
GIORGIO INNOCENTI (Centro di Ricerca Comportamentale CE.R.CO.; Università di Parma)
Abstract: Effectiveness and efficiency of a behavior shaping through Goal Setting and acoustic Performance Feedback (Ward, 2011) procedure in increasing stride cadence running. Took part in the study three male triathletes 29, 31 and 37 years old, familiar with muscular, bone and joint injury. A changing criterion experimental design was replicated for the 3 athletes to evaluate the functional relationship between the treatment and the modification of stride cadence. A measurement of the dependent variables was carried out after the withdrawal of the treatment to demonstrate the maintenance of variation. The first dependent variable was the cadence freely chosen in a 45 minutes easy/long running on a running track, measured as the average number of stride per minute (SPM) emitted. The second dependent variable was the gross oxygen consumption (VO2)(Prampero, 1985) detected before and after treatment in a 45 minutes easy/long running probe on athletics track in which athletes could freely choose cadence. The independent variable was the procedure of shaping behavior through Goal Setting and acoustic Performance Feedback. The intervention was proven effective and efficient in increasing significantly the cadence freely chosen during the post probes in 2 of 3 participants without significant changes in VO2 gross.
 
59. Social Validity in Single-Case Research: A Systematic Literature Review of Prevalence and Application in Special Education
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MOON YOUNG CHUNG (University of illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Melinda Snodgrass (Hunter College, City University of New York ), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Abstract: In 1978, Wolf introduced the construct of social validity (SV) in Applied Behavior Analysis research. Then, in 2005, Horner and colleagues included SV assessment as one of the quality indicators of single-case research. Thus, many researchers in special education have included SV assessments in published single-case research, but few guidelines exist to guide the rigor or reporting of these assessments. We conducted a systematic review of single-case research to explore how the researchers conducted and reported SV assessments. We identified 107 studies that used single-case design and included a SV assessment in the top five journals in the field from 2005-2015. We then reviewed each study�s SV procedures and results to identify if the assessment addressed the social importance of the goals, procedures, and outcomes (Wolf, 1978). Twenty-one of the 107 studies addressed all three factors and were included in a final in-depth review. We coded the content of the SV assessment in these 21 articles by the steps in the scientific method. The results reveal patterns in both prevalence and application of scientific rigor to SV assessments in single-case research since 2005. These patterns can inform current researchers� efforts to capture and report the social validity of their research.
 
 
Poster Session #39
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
OBM
60. Bringing Behavioral Systems Analysis to the Entrepreneur: Case Studies Using the Value Core Blueprint
Domain: Service Delivery
LORI H. DIENER-LUDWIG (Performance Blueprints Inc.), Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University; Performance Blueprints Inc.)
Abstract: Behavioral Systems Analysis (BSA) is a behavior analytic methodology that integrate behavioral contingencies into organizational systems. It sets itself apart from other approaches to organizational design and management because of the focus on critical interlocking behavioral contingencies that ultimately achieve organizational goals. Yet BSA is a complex undertaking for those who are unfamiliar with the approach. Pioneers in the field have developed models to help sort through this organizational complexity. In an attempt to disseminate BSA and make it more accessible to those not formally trained in it, a new tool and methodology was created. The Value Core Blueprint is a novel methodology and streamlined approach to organizational design and contingency management, taking the user through a step by step process focused on how to build reinforcers for both workers and customers. By asking a specific set questions and getting feedback from target customers, users map their meta-contingencies and create a comprehensive action plan to differentiate their organization, operationalize their vision and align behaviors of teams toward common goals. The tool and methodology was built for entrepreneurs. It was field tested with entrepreneurs in the field of behavior analysis and the results will be presented in this poster.
 
61. Documenting Best Behavior Analytic Practices Related to Injury Reduction in Industrial Safety
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
TIMOTHY D. LUDWIG (Appalachian State University), Dwight Harshbarger (University of West Virginia Health Sciences Center)
Abstract: The practice of behavioral safety in industrial settings has been rooted in the science of behavior analysis since its inception in the 1970s and has grown into a globally- applied practice. Since 2005, the not-for-profit Cambridge Center for Behavior Studies (CCBS) has been accrediting programs that demonstrate the best behavior analytic practices related to injury reduction. This poster will review these world-class behavioral safety programs accredited by the CCBS within the petrochemical industry, food distribution, chemical production, mining, and civil construction. Foundational empirically-tested variables in behavioral safety include the pinpointing and measurement of behavior paired with behavioral feedback through a peer-to-peer observation process that allow for frequent and immediate consequences. Benchmarking accredited behavioral safety programs permits us to document practical evidence-based innovations that have allowed industrial workers to come in greater contact with multiple contingencies that select both targeted personal safety behaviors as well as safety program participation (process) behaviors. Time series graphic data will show reduction of injuries associated with the onset of and significant enhancements in behavioral safety programming at industrial sites. Injury reduction rates are compared to industry standards and process measures such as the number of behavioral observations
 
62. An Evaluation of Performance Improvement Goals and Feedback on Performance on an Analog Work Task
Domain: Basic Research
KATHRYN M. ROOSE (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Goal setting is one of the most widely studied interventions in psychological literature. In 1968, the first cohesive theory on goal setting proposed that difficult goals produce higher levels of performance than easy goals, and specific goals produce a higher level of performance than “do your best” goals (Locke, 1968). While over 40 years of research support this assertion (Latham & Locke, 2006), there has been some discrepancy regarding very high goals. This study examined the effects of performance improvement goals and feedback. Utilizing a group design, groups were assigned no goal, or a goal of 150% or 175% of baseline performance, and two types of feedback. Feedback 1 showed participants their progress towards the goal as a percent, while Feedback 2 showed Feedback 1, plus the percent of the goal that should be completed by that point in the session in order to meet the goal by the end of the session. Results indicated that lower goals produced higher increases in performance and accuracy than higher goals. Feedback 2 produced slightly higher increases in responding and very slightly higher accuracy than Feedback 1. As so-called “stretch goals” are widely used in organizations, implications for real-world applications will be discussed.
 
63. The Interaction Effects of Different Incentive Type and Task Structure on Work Performance
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Jaehee Lee (Korea Institute of Child Care and Education), Kwangsu Moon (Chung-Ang University), Sungjun Lim (Chung-Ang University), SHEZEEN OAH (Chung Ang University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction effects of different incentive systems and task structures on group work performance. We adopted a between subject design and recruited 180 college students as participants. Participant were randomly assigned to one of six experimental groups: (1) individual incentive/independent task, (2) individual incentive/interdependent task, (3) equally distributed group incentive/independent task (4) equally distributed group incentive/interdependent task, (5) differentially distributed group incentive/independent task, and (6) differentially distributed group incentive/interdependent task. The participants performed a typing task that required them to work cooperatively in a group of three. The dependent variable was the number of words correctly typed. All participants attended five 20 min sessions. In the first session, participants earned only base pay. From the second to fifth session, participants earned base pay and additional incentives based on their performance. Results were as follows: Under the independent task condition, the individual incentive condition produced the highest level of performance. Under the interdependent task condition, the equally distributed group incentive condition produced the highest level of performance.
 
64. Preventing Burnout Among Applied Behavior Analysis Therapists: Is Technology the Answer?
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAURIE DICKSTEIN-FISCHER (Salem State University), Ian Chapman (Salem State University)
Abstract: New technology created to aid Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapists with data collection is becoming more common, yet still not widely adopted. These technologies can largely reduce the workload of therapists, which could potentially reduce three common problems in the field: turnover, feelings of burnout, and insufficient supervision. The purpose of this study is to better understand ABA practitioners' attitudes about using and implementing newer technologies for data tracking and to explore the relationship between their current tracking methods and measures of burnout. 279 domestic and international ABA practitioners participated in an online survey that asked questions about education, occupation, data tracking methods, supervision, feelings about technology, and level of burnout. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS) measured job burnout related to exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy. Results suggest that practitioners who are more satisfied with their tracking methods express less cynicism (p < .001), and those who used technology in their sessions express significantly higher professional efficacy (p = .007) and approached significantly lower cynicism (p = .055). Practitioners who viewed data tracking as distracting expressed significantly more exhaustion (p = .008) and cynicism (p = .016). Practical, training, and supervision implications for the field of ABA are discussed.
 
65. The Relative Effects of Objective and Social Comparison Feedback on Eco-Driving Performance
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
HANGSOO CHO (Chung-Ang University), Kyehoon Lee (The Finest Consulting ), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University), Jidong Lee (Chung-ang University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effects of two different types of feedback contents (objective vs. social comparison feedback) on fuel-efficiency while driving. Seven participants who commute with their own cars were recruited. As the dependent variable, fuel-efficiency was measured every weekday. An ABCB repeated measure design was adopted, in sequence of baseline (A), objective feedback (B), social comparison feedback (C), and objective feedback (B). In the objective feedback phase, the fuel-efficiency for each day was measured and the average fuel efficiency for two consecutive days was informed to all participants via text message. In the social comparison feedback phase, the average fuel-efficiency for two consecutive days for all participants was ranked and the individual rank score was provided to each participant via text message. The results indicated that both the objective and social comparison feedback was effective in increasing the fuel-efficiency. However, the relative effectiveness of the two different types of feedback was not clearly demonstrated.
 
 
Poster Session #40
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
CBM
66. Content Analyses of Smartphone Applications for Diabetes and Asthma Self-Management
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
BRETT EDWARD FURLONGER (Monash University), Marko Ostojic (Monash University), Jasmine Chung (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
Abstract: The ready accessibility of convenient and cost-effective smartphone applications (apps) suggests this technology may be an effective medium for the self-management of chronic health conditions. Accessibility, however, does not guarantee quality or efficacy. Effective interventions require the implementation of evidence-based behavior change strategies and little has been done to assess mobile apps designed for self-management of diabetes or asthma. To this end independent content analyses on Type 2 diabetes and asthma management apps were conducted. Systematic searches were undertaken on iTunes and Google Play using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The process resulted in identification of 40 diabetes apps (10 free and 10 paid from each store) and 36 asthma apps (26 iTunes, 12 Google; 27 free, 9 paid). Two raters independently assessed the apps for the presence/absence of behavior change techniques (with BCTTv1) and quality domains with the mobile app rating scale (uMARS). Results indicated that both diabetes and asthma apps utilized few behavior change techniques, although higher scores on quality domains were positively correlated with the presence of more behavior change techniques. Though mobile apps appear to be potentially valuable tools more research is required to improve the behavioral technology and to test their efficacy in clinical settings.
 
67. NAVIGATOR-ACT for Parents of Children With Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BELLA GRABRIELA BERG (Autism Center For Young Children), Tiina Maria Holmberg Bergman (Supervision and Support Centre, Habilitation and Health)
Abstract: Background: Many studies show that the parents of children with disabilities, especially Autism Spectrum Disorders, have high levels of stress, experience psychological distress and are more often depressed than parents of neurotypical children (e.g., Mak & Kwok, 2010, Hayes & Watson, 2013). Despite of the research on psychiatric problems among these parents, there are far fewer studies regarding treatment. A few studies, however, highlight Acceptance- and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as an alternative for treatment in this target group (e.g. Blackledge & Hayes, 2006). At the Habilitation and Health in Stockholm, Sweden, ACT has been used since 2007 as part of parent support services. Initially ACT was offered to parents whose children with autism participated in the intensive ABA programs. Later on, all parents in need of stress intervention were included. Purpose: The goal with ACT-intervention is to reduce parents stress and depression, practice acceptance and mindfulness skills, and help the participants to take steps towards a valued direction in life, despite of ones life situation. The purpose with this presentation is to introduce the manual based intervention NAVIGATOR-ACT to parents of children with disabilities, and present results from the pilot study conducted at the Habilitation and Health 2016-2017. Method: During the pilot study, treatment credibility, participant satisfaction and preliminary treatment effects of Navigator ACT were evaluated. The following research questions were considered: 1. Is the Navigator ACT a functional method of treatment for stressed and/or depressed parents? 2. Are participants satisfied with the method? 3. Is the Navigator ACT an effective method in this target group, for a) reducing parenting stress; b) increasing mindfulness skills; c) increasing psychological flexibility and well-being; d) reducing symptoms of depression; e) reducing behavioral problems of the child with disabilities? The effects of treatment were measured with standardized self-evaluation forms, a treatment credibility scale and session/course evaluations. Conclusion: Data is currently being processed. We are going to obtain results from the pilot study at the end of this autumn.
 
 
Poster Session #41
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
DEV
69. Comparison of Prompting Procedures to Teach Internet and Information Communication Technology to Older Adults
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Jacqueline Pachis (Brock University), KIMBERLEY L. M. ZONNEVELD (Brock University)
Abstract: Regular Internet use has been found to produce meaningful social interactions and greater social support among older adults (White et al., 2002). The Internet and related information and communication technologies (ICTs) has the potential to serve as an excellent communication tool for older adults, as it allows individuals to stay in touch with family and friends and may even help to expand one’s social network (Gato & Tak, 2008). Despite these benefits, the Internet and ICTs are not widely used among the older-adult population (Cresci, Yarandi, & Morrel, 2010). With continuous technological advancements, and a growing population of older adults, there is an increased demand for effective ICT-training programs geared specifically toward older adults (Mayhorn, Stronge, McLaughlin, & Rogers, 2004). An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness of written instructions and video prompting (VideoTote application) on the acquisition of three tablet-based tasks: emailing, video calling (FaceTime application), and searching for a YouTube video. Results are presented in the context of implications for the design of treatments to promote the acquisition of independent use of the Internet and related ICTs in the aging population.
 
 
Poster Session #42
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
PRA
70. Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Support
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
KATHRYN M. ROOSE (University of Nevada, Reno; Nevada Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Technical Assistance Center), Ashley Eden Greenwald (Nevada Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Technical Assistance Center)
Abstract: The relationship between ABA and PBS will be explored from the vantage point of a Behavior Analyst who practices in Positive Behavior Support. While PBS practitioners cite ABA as the foundation for their work, many ABA practitioners reject the notion of PBS being a valid application of the science. The origins and early history of PBS will be discussed, as well as the eventual strained relationship between ABA and PBS. A review of common PBS practices and terminology will be provided, highlighting how PBS practices are rooted to behavior analytic principles. PBS practices will be examined from the perspective of behavior analysis and described in traditional ABA terminology, demonstrating that the foundational principles are the same. Despite the great benefits to conducting interdisciplinary work, it is not uncommon for practitioners to harbor misconceptions without a rich understanding of each contributing discipline. PBS is no stranger to ABA, yet many practitioners of ABA maintain common misinterpretations and misunderstandings of PBS concepts and practices. Common myths of PBS will be presented and addressed. Concluding remarks will present the current status of the relationship between ABA and PBS how clinicians in each domain can best address it, specifically calling for renewed collaboration.
 
71. Children Who Run Away: How to Earn Instructional Control
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KESER LAURENT (BA-eService), Alexandra Lecestre (BA-eService)
Abstract: Earning instructional control is an important step for an efficient ABA-based intervention. The instructional control allows an increase in learning and in maintenance of appropriate behaviors. However, it can be difficult to introduce instructional control with children with autism presenting lots of escape behaviors. A. is an 8-year-old child with an autism diagnosis who run from the place in presence of a new person. We used a shaping procedure to develop instructional control with him. After a free operant preference assessment, we work on the acceptance of the presence of a behavior technician beside him using a shaping procedure. Then, we control the strength of pairing by introducing a distance allowing the child to interact with the technician. After we introduce some easy demand, according to a prior skills-assessment, with the presence of the preferred item. Then, we continue the easy demand with the preferred item removed. This procedure allowed us to work independently every step facilitating the implementation of the intervention by the behavior technician, allowed to take effective data for the analysis of the progression and enabling effective implementation of instructional control.
 
72. Individualized Levels System as Intervention for Socially Mediated Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SOMER WIGGINS (Vanderbilt University), Mary Matthews (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: When self-injurious behavior (SIB) is dangerous or life threatening, common approaches to intervention (e.g., response extinction) are neither feasible nor safe. Our participant was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) and engaged in frequent bouts of high intensity and multiply controlled but socially mediated SIB, including swallowing inedible objects (e.g., batteries, pens, etc.), self-choking, self-biting, head banging, and vomiting. This study highlights an iterative approach to intervention in which multiple techniques were attempted before socially valid outcomes could be achieved. Based on the results of a functional analysis (FA), therapists designed and evaluated a variety of interventions. Intervention ultimately incorporated DRO, DRA, FCT, NCR, response interruption and redirection, and negative punishment procedures organized through an individualized levels system and embedded into a structured daily activity schedule. A visual analysis of the data indicates that combinations of interventions were successful at reducing problem behavior to near zero rates.
 
73. Intensive In-Home Feeding Treatment for Younger Siblings
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
TESSA CHRISTINE TAYLOR (Paediatric Feeding International), Alayna T. Haberlin (Momentum Learning Services), Nikolas Roglich (Edith Cowan University)
Abstract: Feeding problems in early childhood can be very challenging for caregivers and family life. Children who limit their food consumption may significantly impact multiple critical areas of their development. Effective treatment should be accessed as young as possible, but has been limited in accessibility to a handful of hospital programs. Feeding problems affect both children with and without disability, and families may struggle with multiple children having feeding difficulties. This study looked at providing an in-home intensive behavioural feeding intervention to 2 children with typical development who were younger siblings of children in the feeding program. A reversal design assessed the effects of nonremoval of the spoon, re-presentation of expelled foods, contingent access to tangibles, and response cost. The results indicated that a multi-component intervention with nonremoval of spoon, re-presentation of expelled food, and differential attention was effective in increasing consumption of a wide variety of foods from the food groups at regular texture for both participants.
 
74. The Positive Approaches to Reduce Restrictive Interventions (PAtRRI) Project: Preliminary Analysis and Results
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ERIC JOSEPH BIENIEK (Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania), Ann K. Ellison (Barber National Institute), Matthew Erickson (Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract: The necessity for restrictive procedures and interventions to maintain safety has been a consistent element to educating students who demonstrate significant problem behavior in the school setting. This poster will review the results of a research study evalauting an inovative professional development curriculum focused on educators who are required to use restrictive procedures on a consistent basis. The effects of an in-service training, printed materials and weekly booster sessions will be analyzed to determine changes in staff perception and the implementation of environmental and antecedent based interventions as opposed to restrictive, non-teaching practices. The intention of this professional development package is provide staff with insight into implementing evidenced based approaches to decrease problem behavior that place a priority on teaching replacement behaviors that are more functionally equivalent. The information presented through this poster will outline ways in which schools supporting exceptional learners can better train their staff to support significantly impaired children more proactively. In addition, this study will also provide insight into how novel professional development interventions can indirectly affect the quality of the learning environment for exceptional learners. Beyond improving the professional skill sets of these educators, the researchers ultimately hope to observe a decrease in the frequency and duration of restrictive procedures used in setting where staff members participate in this professional development experience.
 
75. Stimulus Fading and Levels System as Alternative to Extinction for Severe Aggression
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KAYLA RECHELLE RANDALL (Vanderbilt University), Mary Matthews (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: An individualized levels system can be effective at reducing high rates of aggression. However, when aggression is severe, fidelity to programmed procedures is likely to be low and treatment effects may not be observed. In this study, the team used an individualized levels system for an 11-year old female diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) whose severe aggression was maintained by access to attention, access to tangible items, and escape from demands. Systematic stimulus fading was employed to safely introduce multiple therapists across successive intervention sessions. Therapists were initially fully covered with protective gear and never conducted sessions without being accompanied by a male supervising therapist. Following the fading procedure, single therapists conducted intervention sessions alone without wearing any protective gear. Visual analysis of the data indicates that an individualized levels system with stimulus fading could be used to treat severe aggression when safety is a concern for therapists implementing intervention.
 
76. Strategies for the Promotion of Behavior Science Through Undergraduate Curriculum Design
Area: TBA; Domain: Theory
GENEVIEVE M. DEBERNARDIS (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: There is an increased need for behavior analysts, yet the exposure to behavior science within baccalaureate programs in psychology is oftentimes minimal at best. There are a number of graduate level programs that offer specialized training in behavior science, but there are very few of these opportunities at the undergraduate level. Compounding this problem, tenure track faculty must direct their efforts to actions directly related to promotion and tenure, with little time remaining for the consideration of undergraduate teaching practices and curriculum design. At first glance, it appears as though there is little incentive for efforts to be directed to this area. Given the growing need for more behavior analysts, extra emphasis should be placed systematically exposing individuals to our field earlier in their education. This poster will outline ways in which this can be achieved at institutions, as illustrated by the implementation of the bachelor’s level Behavior Analysis Specialization at the University of Nevada, Reno. A number of curricular features will be highlighted, from course design, certification options, and considerations for creating specialized major and minor options. In addition, strategies for promoting buy-in with students, parents, instructors, and administrators will be reviewed.
 
77. Teaching an Adolescent Male With Down Syndrome and Autism to Recruit Help When Lost
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARY MATTHEWS (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Sarah Shaw (Vanderbilt University ), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Social and communication deficits for children with autism may lead to an increased risk of becoming lost in public spaces, yet few studies have investigated methods for explicitly teaching help-seeking skills. This study was based on the work of Bergstrom et al (2012) and used discrimination training and forward chaining to systematically teach a hierarchy of help-seeking responses to an 18-year-old male diagnosed with Down Syndrome, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The client was first taught to discriminate lost in a clinical setting, then was taught a four-step sequence of conditional responses to recruit help in a public space: call out, approach desk, recruit attention, and exchange identification card. A multiple baseline design across contexts was used to evaluate the clients independent responding during baseline, training, and maintenance. A visual analysis of the data indicated that intervention was effective because independent responding maintained across all settings.
 
 
Poster Session #43
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
VRB
78. Combing Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior with Extinction to Reduce Problem Behavior, Eliminate the Extinction Burst, and Increase Alternative Behavior
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE J. SAINT (Fox Valley Autism Treatment Program; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: DRA (differential reinforcement of alternative behavior) has been shown to be effective in decreasing a number of problematic behaviors in children; one benefit of DRA is the relative lack of an extinction burst. In the present study, a multiple baseline across participants design was used to demonstrate the effects of DRA on crying maintained by attention. Results indicate that DRA decreased crying to socially acceptable levels, and did so without resulting in a temporary increase in crying, as would be expected when extinction is used alone. Within three or less sessions all participants had doubled their appropriate requests compared to baseline. The use of DRA to decrease problematic crying behavior helps to address issues of both extinction bursts and treatment infidelity: the results of this study indicate that DRA reduces problem behavior safely and effectively. Having additional strategies to reduce extinction bursts will improve the quality of life for people struggling with problem behaviors, especially problem behaviors with long histories of reinforcement.
 
79. Function Transfer and Recombining Repertoire: A Comparison Between Conditional Discrimination and Respondent-Type Training
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FÁBIO FREIRE LAPORTE (Universidade de Brasília)
Abstract: Research concerning stimulus equivalence and recombining repertoires have shown that conditional discrimination training may result in following of new instructions composed of recombinations of the elements of training stimuli. Other research has shown that the discriminative function transfer effect may be achieved through a respondent-type training, without direct reinforcement of a selecting response. This study aimed to compare the effects of both types of training, conditional discrimination and respondent-type, on the following of recombined instructions. Twelve undergraduate students were exposed to three types of training: matching-to-sample, respondent-type and yoked respondent-type. All groups were exposed to a follow-up test to access the diferences in retention. Results allow the comparison of the three kinds of training, and may show the importance of ostensive learning on listener behavior.
 
82. The Role of Joint Control in Naming
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEIDI SKORGE OLAFF (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Alvdis Roulund (Glenne regional Center for Autism), Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: Naming consists of speaker and listener components. Echoics and tacts are included in the speaker part, while the listener component consists of discriminated responses, such as pointing to objects, controlled by verbal stimuli, such as another person’s tact controlled by those objects. Lowenkron and colleagues provided a joint control account for complex behavior. Joint control during listening is demonstrated when the child observes an adult´s tact of a novel stimulus, scans the array of stimuli present, and simultaneously repeats the adult´s tact until correct match occurs. At the moment of joint control, the self-echoic and the tact evoke the same listener response, which then controls the selection of the “correct” object. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether joint control performances have an impact on Naming skills. Two types of pre-training were run before Naming probes: (1) training of joint control performances during matching-to-sample, and (2) matching-to-sample responses without such requirement. The results showed enhanced listener and speaker skills when joint control was trained before the probes, compared with when probes were conducted without such previous training. The results suggested joint control as an important element in procedures aimed to induce the Naming.
 
83. Using an Alternating Treatment Design to Evaluate the Effects of Tact and Listener Training on the Emergence of Bidirectional Intraverbal Relations
Domain: Applied Research
MARIÉLE DE CÁSSIA DINIZ CORTEZ (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Leticia Santos (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazi;), Ana Elisa Quintal (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Marcelo Vitor da Silveira (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: Using an alternating treatment design we replicated Petursdottir et al. (2008) that evaluated the effects of tact and listener training on the emergence of bidirectional intraverbal relations. Participated four Brazilian children with typically developing who were native Portuguese speakers. In listener training, participants were asked to select visual stimuli in the presence of foreign-language words. In tact training, children had to emit foreign language vocalizations in the presence of visual stimuli. After training criteria was achieved, intraverbal tests were conducted in which participants were asked to vocalize in Portuguese (native language) the equivalent English (foreign language) words and vice versa. Results indicated that tact training produced full emergence of bidirectional intraverbal relations for all participants. The listening training, however, produced only partial emergence of intraverbal responses.
 
 
Poster Session #44
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
DDA
84. Correspondence Between Preference Assessment Outcomes and Stimulus Reinforcer Value for Social Interactions
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
TONYA NICHOLE DAVIS (Baylor University), Abby Hodges (Baylor University), Regan Weston (Baylor University), Kristen Lenae Padilla-Mainor (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University), Nicole O'Guinn (Baylor University)
Abstract: Effective training programs for individuals with disabilities generally involve the use of effective reinforcers. The use of social interactions as reinforcers has several advantages over tangible and edible stimuli in skill acquisition and behavior modification programs. For example, they are inexpensive, more practical, less stigmatizing, and promote greater generalization. This study examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions with individuals with developmental disabilities. A modified paired-choice preference assessment was implemented. Social interactions were presented to the participants on two iPads, each containing a 5-s video of the participant engaging in the specified social interaction with the experimenter. Contingent upon selecting a video, the child received the social interaction displayed on the video. Reinforcer efficacy of the high-, medium-, and low- preferred interactions were evaluated using a progressive-ratio schedule to determine the amount of work maintained by each social interaction. Results showed that higher preference stimuli produced larger break points than did lower preference stimuli. Implications for clinical applications will be discussed.
 
87. Functional Communication Training and Demand Fading Using Choice Making
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
TONYA NICHOLE DAVIS (Baylor University), Regan Weston (Baylor University), Abby Hodges (Baylor University), Lauren Uptegrove (Baylor University), Kristen Williams (Baylor University), Kelly M. Schieltz (The University of Missouri-Columbia), Supriya Radhakrishnan (Baylor University)
Abstract: Demand fading typically includes an escape extinction component, which can be difficult to implement due to extinction bursts and the inability to continue task presentation due to the nature of challenging behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of demand fading with choice making, rather than extinction, for a 7-year old male participant diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and disruptive mood dysregulated disorder. The participant consistently engaged in severe, escape-maintained aggression when presented with academic tasks. First a functional communication response (FCR) was trained so the participant could request breaks. Functional communication training was followed by demand fading to systematically increase the amount of work completed between break requests. During demand fading, aggression and requests emitted prior to meeting the task completion criterion were reinforced with short, low-quality breaks, but requests emitted following task completion criterion were reinforced with long, high-quality breaks. As the task completion criterion increased, percentage of problem behavior decreased and FCR rates dropped to socially appropriate levels. Results suggest that choice making may be an effective alternative to extinction as a component of demand fading.
 
89. Parent-Implemented Assessment and Treatment of Challenging Behavior for Young Children With Developmental Delay
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE GEROW (Baylor University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), Emily Gregori (P